Welcome to Sycamore Scholars
Sycamore Scholars is a digital archive of scholarly works created by students, staff, and faculty at Indiana State University. Sycamore Scholars began as a means to enable ISU graduate students to submit their theses and dissertations electronically, but the repository can include journal articles, conference papers, technical reports, working papers, data sets, tutorials, music, photographs, and other digital items.
Communities in Sycamore Scholars at Indiana State University
Select a community to browse its collections.
AGE DEPENDENCE OF SPIRAL GRAIN IN WHITE OAKS (QUERCUS ALBA) IN SOUTHCENTRAL ILLINOISSpiral grain, the alignment of wood fibers (trachejds) to the longitudinal axis of h·ees, is thought to be an indicator of old age and is a phenomenon that has been only stndied with destrnctive sampling methods (cutting down trees). In this study, the usefulness of non-fatal sampling methods and existing methods to quantify spiral grain patterns in Jiving and dead deciduous trees are examined, particularly in white oaks (Qi1ercus alba). 111e overall goal is to detem1ine if spiral grain growth is a reasonable indicator of h·ee age. Methods that were tested included the use of a 12 mm increment borer (non-fatal sampling method) and Brazier's method ( 1965) of analyzing grain angles along just one diagonal to get a representative grain angle for the whole circumference at a certain height on a tree. The 12 mm increment borer did not produce consistent results in this study; therefore, . destructive sampling is necessary to study spiral grain in white oaks. Brazier's method (1965) should not be used in white oaks and should not be applied universally to all tree species. Samples from living and dead trees vary in severity and direction of spiral grain. The climatic factors that are roost limiting to tree growth do not influence spiral grain growth in white oaks in this stand. Severe spiral grain does in general seem to be an indicator of age in white oaks, although most trees have severe left spiral grain and not right spiral grain. However, a tree without severe spiral grain is not necessarily young. To judge the severity of spiral grain, grain angles have to be examined in the outermost layer of the wood and not in the bark.
Central Plaza RecommendationsThe City of Sullivan intends to leverage the new Central Plaza and Civic Center as key to the city. The Quality of Life plan indicates a desire to construct appealing aspects to Central Plaza. ENVI460 students were tasked with providing recommendations for a water feature and other sustainable features like a green roofing. This report reflects students’ recommendations for a sustainable water feature at Central Plaza.
Complete StreetsThe City of Sullivan enacted a Quality of Life plan to address multiple improvements to their city, including some of the city’s infrastructure. Mayor Clint Lamb’s goal is to connect the city via roadways and trail systems that are accessible for all transportation methods and attractive for community members and tourists. ENVI460 students provided recommendations based off the city’s need for improvements to road systems and attractiveness. Students recommended a new roadway design for the Main Street section, sustainable infrastructure additions and buffer zones, and green space for attraction sites.
Pollination Habitat and Flower Plating for City BeautificationThe City of Sullivan identified needs to improve sustainable infrastructure and green space in Sullivan, IN through their Quality of Life plan. Students in ENVI460 were tasked with providing recommendations for their daily operations and site plans that could improve habitats and attractiveness for the community and tourists. Students provided recommendations for native habitat planting and community involvement/education. They also provided site recommendations for community garden and green space updates.
Sullivan Trail ConnectorThe City of Sullivan has multiple plans for trail connectors throughout the city. ENVI460 students provided recommendations for a trail connector between the City of Sullivan and Sullivan County. This trail connector harnesses positives of both the city and county to increase use. Students also provided recommendations for multi-use options on the trail system.