• Pressures exerted by elastic wraps applied by beginning and advanced student athletic trainers to the ankle and the thigh with and without an ice pack.

      Varpalotai, Marianna (2012-04-23)
      Compression is a common part of the immediate care of acute athletic injuries, but little has been done to validate the commonly accepted procedure. Forty-six subjects applied elastic wraps four times each to the thigh and ankle, with and without ice, to study the application of pressure and consistency of application. Subjects were 23 beginning and 23 advanced student athletic trainers (12 males, 11 females in each group). Pressures exerted over the anterior thigh and the anterior talc-fibular ligament were measured with a closed system air cell attached to a pressure gauge. There was no difference in pressure exerted by elastic wraps applied by beginning and advanced student athletic trainers, applied by males and females, or applied with and without ice. Elastic wraps applied to the thigh exerted significantly more pressure than ones applied to the ankle. Female advanced athletic trainers were most consistent in the application of the wrap overall. Though the mean pressure exerted by the elastic wraps was within the range of recommended values thought to be safe for external compression, individual pressures exerted by the wraps were frequently above this range. Pressures above this range have been found to compromise circulation or damage the compressed area. If these values hold true for acute injuries (no evidence exists for all).