• Pressures exerted by elastic wraps applied by beginning and advanced student athletic trainers to the ankle and the thigh with and without an ice pack.

      Varpalotai, Marianna (2012-04-23)
      Compression is a common part of the immediate care of acute athletic injuries, but little has been done to validate the commonly accepted procedure. Forty-six subjects applied elastic wraps four times each to the thigh and ankle, with and without ice, to study the application of pressure and consistency of application. Subjects were 23 beginning and 23 advanced student athletic trainers (12 males, 11 females in each group). Pressures exerted over the anterior thigh and the anterior talc-fibular ligament were measured with a closed system air cell attached to a pressure gauge. There was no difference in pressure exerted by elastic wraps applied by beginning and advanced student athletic trainers, applied by males and females, or applied with and without ice. Elastic wraps applied to the thigh exerted significantly more pressure than ones applied to the ankle. Female advanced athletic trainers were most consistent in the application of the wrap overall. Though the mean pressure exerted by the elastic wraps was within the range of recommended values thought to be safe for external compression, individual pressures exerted by the wraps were frequently above this range. Pressures above this range have been found to compromise circulation or damage the compressed area. If these values hold true for acute injuries (no evidence exists for all).
    • The Effect of External Ankle Support on Football Specific Performance Tests and the Perception of the Athletes that Wear Them

      Cutts, Matthew (2013-09-04)
      Context: Researchers and manufacturers have been looking for the optimal method to safely and adequately support the ankle joint without hindering performance. A plethora of information on sport specific performance utilizing taping and/or bracing methods exists. However, no study has compared actual performance to the athletes’ perception of their performance wearing various ankle support. Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of ankle braces and taping on football performance tests and the participants’ perception of the affect the ankle support had on their performance. Design: Mixed methods crossover design with 3 conditions unsupported (U), a taped (T) using a modified basket weave, and two separate braced conditions; a traditional figure eight lace up with Velcro stirrups manufactured by McDavid (B1) and a hinged ankle brace manufactured by UltraAnkle Zoom (B2). Setting: Outdoor artificial turf surface Participants: Three collegiate football players (age = 21+/- 2 yrs, with 3.5 +/-1.5 yrs of college experience) voluntarily participated in this study. Main Outcome Measures: Vertical jump, broad jump, 5-10-5 agility test, 3-cone test, and the 40- yard dash. Because we were unable to achieve a large sample size, interviews were performed to gather descriptive data regarding the three conditions. Results: No trends were seen in data relative to the condition. Qualitative results indicated that participants felt most comfortable in condition they had used previously, but preferred the unsupported condition. Results: Vertical jump (U=24.01±4.31, T=22.91±4.87, B1=23.88±4.17, B2=23.73±4.11), broad jump (U=93.68±10.91, T=96.42±11.52, B1=94.55±12.96, B2=95.84±10.95), the 5-10-5 agility test (U=4.71±0.23, T=4.69±0.22, B1=4.76±0.29, B2=4.79±0.22), the 3-cone test (U=7.67±0.40, T=7.74±0.48, B1=7.75±0.54, B2=7.83±0.55), and the 40-yard dash (U=5.27±0.24, T=5.35±0.27, B1=5.41±0.28, B2=5.46±0.26). Conclusions: Due to the small sample size, we were unable to draw objective conclusions regarding the effect of the conditions on performance, however participants in this investigation preferred the unsupported condition for the testing.