• A comparison of elementary <br />mathematics achievement in everyday<br /> math and saxon <br />math schools in illinois

      Roan, Clayton (2012-05-18)
      This study compared mathematics achievement in Illinois elementary schools using the Everyday Math and Saxon Math curricula. The Illinois Standards Achievement Test (ISAT) was used as the measure of student achievement. Multiple correlation analyses showed that the type of curriculum used was a significant predictor of mathematics achievement at the third and fifth grade levels. Everyday Math was found to support greater student achievement in these grades. When holding other variables constant, Everyday Math schools can be expected to have an average of 2.1% more questions correct on the multiple choice portion of the ISAT than Saxon Math schools at the third grade level. At the fifth grade level, Everyday Math schools are predicted to have an average of 4.3% more questions correct than Saxon Math schools. The type of curriculum used was not a significant predictor at the fourth grade level. Analysis of student achievement by subgroup found that Everyday Math supported significantly greater student achievement than Saxon Math for White students in third and fifth grades, non-Asian minorities in fifth grade, girls in third grade, non low income students in third grade, and non-IEP students in third grade. Multiple correlation analyses for content strands found that curriculum was a significant predictor for elementary student achievement on each mathematics content strand tested in Illinois. Everyday Math was found to support significantly greater student achievement for each content strand. After analyzing the correlation coefficients for curriculum, schools using Everyday Math were found to have between 2.1% and 3.5% more questions correct on the content strand portions of the ISAT. Though Saxon Math was not found to support significantly greater achievement in any area statistically, average scores for low-income students using Saxon Math were better than those of low-income students using Everyday Math at each grade level. This suggests a potential weakness of the Everyday Math curriculum.
    • Bullying,cyberbullying,<br />incivility,and sexual <br />harrasmnet:A spectrum <br />of interpersonal mistreatment.

      Love, Christine D (2012-05-18)
      With the growing occurrence of deadly shootings on college campuses (Jenson, 2007), campus administrators have placed emphasis on early detection of potentially dangerous students. One indicator of possible violence is perpetration of uncivil or aggressive behaviors (Clark, 2008a; Kolanko et al., 2006). Placing behaviors on a spectrum of interpersonal mistreatment can provide cues to behaviors that could escalate into greater violence. The main purpose of this study was to determine whether bullying, cyberbullying, incivility, and sexual harassment directed at faculty members occurs on such a spectrum and as separate or overlapping constructs. Factor analyses were conducted on frequency of occurrence and level of upset data collected for 49 behaviors included on the Faculty Experience Survey. Both analyses resulted in three-factor solutions that demonstrated a great deal of overlap of the following categories: (a) Poor Student Behaviors, (b) Direct Incivility, and (c) Aggressive, Threatening Behaviors. These categories appear to create a spectrum of interpersonal mistreatment ranging from the most common and least upsetting to the least common and most upsetting behaviors. This study also sought to determine who was most likely to be the target of interpersonal mistreatment based on personal, academic, and institutional characteristics. Age and sexual orientation affected the report of Direct Incivility behaviors, while characteristics indicating longevity in academia increased the likelihood of having experienced Aggressive, Threatening Behaviors. Differences were seen in the frequency of Poor Student and Aggressive, Threatening Behaviors in certain regions of the country. Strategies for preventing and responding to interpersonal mistreatment are discussed.
    • Collegiate Student Athlete<br /> Perception of Satisfaction <br /> and Comfort with<br /> Athletic Training Students

      Tebbe, Keith (2012-10-22)
      TITLE: Collegiate student athlete perceptions of satisfaction and comfort with athletic training students CONTEXT: Athletic training students (ATS) and student athletes have a large amount of interaction with one another. Many other medical professions study the interaction that their students have with a patient population. OBJECTIVE: Investigate student athlete’s perception, satisfaction, and comfort with ATSs. DESIGN: Online survey. SETTING: Student athletes at CAATE- accredited institutions. PARTICIPANTS: 66 student athletes (20 male, 46 female) from 22 universities DATA COLLECTION: The survey consisted of 3 yes/no questions, 5 demographic questions, 1 multiple-answer question asking the participant to select characteristics that describe an ATS, 21 Likert scale questions based off previous perception and comfort studies, and 5 open ended questions. ANALYSIS: Analyzed for statistics of central tendency RESULTS: Student primarily perceive ATSs for taping ankles (n=62, 93.9%), distributing water/sports drinks (n= 62, 93.9%), and rehabilitating injuries (n=60, 90.9%). Athletes did not perceive ATSs as licensed health care professionals and minimally perceived ATS as participating in emergency care. Athletes were most satisfied with of respect ATSs demonstrated (4.3±0.8). Student athletes were least satisfied with ATSs’ communication with coaches (3.7±1.2) Student athletes were most comfortable with the ATS asking the ATC when unsure of an injury (4.7±0.5). Student athletes were least comfortable with discussing personal issues with an ATS (3.6±1.0). CONCLUSIONS: We found that in general, student athletes were satisfied and comfortable with the ATSs at their institution. ATSs, like other medical profession students, are receiving satisfactory marks from their patient population. KEYWORDS: athlete, athletic training student, satisfaction, comfort
    • Comparison of Blood Flow Changes with Soft Tissue Mobilization and Massage Therapy

      Soto, Andrea M. Portillo (Indiana State University, 2014-05)
      Context: Instrument Assisted Soft Tissue Mobilization (IASTM) and massage therapy are manual techniques that claim to be able to increase blood flow to treated areas. There are no studies on human subjects that have directly investigated the effects of IASTM on blood flow. Objective: To compare the effects of Graston Technique (GT) and Massage therapy on calf blood flow, using skin temperature measures (a valid, indirect measureof blood flow), on the lower leg. Design: Single-blinded prospective, longitudinal, controlled, repeated-measures design. Setting: Research Laboratory Participants: 28 volunteers participated in the study (Age=23±3; Males=14/28 (50%); Females=14/28 (50%); Girth=39.5±4.3l; Skinfold=27.9±5.6) Interventions: Each participant received 10-minute treatment (Massage and IASTM) in two separate sessions with the non-treatment leg used as a control. Main Outcome Measures: We measured baseline skin temperature on the calf prior to treatment, and again every 5min after treatment for a total of 60min. We evaluated differences between conditions (4) and time (13) with a repeated measures ANOVA. Significance was set at p<0.05 a-priori. Results: We identified significant differences with Greenhouse-Geisser corrections between conditions (F2.4,61.2=39.252, p<0.001, ES=0.602) and time (F2.1,54.4=192.8, p<0.001, ES=0.881), but failed to achieve a significant main effect (F2.1,53.5=2.944, p=0.060, 1-β=0.558). The massage condition (32.05±0.16°C) yielded significantly higher skin temperatures as compared to the massage control (30.53±0.14°C, p<0.001), GT (31.11±0.20, p<0.001), and GT control (30.32±0.14,p<0.001) conditions. Only the control conditions were not significantly different from one another (p=0.189). We also identified significant differences in time, whereas the baseline (25.83±0.30°C) acquired prior to treatment was significantly lower than all other temperature measurements (p<0.001). Moreover, temperatures at 5min (30.21±0.12°C), 10min (31.00±0.30°C), and 15min (31.65±0.12°C) showed significant increases (p<0.001). After 15min, the skin temperatures continued to rise and each time point was statistically different from the baseline and up to the 25min peak temperature (31.76±0.12°C), but these differences were not clinically significant differences (<0.80°C). Conclusion: This study demonstrated that massage and GT increase skin temperature. A rise in temperature theoretically indicates an increase in blood flow to the area. Blood flow increases theoretically stimulate the delivery of nutrients and oxygen to tissues in the body, increase tissue mobility, and increase muscle flexibility. Massage had a higher temperature increase when compared to GT, but both techniques increased temperature consistently for up to 25min post treatment. Further research is needed to conclude how deep this temperature and blood flow increase is occurring in the muscle tissue. If a clinician’s therapeutic goal is to increase temperature and blood flow, both massage and GT would be good treatment choices with massage yielding significantly higher temperature and blood flow. Word Count: 422
    • COMPARISON OF LOWER TRAPEZIUS MUSCLE THICKNESS IN PATIENTS WITH AND WITHOUT SCAPULAR DYSKINESIS MEASURED WITH DIAGNOSTIC ULTRASOUND

      VanDeusen, Alex (Indiana State University, 2014-05)
      Context: Dyskinesis has been linked to deficits in muscular strength and neuromuscular control of the scapular stabilizers. Often, when treating overhead athletes with pathological shoulders, Athletic Trainers focus on rotator cuff and scapular muscle strength to find resolution, yet the role of the lower trapezius strength in scapular dyskinesis is not well understood. Objective: To identify differences among varying levels of scapular dyskinesis on lower trapezius muscle thickness and strength. To identify the relationship between lower trapezius muscle thickness and strength with varying levels of scapular dyskinesis . To identify the relationship between pain and function within varying levels of scapular dyskinesis. Design: Expost- factor descriptive design. Setting: Indiana State University Applied Medicine Research Center. Participants: Fifty participants (age=25.18±5.90y; mass=71.67±13.15kg; height=173.5±10.2in; males=23/50, 46%, females=27/50, 64%; right-handed=48/50, 96%, lefthanded= 2/50, 4%) completed the study. Interventions: We evaluated scapular dyskinesis using the clinical visualization technique identifying each scapula as normal, with subtle or with obvious dyskinesis. Participants, depending on body mass, lifted a 3lb (mass<150lb [68kg]) or 5lb (mass>150lb [68kg]) weight overhead in flexion (5 repetitions) and abduction (5 repetitions), while a trained clinician observed for normal scapulohumeral rhythm, dysrhythmia, or scapular winging. Participants completed the Penn Shoulder Scale, a reliable and internally consistent self-report questionnaire with subscales on pain (0-30 points) and function (0-60 points). Main Outcome Measures: We evaluated strength with a hand-held dynamometer (microFET2, Hoggan Scientific, ±1%) with a single arm outstretched overhead in a “Y” position. The strength testing was performed at the same time as the diagnostic ultrasound (GE LOGIQ®e 2008) measurement of muscle thickness. We used separate one way analyses of variance to examine the size and strength of the lower trapezius and compared it over three levels of scapular dyskinesis to identify the differences in the dominant limb (DL) and non-dominant limb (NDL). We used a Spearman rho correlation to determine the relationship between scapular dyskinesis, muscle strength, and muscle thickness in DLs and NDLs. We conducted Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric one-way analyses of variance to compare pain and function subscales over the three levels of scapular dyskinesis in dominant and non-dominant limbs. Results: We did not identify any significant differences between DL scapular dyskinesis visual inspection categories on the strength (F2,49=0.596, p=0.555, 1-β=0.93) and thickness variables (F2,48=0.714, p=0.495, 1-β=0.51). We did not identify any significant difference between NDL scapular dyskinesis visual inspection categories on the strength (F2,49=2.382, p=0.103, 1-β=0.96) and thickness variables (F2,47=0.631, p=0.537, 1-β=0.54). We identified no significant correlation between DL or NDL scapular dyskinesis and strength (DL Spearman’s rho= -0.160, p=0.266; NDL Spearman’s rho=-0.106, p=0.466) or thickness (DL Spearman’s rho=-0.175, p=0.230; NDL Spearman’s rho=-0.091, p=0.537). We did identify a significant and strong relationship between DL strength and thickness (Spearman’s rho=0.706, p<0.001) and a significant and moderate relationship between NDL strength and thickness (Spearman’s rho=0.414, p=0.003). : We did not identify any significant differences for pain (χ2=5.561, df=2, p=0.062, 1-β=1.00) among the normal (n=15, mean=29.40±1.68), subtle (n=14, mean=28.93±2.73) or obvious (n=21, mean=27.43±3.74) dyskinesis levels in the dominant limb. We did not identify any significant differences for function (χ2=1.386, df=2, p=0.500, 1-β=1.00) among the normal (n=15, mean=58.20±3.32), subtle (n=14, mean=59.00±1.47) or obvious (n=21, mean=56.86±5.97) dyskinesis levels in the dominant limb. We did not identify any significant differences for pain (χ2=0.937, df=2, p=0.626, 1-β=0.99) among the normal (n=11, mean=27.64±4.18), subtle (n=15, mean=29.33±1.50) or obvious (n=24, mean=28.79±2.00) dyskinesis levels in the non-dominant limb. We did not identify any significant differences for function (χ2=0.391, df=2, p=0.822, 1- β=0.91) among the normal (n=11, mean=58.09±2.21), subtle (n=15, mean=58.40±2.29) or obvious (n=24, mean=58.54±2.09) dyskinesis levels in the non-dominant limb. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that lower trapezius strength and thickness have little impact on the presence of scapular dyskinesis. As such, neuromuscular control should be studied to better understand the multifactorial issue of scapular dyskinesis. Our findings also confirmed our hypothesis that muscle strength and thickness are strongly correlated, particularly in the dominant limb. Also, without the exacerbation of overhead activity, dyskinesis may be subclinical yielding little to no pathologic consequences.
    • Comparison of Muscle Activation in The Active Straight Leg Raise and Double Straight Leg Lowering Tests

      Callahan, Megan (2011-09-16)
      Muscle Activation during the Active Straight Leg Raise and Double Straight Leg Lowering Tests Callahan, ME. Gage, M. Ferng, SF. Nesser, T. Context: Low back pain is a common medical condition that exists in athletic and general populations. It is difficult to for clinicians to diagnose low back pain because no gold standard clinical test has been established to diagnose low back pain. Limited previous research has assessed muscle activation during commonly used clinical tests that evaluate low back pain. Objective: To assess transverse abdominis/internal oblique (TrA/IO), external oblique (EO), and rectus abdominis (RA) muscles during two common low back pain clinical tests. The clinical tests were the double straight leg lowering (DSLL) test and the active straight leg raise (ASLR) test. The ASLR was performed bilaterally. Design: Within subjects cohort study. Setting: Neuromechanics Research Laboratory. Participants: Thirty healthy, college aged, physically active (ht-173.48 + 9.15 cm, mass-73.85 + 17.1 kg, age-20.8 + 2. yrs) participants were recruited from a university campus. Intervention: Muscle activation was assessed during the DSLL and right (RASLR) and left (LASLR). Main Outcome Measures: Peak and mean abdominal muscle activation was measured using electromyography (EMG). Independent samples t-tests were used to assess muscle activation differences between tasks. Results: No differences were observed in the TrA/IO between the DSLL and ASLR. Greater iv mean muscle activation was observed in the EO [right-(p = .006) and left-(p = .020)] and RA [right-(p = .004) and left (p = .044)] during the DSLL than the RASLR. The EO [right-(p = .044) and left (p = .003)] and right RA (p = .002) had greater mean muscle activation during the DSLL than the LASLR. Greater peak EO [right-(p = .016) and left (p = .028)] and right RA (p= .003) muscle activation was observed during the RASLR than the DSLL. The left TrA/IO had greater peak muscle activation during the LASLR than the RASLR. Greater peak muscle activation was observed in the left EO (p = .005) and right RA (p = .001) during the LASLR and DSLL. The right TrA/IO (p = 0.45) had greater mean muscle activation during the RASLR than the LASLR. The left TrA/IO (p = .012) had greater mean muscle activation during the LASLR than the RASLR. Conclusion: The DSLL and ASLR do not assess the TrA/IO, EO, and RA in the same way. The ASLR recruits the TrA/IO more than the DSLL. The DSLL activates the EO and RA more than the ASLR. There are different activation patterns depending on the leg being raised during the ASLR.
    • Effect of Core Strength on the Measure of Power in the Extremities

      Shinkle, Justin (2011-03-16)
      The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of core strength on the transfer and production of forces in the extremities. Twenty-five division 1 collegiate football players performed a series of medicine ball throws in the forward, reverse, right and left directions in a static and dynamic position. The results of the medicine ball throws were compared to several athletic performance measurements including: push press power, 1RM squat, 1RM bench press, countermovement vertical jump, broad jump, 40 yard dash, 20 yard dash, pro agility to the right and left, and the L drill. Several strong correlations were found in both the static and dynamic medicine ball throw positions when compared to the performance measures. Static reverse correlated with vertical jump (CMJ) (r=0.44), broad jump (BRD)(r=0.5) and push press power (PWR)(r=0.46). Static left (StL) and static right (StRi) correlated with PWR (r=0.59), (r=0.65) respectively, and Vel (r=0.52)(r=0.6), respectively. Fewer dynamic throws correlated significantly with the performance variables. Dynamic left (DyL) and Dynamic right (DyRi) correlated with PWR (r=0.53), (r=0.63) respectively, and Vel (r=0.55),(r=0.61) respectively. Dynamic forward (DyFw) correlated with the 1RM squat (r=0.45). A stepwise regression for push press power prediction reveals that 1RM squat is the best predictor of push press power. The results indicate that core strength does have a significant effect on the ability of an athlete to create and transfer forces in the extremities.
    • Effect of Fluid Administration on Fluid Consumption and Hydration Status

      Finn, Megan E. (2011-09-20)
      The use of an external fluid administrator (EFA) to deliver fluids is a recent phenomenon in athletics. However, this has yet to be compared to the traditional method of self administration(SA). PURPOSE: To examine the influence fluid administration methods have on fluid consumption, hydration status, and perceptual variables. METHODS: Nineteen recreationally active individuals [14 males, 5 females (30±10y; 176±8cm; 72.5Kg) participated in two days of exercise with varying the method of fluid administration (self-administration SA; external fluid administration EFA) between days. EFA refers to when someone else squirts water into the participant’s mouth, whereas SA, the participant squirts water into their own mouth. The water bottle (WB) was kept equal distance from the mouth for both conditions. Participants weight (t-shirt and/or shorts only) and urine samples were collected prior to exercise. Participants then completed a 10-min warm-up. Participants had a 2-min fluid break before the exercise protocol (EP), which included a series of five 15-minute stations. Exercises provided aerobic and anaerobic demands, including hill jogging, push-ups, jumping jacks, ladder drills, and intermittent rest. After completing each station, participants received a 5-min fluid breaks where they drank ad libitum. Fluid variables and perceptual variables were collected during every fluid break. Following the final fluid break,participants provided a post-exercise weight and urine sample. The order of conditions and exercise stations were randomly assigned. Fluid variables assessed were volume consumed perfluid break (VC/FB), number of squirts per fluid break (#Sq/FB), squirt volume per fluid break (SqV/FB), total squirts (TSq), total volume consumed (TVC), and average volume per squirt (AV/Sq). Hydration status was assessed via urine specific gravity (USG), body mass loss (BML),sweat loss (SwL), and sweat rate (SwRt). Perceptual measures assessed include thirst and fullness. Repeated-measures ANOVA was used to analyze condition by time for VC/FB,#Sq/FB, SqV/FB, USG, thirst and fullness. A paired t-test was used for post-hoc analysis.Independent samples t-tests were used to analyze TSq, TVC, AV/Sq, BML, SwL, and SwRt.P<0.05 a priori RESULTS: No significant interaction was indicated for VC/FB or SqV/FB (p>0.05). A significant interaction was noted for #Sq/FB (p<0.05). TSq between conditions did not indicate significance, however TVC and AV/Sq were significantly different (p<0.05). With no significant interaction for USG, participants arrived (SA=1.016±.009; EFA=1.019±.008) and remained (SA=1.019±.008; EFA=1.020±.007) hydrated throughout the EP. BML, SwL, SwRt, thirst and fullness also indicated no significant differences between conditions (p>0.05). CONCLUSION: SA promoted more TVC likely due to greater VSq. Both conditions remained euhydrated, but EFA consumed less fluids. Euhydration may have been maintained because of regularly spaced fluid breaks and when regular fluid breaks are unavailable, EFA may result in more BML and hypohydration.
    • The Effect of Kinesiotape on Ankle Proprioception and ROM

      Capps, Jenna (Indiana State University, 2014-05)
      Ankle ROM and proprioception are components of rehabilitation. Kinesio Tape (KT) is theorized to increase ROM and proprioception. KT is lacking in the literature in regards to proprioception and ROM more specifically in the ankle area. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of KT on ankle proprioception and ROM. DESIGN: Pretest-posttest randomized group design. Participants were assigned to one of two groups (with KT and without KT). Both groups ankle ROM was measured in all directions and 4 trials of 20 seconds. Then a five minute rest for the control group or have KT application within 5 minutes as the experimental group. ROM was then re-measured PARTICIPANTS: 35 healthy subjects, ages 18-40 with no history of ankle surgeries or unexplainable falls volunteered to participate. Volunteers were randomly selected and divided into two groups. (control group= 18, KT group= 17) with 15 males and 20 females. RESULTS: ANOVA results indicated no significance difference between groups of pre OSI scores and the post OSI scores (p= 0.40). The homogenous values, there was no significant difference in the total means of the pre KT application when compared to the KT application. Levine’s test indicated there was no significant difference (p= 0.198, p= 0.156). CONCLUSION: Results suggest that KT has no effect on ankle proprioception and ROM. More specifically, research suggests positive outcomes for healthy individuals however; future studies should investigate KT effects on individuals with injured ankles. In order to fully understand the effect of KT on proprioception, further research should investigate injured and non-injured effects on healthy, injured and different joints may aid practitioners in appropriate use of KT for treatment and rehabilitation for ROM and proproceptive deficits.
    • Exertional Rhabdomyolysis: Studying the Perfect Storm

      Holtgrieve, Nicholas B. (Indiana State University, 2014-05)
      Background: Rhabdomyolysis is a potentially life-threatening syndrome characterized by the breakdown of skeletal muscle fibers resulting in the release of proteins into general circulation. Common practice for diagnosing exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER) is using biochemical markers for muscle damage; creatine kinase (CK) and myoglobin (Mb) are proteins detected in the bloodstream after muscle injury or trauma. Serum creatinine is the best biochemical marker for calculating renal function. Measuring GFR is not common when assessing ER. Purpose: The aim of this study is to help predict ER. Methods: Ninety-three athletes volunteered for the research study. Participants were asked to give blood three times throughout a competitive season. Results: Overall, Mb and GFR were lower than normal value and creatinine and CK were higher than normal value. In addition, neither CK nor Mb can predict GFR. Conclusions: The major finding of the current study is that the predicting GFR and ER is a difficult task. In addition, baseline levels of CK and Mb could be higher than normal values in college athletes.
    • Kinesio tape and its effects on internal and external range of motion of the shoulder

      Renner, Chelsea M (2012-05-18)
      The primary objective to this study was to determine the effects of kinesio tape (KT) on shoulder ROM arc pre and post KT treatment. The experimental design consisted of a pretest-posttest randomized-group. Independent variables were treatments with two levels: no KT and KT. Dependent variables were shoulder internal and external rotation. Shoulder internal and external rotation was measured with a digital inclinometer on 45 healthy subjects (control group = 22, KT group = 23), while perceptions of participation and KT efficacy was measured with an electronic post-experiment questionnaire. Results showed no significant differences between control and KT treatment groups for shoulder ROM arc pre and post intervention. Significant differences were identified between females (x=125°) and males (x=115°) within each group on day 4 pre tape removal. Overall, females displayed a significant increase in ROM arc with KT after 4 days of treatment, and returned to baseline arc upon tape removal.
    • KNOWLEDGE OF ATHLETIC TRAINERS REGARDING AIRWAY ADJUNCTS

      Edler, Jessica (Indiana State University, 2014-05)
      Context: Research shows that knowledge gaps occur among various professions and practitioners, which may harm patients. Little research has been done in Athletic Training to determine if knowledge gaps exist. Objective: To determine the relationship between perceived and actual knowledge of airway adjunct use and determine the difference in perceived knowledge. Design: Knowledge assessment Setting: Web-based survey Participants: 2000 Certified Athletic Trainers received the survey via email, 152 responded. Our response rate was 7.6%. Interventions: The perceived knowledge questionnaire was modified from Flynn and Goldsmith 5-item subject knowledge assessment. Flynn and Goldsmith examined the assessment tool to ensure validity and reliability. The 5 original items were applied to airway adjunct use to assess pre and post test perceived knowledge. We performed a factor analysis, which revealed that, 68.7% of the variance was assumed within 3 factors defined as knowledge retrieval, comprehension, and knowledge utilization. Main Outcome Measures: We measured pre and post-test perceived knowledge using the perceived knowledge questionnaire. Actual knowledge was measured using an assessment consisting of 9 questions related to common airway adjunct uses. We asked each participant to rate their likelihood to pursue continuing education during the pre and post-test perceived knowledge questionnaire. We also asked participants how often lifesaving skills were used in their job. We used dependent t-tests to determine the pre and post-test differences in perceived knowledge and likelihood to pursue continuing education. A correlation analysis was used to determine the relationship between perceived and actual knowledge. We used an analysis of variance to determine if differences in actual knowledge existed between genders, employment settings, and how frequently they used life saving skills. Results: We identified no significant change (t150 = -0.91, p = 0.37, 95% CI = -0.17 to 0.06) in likelihood to pursue continuing education from before (pre = 4.35 ± 1.30) and after testing (post = 4.40 ± 1.35). A poor relationship (r = 0.36, p < 0.001) was identified between perceived knowledge and actual knowledge. We found a significant difference (F1,145 = 4.63, p = 0.03, 1-β = 0.57) between the frequency of use of life saving skills and actual knowledge. Conclusion: We identified a knowledge gap amongst athletic trainers in the use of airway adjuncts. Although the likelihood to pursue continuing education score was high, the score did not significantly increase after completing the assessment, which is inconsistent with previous literature. Participants who use life saving skills more frequently scored higher on the actual knowledge assessment, suggesting that the more frequently athletic trainers utilize a skill, the more knowledge they demonstrate.
    • Perceived vs Actual Clinical Performance of Athletic Training Students

      Rosauer, Joseph C (Indiana State University, 2014-05)
      Context: Research has suggested a knowledge gap exist within the healthcare community. Identifying potential knowledge gaps and the use of self-reflection can be used to decrease these gaps can affect patient outcomes. Objective: To determine if knowledge gaps do exist within athletic training student’s (ATS) clinical education. Design: Longitudinal non-experimental retrospective study. Subjects: 141 mid semester evaluations of sophomore ATS over a four year period. Main Outcome Measures: We assessed potential knowledge gaps of ATS in the clinical setting. We calculated the difference between a preceptor evaluation of the student and student’s self-evaluation using a One-way ANOVA. We also looked to see if a relationship exists between a preceptor’s evaluation of an ATS and ATS’s self-evaluation using a Cohen’s Kappa. Mean professional behavior scores, clinical proficiency scores and overall score will be assessed. Results: A significant difference was observed for CIP:6 emergent care (p=.016, F=4.661) while no significant difference existed for professional behaviors (p=.099,F=2.350), CIP:2 (p=.055, F=2.989), CIP:3 (p=.322, F=1.161), and overall score(p=.066, F=2.780). A fair to poor relationship was observed for professional behaviors (k=.128 p=.079), CIP:2 (k=.251 p=.001), CIP:3 (k=-.032 p=.723), CIP:6 (k=.381 p=.002), and overall score (k=.142 p=.035). Conclusion: Preceptor and ATS paired evaluation depicted no significant difference but a poor inter-rater relationship was observed identifying a knowledge gap exists.
    • Perceptions of Retention Indicators in Athletic Training

      Juzeszyn, Laura (2013-09-05)
      CONTEXT: Attrition in the profession of athletic training notably occurs in large numbers between 5-10 years of professional experience creating a profession dominated by young, entry-level practitioners. Theoretical constructs are currently used to explain the retention issues in athletic training, yet an assessment of individuals who have left the profession is lacking. Understanding reasons why athletic trainers leave their profession and their future plans may enhance retention efforts in athletic training. OBJECTIVE: To assess reasons why athletic trainers let their BOC lapse and leave the athletic training profession. DESIGN: Cross sectional-observational study. SETTING: Internet Survey. PARTICIPANTS: 1000 former certified athletic trainers who have let their BOC lapse within the past 5 years. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used SPSS to calculate descriptive statistics and a Kruskall-Wallis to assess work/family issues. We collected demographic data on all respondents and the variables contributing to a lack of retention. We assessed gender, age, relationship status, setting of employment, highest level of employment, and children on three levels: work/family, work-related, and burnout. RESULTS: We identified the majority of responses to the effect of work/family were neutral (2.5-3.5). The majority of work-related issues were neutral with the exception of ethical strain and travel demands, which contributed to retention. The majority of burnout factors contributed to individuals leaving the profession. CONCLUSIONS: Former athletic trainers fail to identify the connection between burnout and life stressors and do not make the connection that life stressors contribute to the lack of retention in the profession.
    • Physiological and Perceived Effects of Head Cooling During Simulated Firefighting Activity

      McKenzie, Amy L. (2011-07-19)
      Accessory cooling devices have been developed to protect firefighters (FF) from suffering an exertional heat illness by attenuating the rise in core body temperature. Head cooling (HC) via a cold gel pack placed inside the helmet is one cooling mechanism marketed to FF, but the research regarding its efficacy is limited. PURPOSE: To investigate the physiological and perceived effects of HC during simulated firefighting activity (FFA). METHODS: Participants (males; 40±8 y; 168±7 cm; 91.8±14.2 kg) were randomly assigned to either the HC group (n=9), who completed FFA while wearing a cold gel pack inside their helmet, or the control (CON) group (n=10), who received no accessory cooling during FFA. FF completed four FFA stations in full turnout gear and self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) (23.3±1.4 kg). FFA stations lasted 15 min and included an obstacle course, a high-rise drill, a two-story search and rescue drill, and car extrication. Stations were completed in random order. After each station, FF replaced their air cylinder and HC replaced their gel pack; FF then completed a different station. After every two stations, the FF rested for 15 min in the shade by removing their turnout gear and SCBA and drinking water ad libitum. Gastrointestinal temperature (GI), heart rate (HR), Stroop Test interference score (ST), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), perceived thermal strain (PTS), and hydration status were measured. Repeated measures ANOVAs were used to compare groups across time. RESULTS: No significant demographic differences were found between groups (p>0.05). GI (39.18±0.49°C) and HR (163±22bpm) increased during FFA. No significant interactions were found for GI, HR, ST, PTS, or RPE (p>0.05). There were no differences in sweat loss (2.5±0.8 L), hypohydration (0.9±0.8%), or post FFA urine specific gravity (1.020±0.008) between groups (p>0.05). Weak relationships were noted between perceived thermal sensation and gastrointestinal temperature (r=.248). CONCLUSION: HC did not attenuate the rise in GI or reduce HR during FFA. The discrepancy between perception and actual body temperature may be dangerous for FF, as it may allow them to work beyond their central drive and the critical GI threshold.
    • Pressures exerted by elastic wraps applied by beginning and advanced student athletic trainers to the ankle and the thigh with and without an ice pack.

      Varpalotai, Marianna (2012-04-23)
      Compression is a common part of the immediate care of acute athletic injuries, but little has been done to validate the commonly accepted procedure. Forty-six subjects applied elastic wraps four times each to the thigh and ankle, with and without ice, to study the application of pressure and consistency of application. Subjects were 23 beginning and 23 advanced student athletic trainers (12 males, 11 females in each group). Pressures exerted over the anterior thigh and the anterior talc-fibular ligament were measured with a closed system air cell attached to a pressure gauge. There was no difference in pressure exerted by elastic wraps applied by beginning and advanced student athletic trainers, applied by males and females, or applied with and without ice. Elastic wraps applied to the thigh exerted significantly more pressure than ones applied to the ankle. Female advanced athletic trainers were most consistent in the application of the wrap overall. Though the mean pressure exerted by the elastic wraps was within the range of recommended values thought to be safe for external compression, individual pressures exerted by the wraps were frequently above this range. Pressures above this range have been found to compromise circulation or damage the compressed area. If these values hold true for acute injuries (no evidence exists for all).
    • Senior Athletic Training Students’ Perceptions and Self-Reported Behaviors of Evidence-Based Practice

      Schneider, Gregory P. (2011-03-17)
      Title: Senior Athletic Training Student‟s Perceptions and Self-Reported Behaviors of Evidence-Based Practice Context: Entry-level athletic training education is currently transitioning to include evidence-based practice (EBP) into their curriculums to continue to establish athletic training as a prestigious allied health profession. Objective: To determine senior athletic training student (SATS) perceptions of EBP and examine the self-reported behaviors of EBP to gain insight into the instructional methods currently used to educate athletic training students in EBP as the method of delivering care to patients. Design: Grounded theory study Setting: Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education accredited undergraduate athletic training programs. Participants: Thirteen senior athletic training students [11=female, 2=male, currently completing their last semester/quarter of their athletic training education program (ATEP)] were interviewed to discover their perceptions, self-reported behaviors of EBP. Data Collection and Analysis: SATS perceptions and self-reported behaviors of EBP were discovered and explored qualitatively using grounded theory methodology. Constant comparison and coding allowed theories to be developed. Peer debriefing and multiple analyst triangulation evaluated the emerging theories to establish trustworthiness. Results: The analysis revealed that SATS have a positive perception of utilizing research to guide or supplement their clinical practices. The emerging theories demonstrated that the SATS have knowledge of how to use EBP when providing care to their patients. The perceived instructional methods focused on acquiring medical literature, with slight emphasis on appraising and applying it into clinical practice. Some ATEP assignments required SATS to acquire and appraise medical literature, which in turn some of the SATS were able to use in their clinical practices. SATS also expressed acquiring medical literature on their own to address a problem in their clinical practices, but the SATS did not appraise the found medical literature nor discuss it with their patients. The SATS did express confidence in their ability to communicate to their patients and establish trust by educating their patients. Conclusions: The SATS interviewed attained a scholastic knowledge of EBP. Other medical professions re-structured their curricula to have students use EBP. The changes in athletic training curriculum have allowed athletic training students to continue the incorporation of EBP. The instructional methods, described by the SATS, used to teach EBP do not appear to be as structured as other medical professions. Through the continued integration of EBP education into all levels of athletic training education, the profession can continue to enhance itself as a prestigious allied health profession.
    • The Effect of External Ankle Support on Football Specific Performance Tests and the Perception of the Athletes that Wear Them

      Cutts, Matthew (2013-09-04)
      Context: Researchers and manufacturers have been looking for the optimal method to safely and adequately support the ankle joint without hindering performance. A plethora of information on sport specific performance utilizing taping and/or bracing methods exists. However, no study has compared actual performance to the athletes’ perception of their performance wearing various ankle support. Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of ankle braces and taping on football performance tests and the participants’ perception of the affect the ankle support had on their performance. Design: Mixed methods crossover design with 3 conditions unsupported (U), a taped (T) using a modified basket weave, and two separate braced conditions; a traditional figure eight lace up with Velcro stirrups manufactured by McDavid (B1) and a hinged ankle brace manufactured by UltraAnkle Zoom (B2). Setting: Outdoor artificial turf surface Participants: Three collegiate football players (age = 21+/- 2 yrs, with 3.5 +/-1.5 yrs of college experience) voluntarily participated in this study. Main Outcome Measures: Vertical jump, broad jump, 5-10-5 agility test, 3-cone test, and the 40- yard dash. Because we were unable to achieve a large sample size, interviews were performed to gather descriptive data regarding the three conditions. Results: No trends were seen in data relative to the condition. Qualitative results indicated that participants felt most comfortable in condition they had used previously, but preferred the unsupported condition. Results: Vertical jump (U=24.01±4.31, T=22.91±4.87, B1=23.88±4.17, B2=23.73±4.11), broad jump (U=93.68±10.91, T=96.42±11.52, B1=94.55±12.96, B2=95.84±10.95), the 5-10-5 agility test (U=4.71±0.23, T=4.69±0.22, B1=4.76±0.29, B2=4.79±0.22), the 3-cone test (U=7.67±0.40, T=7.74±0.48, B1=7.75±0.54, B2=7.83±0.55), and the 40-yard dash (U=5.27±0.24, T=5.35±0.27, B1=5.41±0.28, B2=5.46±0.26). Conclusions: Due to the small sample size, we were unable to draw objective conclusions regarding the effect of the conditions on performance, however participants in this investigation preferred the unsupported condition for the testing.
    • The Effects of A Gluteus Medius Training Protocol on Muscle Activation and Postural Control

      Dorpinghaus, Nathan (2012-10-22)
      Context: Researchers have suggested a weak or dysfunctional gluteus medius (GM) has been linked to a number of lower extremity injuries. Identifying an appropriate intervention to prevent or correct GM deficits and determine associated outcomes has become a subject of increased interest. Objective: To determine if GM training changes lower extremity muscle activation during a dynamic task. Design: Controlled laboratory study. Setting: Biomechanics research laboratory. Participants: Eighteen healthy, physically active participants (7 men, 11 women; age=21.2±2.01yrs; height=168.39±8.92cm; mass=77.76±16.39kg) volunteered for the study. Each participant served as their own control. Intervention(s): Muscle activation of 5 trunk muscles were measured bilaterally before and after the protocol during a single-leg drop landing (45cm). All of the participants completed a six week GM training protocol. Main Outcome Measure(s): Peak and mean muscle activation was measured 400ms pre-and post-landing (pre-mean, pre-peak, post-mean, post-peak). Muscle activation data was normalized using maximal voluntary contractions. Results: No significant differences were observed during the control period. Decreased muscle activation was observed in the non-dominant GM [pre-mean (F1,17=14.301, P=.001), pre-peak (F1,17=9.490, P=.007), post-mean (F1,17=5.373, P=.033), and post-peak (F1,17=4.678, P=.045)]. Increased biceps femoris (BF) mean muscle activation was observed on the dominant leg pre-landing (F1,17=4.752, P=.044). Conclusions: Six weeks of GM training was enough time to observe improved neuromuscular efficiency of the GM. Increased BF muscle activation prior to landing suggests participants had an increased feedforward response in preparation for landing following training. Therefore, the combination of improved neuromuscular efficiency and a greater feedforward response suggest pelvic stabilization may be improved during a single-leg drop landing as a result of six weeks of GM training. This study suggests clinicians should incorporate bilateral GM exercises to improve lower extremity neuromuscular efficiency and feedforward responses which may improve pelvic stabilization. Key words: Electromyography, lower extremity injury, rehabilitation, neuromuscular efficiency, single-leg drop landing.