• Effect of Core Strength on the Measure of Power in the Extremities

      Shinkle, Justin (2011-03-16)
      The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of core strength on the transfer and production of forces in the extremities. Twenty-five division 1 collegiate football players performed a series of medicine ball throws in the forward, reverse, right and left directions in a static and dynamic position. The results of the medicine ball throws were compared to several athletic performance measurements including: push press power, 1RM squat, 1RM bench press, countermovement vertical jump, broad jump, 40 yard dash, 20 yard dash, pro agility to the right and left, and the L drill. Several strong correlations were found in both the static and dynamic medicine ball throw positions when compared to the performance measures. Static reverse correlated with vertical jump (CMJ) (r=0.44), broad jump (BRD)(r=0.5) and push press power (PWR)(r=0.46). Static left (StL) and static right (StRi) correlated with PWR (r=0.59), (r=0.65) respectively, and Vel (r=0.52)(r=0.6), respectively. Fewer dynamic throws correlated significantly with the performance variables. Dynamic left (DyL) and Dynamic right (DyRi) correlated with PWR (r=0.53), (r=0.63) respectively, and Vel (r=0.55),(r=0.61) respectively. Dynamic forward (DyFw) correlated with the 1RM squat (r=0.45). A stepwise regression for push press power prediction reveals that 1RM squat is the best predictor of push press power. The results indicate that core strength does have a significant effect on the ability of an athlete to create and transfer forces in the extremities.
    • Effect of Fluid Administration on Fluid Consumption and Hydration Status

      Finn, Megan E. (2011-09-20)
      The use of an external fluid administrator (EFA) to deliver fluids is a recent phenomenon in athletics. However, this has yet to be compared to the traditional method of self administration(SA). PURPOSE: To examine the influence fluid administration methods have on fluid consumption, hydration status, and perceptual variables. METHODS: Nineteen recreationally active individuals [14 males, 5 females (30±10y; 176±8cm; 72.5Kg) participated in two days of exercise with varying the method of fluid administration (self-administration SA; external fluid administration EFA) between days. EFA refers to when someone else squirts water into the participant’s mouth, whereas SA, the participant squirts water into their own mouth. The water bottle (WB) was kept equal distance from the mouth for both conditions. Participants weight (t-shirt and/or shorts only) and urine samples were collected prior to exercise. Participants then completed a 10-min warm-up. Participants had a 2-min fluid break before the exercise protocol (EP), which included a series of five 15-minute stations. Exercises provided aerobic and anaerobic demands, including hill jogging, push-ups, jumping jacks, ladder drills, and intermittent rest. After completing each station, participants received a 5-min fluid breaks where they drank ad libitum. Fluid variables and perceptual variables were collected during every fluid break. Following the final fluid break,participants provided a post-exercise weight and urine sample. The order of conditions and exercise stations were randomly assigned. Fluid variables assessed were volume consumed perfluid break (VC/FB), number of squirts per fluid break (#Sq/FB), squirt volume per fluid break (SqV/FB), total squirts (TSq), total volume consumed (TVC), and average volume per squirt (AV/Sq). Hydration status was assessed via urine specific gravity (USG), body mass loss (BML),sweat loss (SwL), and sweat rate (SwRt). Perceptual measures assessed include thirst and fullness. Repeated-measures ANOVA was used to analyze condition by time for VC/FB,#Sq/FB, SqV/FB, USG, thirst and fullness. A paired t-test was used for post-hoc analysis.Independent samples t-tests were used to analyze TSq, TVC, AV/Sq, BML, SwL, and SwRt.P<0.05 a priori RESULTS: No significant interaction was indicated for VC/FB or SqV/FB (p>0.05). A significant interaction was noted for #Sq/FB (p<0.05). TSq between conditions did not indicate significance, however TVC and AV/Sq were significantly different (p<0.05). With no significant interaction for USG, participants arrived (SA=1.016±.009; EFA=1.019±.008) and remained (SA=1.019±.008; EFA=1.020±.007) hydrated throughout the EP. BML, SwL, SwRt, thirst and fullness also indicated no significant differences between conditions (p>0.05). CONCLUSION: SA promoted more TVC likely due to greater VSq. Both conditions remained euhydrated, but EFA consumed less fluids. Euhydration may have been maintained because of regularly spaced fluid breaks and when regular fluid breaks are unavailable, EFA may result in more BML and hypohydration.
    • Kinesio tape and its effects on internal and external range of motion of the shoulder

      Renner, Chelsea M (2012-05-18)
      The primary objective to this study was to determine the effects of kinesio tape (KT) on shoulder ROM arc pre and post KT treatment. The experimental design consisted of a pretest-posttest randomized-group. Independent variables were treatments with two levels: no KT and KT. Dependent variables were shoulder internal and external rotation. Shoulder internal and external rotation was measured with a digital inclinometer on 45 healthy subjects (control group = 22, KT group = 23), while perceptions of participation and KT efficacy was measured with an electronic post-experiment questionnaire. Results showed no significant differences between control and KT treatment groups for shoulder ROM arc pre and post intervention. Significant differences were identified between females (x=125°) and males (x=115°) within each group on day 4 pre tape removal. Overall, females displayed a significant increase in ROM arc with KT after 4 days of treatment, and returned to baseline arc upon tape removal.
    • Perceptions of Retention Indicators in Athletic Training

      Juzeszyn, Laura (2013-09-05)
      CONTEXT: Attrition in the profession of athletic training notably occurs in large numbers between 5-10 years of professional experience creating a profession dominated by young, entry-level practitioners. Theoretical constructs are currently used to explain the retention issues in athletic training, yet an assessment of individuals who have left the profession is lacking. Understanding reasons why athletic trainers leave their profession and their future plans may enhance retention efforts in athletic training. OBJECTIVE: To assess reasons why athletic trainers let their BOC lapse and leave the athletic training profession. DESIGN: Cross sectional-observational study. SETTING: Internet Survey. PARTICIPANTS: 1000 former certified athletic trainers who have let their BOC lapse within the past 5 years. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used SPSS to calculate descriptive statistics and a Kruskall-Wallis to assess work/family issues. We collected demographic data on all respondents and the variables contributing to a lack of retention. We assessed gender, age, relationship status, setting of employment, highest level of employment, and children on three levels: work/family, work-related, and burnout. RESULTS: We identified the majority of responses to the effect of work/family were neutral (2.5-3.5). The majority of work-related issues were neutral with the exception of ethical strain and travel demands, which contributed to retention. The majority of burnout factors contributed to individuals leaving the profession. CONCLUSIONS: Former athletic trainers fail to identify the connection between burnout and life stressors and do not make the connection that life stressors contribute to the lack of retention in the profession.
    • Physiological and Perceived Effects of Head Cooling During Simulated Firefighting Activity

      McKenzie, Amy L. (2011-07-19)
      Accessory cooling devices have been developed to protect firefighters (FF) from suffering an exertional heat illness by attenuating the rise in core body temperature. Head cooling (HC) via a cold gel pack placed inside the helmet is one cooling mechanism marketed to FF, but the research regarding its efficacy is limited. PURPOSE: To investigate the physiological and perceived effects of HC during simulated firefighting activity (FFA). METHODS: Participants (males; 40±8 y; 168±7 cm; 91.8±14.2 kg) were randomly assigned to either the HC group (n=9), who completed FFA while wearing a cold gel pack inside their helmet, or the control (CON) group (n=10), who received no accessory cooling during FFA. FF completed four FFA stations in full turnout gear and self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) (23.3±1.4 kg). FFA stations lasted 15 min and included an obstacle course, a high-rise drill, a two-story search and rescue drill, and car extrication. Stations were completed in random order. After each station, FF replaced their air cylinder and HC replaced their gel pack; FF then completed a different station. After every two stations, the FF rested for 15 min in the shade by removing their turnout gear and SCBA and drinking water ad libitum. Gastrointestinal temperature (GI), heart rate (HR), Stroop Test interference score (ST), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), perceived thermal strain (PTS), and hydration status were measured. Repeated measures ANOVAs were used to compare groups across time. RESULTS: No significant demographic differences were found between groups (p>0.05). GI (39.18±0.49°C) and HR (163±22bpm) increased during FFA. No significant interactions were found for GI, HR, ST, PTS, or RPE (p>0.05). There were no differences in sweat loss (2.5±0.8 L), hypohydration (0.9±0.8%), or post FFA urine specific gravity (1.020±0.008) between groups (p>0.05). Weak relationships were noted between perceived thermal sensation and gastrointestinal temperature (r=.248). CONCLUSION: HC did not attenuate the rise in GI or reduce HR during FFA. The discrepancy between perception and actual body temperature may be dangerous for FF, as it may allow them to work beyond their central drive and the critical GI threshold.
    • Pressures exerted by elastic wraps applied by beginning and advanced student athletic trainers to the ankle and the thigh with and without an ice pack.

      Varpalotai, Marianna (2012-04-23)
      Compression is a common part of the immediate care of acute athletic injuries, but little has been done to validate the commonly accepted procedure. Forty-six subjects applied elastic wraps four times each to the thigh and ankle, with and without ice, to study the application of pressure and consistency of application. Subjects were 23 beginning and 23 advanced student athletic trainers (12 males, 11 females in each group). Pressures exerted over the anterior thigh and the anterior talc-fibular ligament were measured with a closed system air cell attached to a pressure gauge. There was no difference in pressure exerted by elastic wraps applied by beginning and advanced student athletic trainers, applied by males and females, or applied with and without ice. Elastic wraps applied to the thigh exerted significantly more pressure than ones applied to the ankle. Female advanced athletic trainers were most consistent in the application of the wrap overall. Though the mean pressure exerted by the elastic wraps was within the range of recommended values thought to be safe for external compression, individual pressures exerted by the wraps were frequently above this range. Pressures above this range have been found to compromise circulation or damage the compressed area. If these values hold true for acute injuries (no evidence exists for all).
    • Senior Athletic Training Students’ Perceptions and Self-Reported Behaviors of Evidence-Based Practice

      Schneider, Gregory P. (2011-03-17)
      Title: Senior Athletic Training Student‟s Perceptions and Self-Reported Behaviors of Evidence-Based Practice Context: Entry-level athletic training education is currently transitioning to include evidence-based practice (EBP) into their curriculums to continue to establish athletic training as a prestigious allied health profession. Objective: To determine senior athletic training student (SATS) perceptions of EBP and examine the self-reported behaviors of EBP to gain insight into the instructional methods currently used to educate athletic training students in EBP as the method of delivering care to patients. Design: Grounded theory study Setting: Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education accredited undergraduate athletic training programs. Participants: Thirteen senior athletic training students [11=female, 2=male, currently completing their last semester/quarter of their athletic training education program (ATEP)] were interviewed to discover their perceptions, self-reported behaviors of EBP. Data Collection and Analysis: SATS perceptions and self-reported behaviors of EBP were discovered and explored qualitatively using grounded theory methodology. Constant comparison and coding allowed theories to be developed. Peer debriefing and multiple analyst triangulation evaluated the emerging theories to establish trustworthiness. Results: The analysis revealed that SATS have a positive perception of utilizing research to guide or supplement their clinical practices. The emerging theories demonstrated that the SATS have knowledge of how to use EBP when providing care to their patients. The perceived instructional methods focused on acquiring medical literature, with slight emphasis on appraising and applying it into clinical practice. Some ATEP assignments required SATS to acquire and appraise medical literature, which in turn some of the SATS were able to use in their clinical practices. SATS also expressed acquiring medical literature on their own to address a problem in their clinical practices, but the SATS did not appraise the found medical literature nor discuss it with their patients. The SATS did express confidence in their ability to communicate to their patients and establish trust by educating their patients. Conclusions: The SATS interviewed attained a scholastic knowledge of EBP. Other medical professions re-structured their curricula to have students use EBP. The changes in athletic training curriculum have allowed athletic training students to continue the incorporation of EBP. The instructional methods, described by the SATS, used to teach EBP do not appear to be as structured as other medical professions. Through the continued integration of EBP education into all levels of athletic training education, the profession can continue to enhance itself as a prestigious allied health profession.
    • The Effect of External Ankle Support on Football Specific Performance Tests and the Perception of the Athletes that Wear Them

      Cutts, Matthew (2013-09-04)
      Context: Researchers and manufacturers have been looking for the optimal method to safely and adequately support the ankle joint without hindering performance. A plethora of information on sport specific performance utilizing taping and/or bracing methods exists. However, no study has compared actual performance to the athletes’ perception of their performance wearing various ankle support. Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of ankle braces and taping on football performance tests and the participants’ perception of the affect the ankle support had on their performance. Design: Mixed methods crossover design with 3 conditions unsupported (U), a taped (T) using a modified basket weave, and two separate braced conditions; a traditional figure eight lace up with Velcro stirrups manufactured by McDavid (B1) and a hinged ankle brace manufactured by UltraAnkle Zoom (B2). Setting: Outdoor artificial turf surface Participants: Three collegiate football players (age = 21+/- 2 yrs, with 3.5 +/-1.5 yrs of college experience) voluntarily participated in this study. Main Outcome Measures: Vertical jump, broad jump, 5-10-5 agility test, 3-cone test, and the 40- yard dash. Because we were unable to achieve a large sample size, interviews were performed to gather descriptive data regarding the three conditions. Results: No trends were seen in data relative to the condition. Qualitative results indicated that participants felt most comfortable in condition they had used previously, but preferred the unsupported condition. Results: Vertical jump (U=24.01±4.31, T=22.91±4.87, B1=23.88±4.17, B2=23.73±4.11), broad jump (U=93.68±10.91, T=96.42±11.52, B1=94.55±12.96, B2=95.84±10.95), the 5-10-5 agility test (U=4.71±0.23, T=4.69±0.22, B1=4.76±0.29, B2=4.79±0.22), the 3-cone test (U=7.67±0.40, T=7.74±0.48, B1=7.75±0.54, B2=7.83±0.55), and the 40-yard dash (U=5.27±0.24, T=5.35±0.27, B1=5.41±0.28, B2=5.46±0.26). Conclusions: Due to the small sample size, we were unable to draw objective conclusions regarding the effect of the conditions on performance, however participants in this investigation preferred the unsupported condition for the testing.
    • The Effect of Instrument Type on the Measure of Hydration Status

      Niemann, Andrew (2012-10-18)
      Context: Although some instruments have been validated for clinical measure of hydration status, new and currently invalid instruments are available for purchase and clinical use. Athletic trainers commonly use these instruments to assess hydration status for weight checks and body mass loss charts due to their ease of use. However, the validity of these popular instruments has not yet been established. Objective: To determine the validity of urine specific gravity (USG) for the assessment of hydration status via the following instruments: handheld clinical refractometer, pen style digital refractometer, and midget urinometer as compared to the gold standard urine osmometer (OSMO). Design: Descriptive diagnostic validity study. Setting: Biochemical research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Healthy active men and women (n=108; mean age=22±4yrs; self reported height=174±20cm and mass=75±17kg) were recruited among faculty and students on a university campus. Interventions: The independent variable was instrument type with four levels: osmometer, handheld clinical refractometer, pen style digital refractometer, and midget urinometer. After recruitment, participants completed an informed consent and a short health history questionnaire to rule out any exclusionary criteria such as kidney disease or chronic urinary tract infection. Participants were then given a clean standard urine cup and asked to provide as much sample as possible, providing more than one cup when possible. Main Outcome Measures: Hydration status was measured by USG and OSM. USG was evaluated by a handheld clinical refractometer, pen style digital refractometer, and midget urinometer. The gold standard OSM was calculated by a freezing point depression osmometer. Z scores were calculated for each instrument and Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients were evaluated to examine the relationship between each instrument of USG and OSM. Results: Strong significant correlations were identified for the digital refractometer (r=0.814, p< 0.001) and handheld clinical refractometer (r=0.943, p< 0.001) with OSM. A weak statistically insignificant correlation was established between the midget urinometer (r=0.133, p< 0.142) and OSM. Average hydration status indicated variability among some of the instruments: digital refractometer USG=1.0194±0.0075, clinical refractometer USG=1.020±0.007, urinometer USG=1.028±0.091, osmometer OSM=743±271) Conclusions: Handheld clinical refractometry can be used confidently for assessing hydration status as it shows a strong significant correlation with the gold standard osmometer, which is consistent with previous literature. Additionally, the use of the pen style digital refractometer showed a strong, significant correlation with the gold standard osmometer and provides clinicians with another option for the clinical assessment of USG and hydration status. The findings of this also study suggest that the use of a midget urinometer should be performed with extreme caution, as it showed a weak correlation with the gold standard osmometer, indicating it might not provide accurate results when used to determine hydration status.
    • The Effects of A Gluteus Medius Training Protocol on Muscle Activation and Postural Control

      Dorpinghaus, Nathan (2012-10-22)
      Context: Researchers have suggested a weak or dysfunctional gluteus medius (GM) has been linked to a number of lower extremity injuries. Identifying an appropriate intervention to prevent or correct GM deficits and determine associated outcomes has become a subject of increased interest. Objective: To determine if GM training changes lower extremity muscle activation during a dynamic task. Design: Controlled laboratory study. Setting: Biomechanics research laboratory. Participants: Eighteen healthy, physically active participants (7 men, 11 women; age=21.2±2.01yrs; height=168.39±8.92cm; mass=77.76±16.39kg) volunteered for the study. Each participant served as their own control. Intervention(s): Muscle activation of 5 trunk muscles were measured bilaterally before and after the protocol during a single-leg drop landing (45cm). All of the participants completed a six week GM training protocol. Main Outcome Measure(s): Peak and mean muscle activation was measured 400ms pre-and post-landing (pre-mean, pre-peak, post-mean, post-peak). Muscle activation data was normalized using maximal voluntary contractions. Results: No significant differences were observed during the control period. Decreased muscle activation was observed in the non-dominant GM [pre-mean (F1,17=14.301, P=.001), pre-peak (F1,17=9.490, P=.007), post-mean (F1,17=5.373, P=.033), and post-peak (F1,17=4.678, P=.045)]. Increased biceps femoris (BF) mean muscle activation was observed on the dominant leg pre-landing (F1,17=4.752, P=.044). Conclusions: Six weeks of GM training was enough time to observe improved neuromuscular efficiency of the GM. Increased BF muscle activation prior to landing suggests participants had an increased feedforward response in preparation for landing following training. Therefore, the combination of improved neuromuscular efficiency and a greater feedforward response suggest pelvic stabilization may be improved during a single-leg drop landing as a result of six weeks of GM training. This study suggests clinicians should incorporate bilateral GM exercises to improve lower extremity neuromuscular efficiency and feedforward responses which may improve pelvic stabilization. Key words: Electromyography, lower extremity injury, rehabilitation, neuromuscular efficiency, single-leg drop landing.
    • The Effects of Playing<br /> Surfaces on Landing<br /> Mechanics During A<br /> Jump Rebound-Landing<br /> Task

      Stankowski, Kayla (2012-10-22)
      CONTEXT: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are common among physically active people. Most ACL injuries occur from a noncontact mechanism such as landing from a jump. It is well known that neuromuscular risk factors, such as poor landing mechanics can increase the risk for ACL injury. However, it is unknown how playing surfaces affect landing mechanics. OBJECTIVE: Determine if landing on different athletic surfaces effects landing mechanics. DESIGN: Repeated measures design SETTING: Research Laboratory and Gymnasium PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-two healthy, physically active individuals (14 males, 18 females; age=20±2years; height= 172.1±9.7 cm and mass=71±14kg) were recruited to participate in this study. INTERVENTION: Independent variable was surface type, a wood basketball court and a volleyball sport court. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Landing mechanics, assessed by the LESS. A paired samples t-test was performed to compare the mean LESS scores on each surface within participants. RESULTS: No significant differences (P=0.22) were identified between the LESS scores on the wood basketball court (6±1) and the volleyball sport court surfaces (6±2) within each participant. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study demonstrated no differences in landing mechanics between a wood basketball court and a volleyball sport court surface as assessed by LESS scores. Clinicians and researchers should also take into consideration that shoes were not standardized between participants, which could alter results due to differences in shoe-surface interaction. Therefore future research should examine other athletic playing surfaces, including outdoor surfaces such as grass and artificial turf as well as standardize shoes worn by participants.
    • Validity of Instrument Assisted Soft Tissue Mobilization for Detecting Myofascial Adhesions through Secondary Diagnostic Ultrasound Analysis

      Silbaugh, Kaitlyn (2013-09-06)
      Context: many patients have pain and restricted motion due to myofascial adhesions. Clinicians use both manual and instrument assisted soft tissue mobilization (IASTM) techniques to treat myofascial adhesions. The main difference between manual therapies and IASTM is that IASTM claims that their instruments can accurately qualitatively detect myofascial adhesions through their resonance capability. However, the validity of this capability has yet to be researched. Objective: To determine the validity of using IASTM to detect myofascial adhesions through secondary diagnostic ultrasound analysis. Design: Correlational validity study. Setting: Athletic Training Laboratory. Patients or other participants: nineteen men (age = 22.4 ± 2.5) and eleven women (age = 21.2 ± 1.9). Data collection and analysis: From the thirty participants, one hundred adhesions were found and imaged. We calculated the percent level of agreement between the two rates, and then considered chance by using a κ coefficient to understand the relationship between the two rates of diagnostic us. Results: We identified an 83% level of agreement between raters. However, when chance was considered, we found a poor inter-rater reliability (κ= 0.344, p<0.001). Conclusions: There is moderate evidence that IASTM is successful in quantitatively detecting myofascial adhesions. Sources creating instrument resonance other than myofascial adhesions may include blood vessels or adipose nodules. Future investigation should further examine what specifically IASTM is detecting through its resonance, if not myofascial adhesions. Key words: instrument assisted soft tissue mobilization, Graston technique, diagnostic ultrasound, myofascia, fascial adhesions
    • Weight Loss Methods and Eating Disorder Risk Factors in Collegiate Wrestlers

      Rea, Jessica (2014-03-18)
      Purpose: The purpose of the study is to investigate the weight loss of collegiate wrestlers and assess their risk for eating disorders (ED). Methods: Wrestlers were recruited by contacting the athletic trainer (AT) at the institution they wrestled. ATs who agreed to participate were sent an electronic link containing a survey, 143 wrestlers provided usable data. The survey was created from two surveys one allows the athlete to describe his eating behaviors and the ATHLETE questionnaire which measures risk for ED. We analyzed the data using descriptive statistics and frequencies. Results: 76.6% of wrestlers indicated binge eating; eating behaviors are similar to those in previous literature including gradual dieting, restricting food/fluids, fasting, and exercise. Wrestlers in this study do not appear to be at risk for ED. Clinical applicability: Wrestlers display dangerous eating behaviors but are not at risk for ED. Key Words: Disordered eating, anorexia, bulimia, body image