• Acidic and Basic Destruction of Tissues

      Eaton, Cydney
      A coroner’s case I had learned about involved a man attempting to dispose of a body with acid. Shortly after exposure, the man was apprehended and the body was located. Upon investigation, police force determined the acid used to be hydrochloric acid, however, exact concentration remains unknown (Kohr, 2010). This led to the question of which easily accessible acid works best to degrade tissue. To answer this, an experiment was conducted involving pig feet and various concentrations of common acids and a single strong base. The feet were submerged in the solutions overnight and mass percent lost or gained was calculated. Analysis showed that hydrochloric acid did, in fact, destroy the tissue the most, but at its highest concentration. This proved our hypothesis of nitric acid degrading the tissues the most to be incorrect. The acid used by the perpetrator was most likely at a concentration between 6 and 12 M. More acid as well as a larger container would have proved him to be more successful.
    • American Culture’s Impact on Gender and The Perpetuation of a Gender Binary

      Blaho, Anna
      This thesis explores the origins of American culture’s fixation on gender being a dichotomous concept. Through the analysis of previous research surrounding the subject of gender roles, expectations, and stereotypes, contributors to this restrictive mind frame as well as reinforcing agents were recognized. Historical trends have demonstrated the assignment of clear and separate tasks to the genders, which in turn created differentiated experiences and opportunities presented to each gender. Facilitated by the historical basis, American culture emulated similar patterns that instilled inflexible conceptions about gender to the point where it has created a discriminate workplace environment. As a consequence of the culture, the American economy uses these gender ideals to increase revenue, disregarding of ethics. These factors combined produce negative effects on American citizens, regardless of how they identify. Comprehensively, the results have established that a rigid format of gender has the ability to limit the opportunities accessible to all genders.
    • Atalanta: The Exception to Social Normality Presented in the Ancient World

      Brink, Sean C (1847-02-15)
      This thesis is an analysis of two ancient authors: the Greek Apollodorus, and the Latin Ovid, and how they both handle the ancient views of societal gender roles. The two authors write more than one hundred years apart (the 2nd century BCE and the mid-1st century BCE - early 1st century CE respectively), yet the two of them write unique accounts of the myth of Ata-lanta. Atalanta is a heroine of Greek and Roman mythology, and is one of the few examples of strong women that survive to the present day. However, Apollodorus and Ovid portray a very different view of Atalanta (within The Library and The Metamorphoses respectively), and both of them reveal some interesting possibilities of how Atalanta may have been viewed by both an-cient men and women of Greece and Rome.
    • Benefits of Air Transportation vs Ground Transportation in the Medical Field

      Carpenter, Mackenzie
      The risks and benefits of air ambulance transportation is compared yearly to see if the benefits outweigh the risks for patients and healthcare workers. Lifeline, specifically, is the only flight service with no helicopter crashes. They have successfully stabilized and transported the patients to the best hospital where they receive life-saving care. The Indiana State Trauma Care Committee continues to collect data throughout the year to go over certain patient situations and how to better the outcomes or their overall performance. While both air and ground ambulance services are used to transport patients, the patients deemed most critical based on the scene, are flown to the respective hospital. Each of the specific transportation services, they are equipped with the proper tools and equipment to save the patient’s life when necessary. Overall, the statistics are being looked at to improve patient transfers and better the outcomes of survival rates. Physicians and other medical personnel are working to improve their skills and learn from each patient’s case.
    • Berry Exotic: Alternative Therapies

      Willimann, Marissa
      Exotic berries are beginning to be investigated for their preventative properties such as antioxidants, anti-inflammatory, and hypocholesterolaemic levels. Berries consisting of these factors have been shown to reduce the risk for cardiovascular complications, acute or chronic diseases and other metabolic disease processes. These natural remedies are used to create a more holistic approach to medicine. The question raised is if the natural antioxidants and anti-inflammatory properties that acaí, maqui, and blackthorn berries produce are more effective, less effective, or have no effect compared to medications that can be used. Research shows that reduction of glucose, total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein (LDL) from these berries have a positive effect on cardiovascular health, reduction of disease and reduction of risk for diabetes in overweight persons. After initial studies, the benefits prove to be worth using the acaí berry in moderation in addition to a healthy lifestyle. This paper will investigate the properties that make up exotic berries, such as the acaí berry, and their effects on specific body systems to determine the benefits of supplementation compared to other antioxidant rich berries and multivitamins.
    • Bridging the Gap of Age and Awkwardness: Improving Geriatric Sex Education

      Watson, Anne (2018-05)
      Improving geriatric sex education is not a common thought for many Americans, but with a quickly growing population it may soon become a common topic for discussion. Discomfort, awkwardness, and lack of communication often keep health care providers and physicians from discussing sexual health with their elderly patients. These limitations are significantly impairing physicians and health care providers from educating their patients about their sexual health and addressing any concern the patient might have about their sexuality. Sexual health in geriatrics is a growing concern among many health care fields today as the elderly are participating in risky sexual behaviors but are not using safe sex practices. After collecting research from 28 sources, I have concluded that there are many inadequacies that are preventing quality sexual health education for the elderly by examining the history of sex education, discussing the limitations and barriers of adequate sexual health education, and analyzing the training and education methods being used to improve this elderly sexual health education. There are many ways in which improvement for geriatric sexual health education can occur; from enhanced communication to quality training for geriatric health care providers; but in the end the overall change needed will have to come from our society as a whole. The geriatric population is the fastest growing population in today’s society and soon this population will have new needs and concerns that will have to be addressed by us and future generations.
    • The Censorship of Literature in American Secondary Level Public Schools and its Effect on Education

      Pax, Rose (2022-07-23)
      The implementation of censorship within the secondary level of education and its effects on students has not been fully examined. Thus, this thesis will first define what constitutes as censorship along with a focus on the First Amendment Rights of students, intellectual freedom, a book challenge versus a banning, and selection versus censorship. A brief history of censorship in relation to the secondary level of education will then be disclosed. This section will examine the censorship concerns from 1950-2020, the patterns established between the decades, and any substantial legal action. Next, the question as to why literature tends to be challenged will be addressed, i.e. who tends to challenge materials, their reasoning for doing so, the process of book challenges, and the impact challenges have on school systems. Additionally, the top five classic novels targeted for censorship will be disclosed to uncover common factors between censored literature. The impact of censorship on the education of students will then be explored in depth. Specifically, minor rights, the importance of student choice, the inequalities within education that censorship evokes, the value of diverse literature and alternative points of view, and the future repercussion that censorship leads to will be inspected. Lastly, how teachers can preserve the First Amendment Rights of students within the classroom and beyond will be examined.
    • Changes in the Ideal Body Type

      Hoffman, Jessica L.
      The human body comes in all shapes and sizes. Each different body shape allows onlookers to evaluate at least some aspects of the subject’s lifestyle and priorities. All eras choose a body type that they exalt above the rest. The goal of this research is to evaluate the considered ideal body type from three different eras in order to better understand these time periods and their values. A compilation of books and journal articles were used from the Cunningham Memorial Library Database, the library itself, and other personal libraries to better understand this topic. The most pertinent question was what Sparta, Medieval Europe, and the 1920’s in the United States considered to be the ideal body type. From here a comparison between the time periods and their values was needed to understand why these ideal body styles differ so greatly. Lastly, a record of events that happened during each reign was needed so understand the external factors acting upon the choosing of the body styles. These findings can be used to deeper understand history, sociology, body image, and reproduction.
    • Closets and TV Screens: LGBTQ Representation on Prime-Time Network Television in the 1990s

      Wortman, Will (2022-07-23)
      Throughout the 1990s, prime-time network television introduced a vast increase of LGBTQ representation to American programming. This new programming was a huge step for the visibility of the LGBTQ community in America. In this paper, I study the relevance of this sudden increase and its impact on American culture and the LGBTQ community. In my research, I studied the influence of LGBTQ representation in mainstream media and the treatment of LGBTQ identities in 1990s prime-time network programming. Additionally, I determined the general frequency of LGBTQ representation on the three main networks of the 1990s—ABC, CBS, and NBC—as well as the popularity of select television episodes featuring LGBTQ representation. I researched existing literature to determine the influence that LGBTQ representation holds and the state of LGBTQ representation on network television in the 1990s. Representation in mainstream media is significant as television has the ability to introduce people to new ideas they might not otherwise encounter. The depictions of identities and topics on television influence individuals’ world views. Additionally, LGBTQ representation was increasing throughout the 1990s, but that representation was not always positive or equitable. To determine the frequency of networks’ depictions of LGBTQ identities, I compared episodes featuring LGBTQ themes at their core to the total number of episodes in the programming up through the 1999-2000 television season. Generally, LGBTQ representation was pretty low and entirely absent from some programming. To determine the popularity of LGBTQ-themed programming, I studied Nielsen ratings of particular episodes and seasons. LGBTQ programming brought in audiences. Overall, representation of the LGBTQ community in the 1990s was increasing but not consistently positive.
    • The Community Benefits of Arts and Culture Nonprofit Organizations

      Middleton, Elise
      The main goal of this thesis is to identify and analyze some of the community benefits of arts and culture nonprofit organizations. Oftentimes, people view these organizations as entertaining but frivolous. In reality, these organizations are vital for a community, and they deserve more support. In this thesis, I will specifically focus on the economic, social, and therapeutic benefits of these organizations. In order to analyze this subject, I read and analyzed a variety of scholarly resources. After conducting research, it is evident that supporting and investing in the arts is a smart economic decision for any community. They generate a great deal of economic activity and benefit other local businesses. In addition, arts organizations attract businesses, residents, and visitors to a community, and they improve the quality of life in the area. Also, art has many therapeutic effects, and art therapy organizations help those with physical disabilities or emotional challenges to boost their confidence, build a support system, and cope with their emotions. All of these benefits have a great impact on the community, and could have a positive influence on education, business, and health fields in the area. Therefore, arts and culture nonprofit organizations are a powerful force in a community, and they require the support and investment of their communities.
    • Comparing and Contrasting the Benefits of Aquatic Exercise with Other Forms of Exercise for the Elderly Population

      Shew, Katie
      As humans age, there are certain biological processes that are unavoidable. However, there are also some biological processes that may be avoidable or slowed through a healthy lifestyle. The following is a list of some common problems that can occur with aging.1(
    • Comparison of Data Protection Laws in the United States vs. the European Union

      Decker, Trey
      Data protection legislation is an area that has become more talked about in the current times in the United States. With the advent of the secret documents leaked by former intelligence analyst Edward Snowden, and the quick-to-follow data breaches of two major corporations, potentially affecting around 160 million Americans, the time to discuss and understand this topic is now. The in-depth understanding of US data protection laws present significant issues therein. There lie holes and fissures, as a matter of speaking, the framework that results in the lack of user protection. How then can these holes be mended, and what are the proposed solutions? In order to resolve this case, this research first understands another framework by which to compare the current US framework. When compared to the US framework, which pieces appear to be missing from the US? By analyzing the results and research of law professionals, the discovery is that the US could benefit from a cohesive law, which would protect the fundamental right of citizens to have private data protection and the proper representation. Additionally, there needs to exist, in the least, one organization which holds authority over individuals who breach this right; the EU refers to these as Independent Supervisory Authorities (ISAs). The implications of these findings highlight the urgency to provide this fundamental right to US citizens. Where the right to privacy fails is to say that there is a fundamental right to have that right protected.
    • Concussions related to Football

      Stephen, Jerry
      Concussions are a major problem in football. They cause short and long term problems. Much is known about the causes of concussions in football, little is yet known about how to truly really decrease the amount of concussions and the effects a concussion really has on an individual, I propose to look at efforts being put in remaking helmets, physiological effects on the brain, and the long term behavioral and emotional effects of concussions. There is an ongoing research to solve the concussion in football. Scientists are learning about the physiological effects on the brain and the long term emotion changes due to a concussion. Studies have shown a football hit is just like a car crash. They are trying to get as close as possible to a concussion proof helmet. Athletic trainers are getting away from the grading scale and trying all concussions as severe.
    • Cost Structures in American Commercial Banks Under $10 Billion: Trend Analysis with Policy Considerations

      Stucker, Thomas (2021-12)
      Cost structures in the banking have historically been a point of study for economists, but many existing economies of scale studies use highly restricted samples. I compiled quarterly data from 2002-2020 from the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council’s Uniform Bank Performance Report to estimate the relationship between bank size (measured by total assets) and bank overhead (noninterest) expense for US banks under $10 billion in total assets. I included a continuous time trend as well as binary time variables for the 2008 recession period and the post-Dodd-Frank era in a multiple linear regression model. My estimation found statistically significant evidence for economies of scale in banking under asset levels of $1.45 billion, and that overhead costs trended downwards over time with exceptions during the recession and the Dodd-Frank era. Synthesizing these results with contemporary literature reveals how an understanding of bank cost structures can aid regulators in assessing the potential costs and benefits of new banking regulations.
    • COVID-19 Investigated in Terms of Disparities: An Analysis of the Past, Present, and Future of Public Health in Illinois

      DeBlock, Hannah (2020-12)
      As a relatively new topic, previous literature fails to address the relation of social determinants of health to COVID-19. By combining existing knowledge on previous epidemics, information on the role of social determinants of health, and data on COVID-19, conclusions can be made about the path going forward. Historically, nonpharmacologic interventions such as quarantine periods, face coverings, and social distancing have been used in epidemics such as the Spanish Influenza of 1918-19. In terms of social determinants of health, geographical location, educational level, and income level all play a part in the health of an individual. Rather than emphasizing personal decisions, health policy can be utilized to address social determinants of health and improve healthcare infrastructure across the country. By directing focus towards proactive, public healthcare rather than reactive, medical healthcare – a healthier society can be formed in a post-COVID world.
    • Creating Environmental Education for Children: Focusing on the Vigo County/Terre Haute Community

      Bilyeu, Jordanna
      This study is an attempt to create an action plan to improve environmental education for children within a community. It evaluates the reach and sophistication of this type of education that currently exists in the Vigo County/Terre Haute community, diagnoses weaknesses in the system, and finds ways to develop it. Data was collected through surveys given to elementary school teachers in Vigo County Public schools, interviewing community educators, making on-site visits to educational locations, online research, and speaking with political figures. Environmental education lacks sophistication in schools and can be improved through hands-on, sustainability standards and resources. Community sources outside of schools are limited to university organizations, city and county parks, and museums. The reach of these entities can be improved through advertisement, accessibility, and collaboration. Lastly, initiatives to change legislation can improve the reach and sophistication of environmental education through government-funded environmental programming.
    • Culture and Government in a Land of Conflict: An Analysis of Northern Ireland

      Starbuck, Emily
      The following thesis is an analysis of the rich and complex history of the state of Northern Ireland and its subsequent effects on government policy, cultural identification, and public opinion concerning the use of violence. I examined the historical precedents set into place which could explain the continued violence, political party orientation, and cultural evolution which is, even now, taking place as a result of the involvement of two very different populations. I provided evidence concerning current public opinion regarding the sectarian and paramilitary violence which plagued the state for hundreds of years and continues to occur, although much less frequently than in years past. Utilizing scholarly essays and reputable new sources, I have laid the foundation for a general analysis of the past few decades in the hopes of shedding more light on the currently shrouded present situation. It is my belief that, as a result of governmental cooperation, noteworthy but slight changes in cultural identification, and citizens who do not condone past, present, or future violence, there may well be a lasting peace in Northern Ireland.
    • Cyberpunk as an Evolution from Science-Fiction and its Social Critiques

      Svihla, William C. (2022-07-23)
      In this paper, I will take an investigative deep dive into all that is the literary genre of cyberpunk. I will touch on the origins and development of science-fiction, the genre that birthed cyberpunk, and how science-fiction led up to cyberpunk’s birth. I discuss the origins of cyberpunk and where and when it first entered the scene. The literary differences between the two genres. And the main areas of social critique that are focused on for each as well. For science-fiction’s areas of social critique, I discuss their ever-present use of the dangers of man’s hubris first made present in Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein and the ideas of reaction to the unknown that have changed drastically during the evolution of the genre. For cyberpunk’s areas of social critique, I analyze their portrayal of corporate/ capitalistic greed, the portrayal of gender roles, and the dangers of human nature. I conducted my research through assorted literature and media within the respective genres and literary reviews on the works I analyzed. I also used interviews with authors to get a better picture of the ideas that were meant to be conveyed by their works.
    • Determining the Optimal Healthcare System for America: Comparing the Current American and Universal Healthcare Systems

      Kandharkar, Tejas (2021-12)
      U.S. citizens ranked healthcare as the most important issue when it comes to voting (Zieff, 2020). The healthcare system’s importance is evident which is why it is important to determine what healthcare system is optimal for America. I used core indicators to compare the current American healthcare system and universal healthcare system and evaluated them for four key parameters. Based on my analysis, I conclusively determined that the universal healthcare system (Score: 8.23/10) is more optimal than the current American healthcare system (Score: 5.10/10). The American system had a somewhat better quality of care but the universal healthcare system was vastly better at limiting disparities in healthcare. I support research into further optimizing the universal healthcare system specifically for America to eventually adopt universal healthcare in the USA.
    • Disney’s Female Gender Roles: The Change of Modern Culture

      Barber, McKenzie
      Disney Animation and their films are a huge part of the entertainment industry in America. They influence and reach children through many avenues, not just with movies, but through clothing, games, and toys. Disney has been around for over 80 years, and during that time, they have played a role in how society displays gender roles. As modern culture goes through changes, Disney can also be seen making changes in the way they represent their characters, especially females. While looking specifically at Disney princesses, the depiction of females and their gender roles can be described in at least one of three ways. One, the original portrayal of Disney princesses is the stereotypical damsel-in-distress, and very domestic. This can be seen through Snow White, Cinderella, and Sleeping Beauty. A second portrayal arose and shifted the roles of female characters to be seen as rebellious and ambitious. This picture can be seen through the characters of Ariel, Mulan, and Rapunzel. Lastly, a final shift has taken place and the female characters are portrayed as independent and free spirited. This type of depiction can be seen through seen through Merida, Anna and Elsa. Through different researches and literature reviews, including the movies themselves, Disney can be seen slowly making strides along with the surrounding culture and changing times in America.