• No Child Left Behind: Fair and Equal Education

      Hayes, Dania
      Education is a big part of every American citizen’s life because by law, we are all required to attend school till at least the age of sixteen(Bush). Education is a way in which to get better jobs and better access within society. Within the United States, taxpayers are required to support education by funding the public school system. Education is knowledge. Knowledge is power and for all these reasons, No Child Left Behind should be of importance to every student capable of understanding it, every parent with school age children, and every new or old teacher. No Child Left Behind has raised many questions and issues. Educators, government officials, and scholars have been working since the start of the law to figure out the answers. There are many problems with No Child Left Behind. For one, the law requires all students to meet the same standards when realistically due to finances, resources, and disabilities all students cannot meet the same standards. It has also proven very hard for researchers to empirically test the performance of No Child Left Behind because prior to the law there were not many schools who had accountability standards like those and so there is nothing to test it against. Over the last ten years testing has gotten a little bit better but is still concentrated in elementary education and not secondary education. No Child Left Behind was a new, revolutionary education reform law that had the potential to produce good results through it’s good motives, but fell short because there was too much focus on only two subject areas, math and reading, standardized tests, and the accountability of teachers. There was not enough focus on the children and how the new plan may affect them.
    • Nutrition and the Effects on Student Behavior and Academic Performance in the Classroom

      Daniel, Kaitlin
      Nutrition, behavior, and academic performance; these three words have a few commonalities. They each can be related to children. They each can be related to school and they each can be related to issues in education. The following research has found intriguing statistics that are useful when investigating or planning a classroom climate. It has always been said that breakfast is the most important meal of the day. It jumpstarts the metabolism and awakens he body. Along with this it helps curb the appetite before lunch. An early addition to school nutrition was the availability of breakfast before school. This was a benefit for students because it created less of a gap for those who did not have food at home and those that did. Behavior can be a trying issue in the classroom. Students who struggle with behavior are students who need extra help. There are many reasons that a student may struggle with negative behavior but, working 8 hours on school work on an empty stomach does not help the matters any. Hunger does not help with brain functionality or behavior. The studies cited provide evidence that while hunger and unhealthy eating habits are not the sole reason behind poor behavior and negative academic performance it does not help the matter either. Studies showed that students who were hungry or did not have adequate nutrition struggled greater at focusing and on short term recall than those students who were well nourished. By completing a search and literature review there was an outstanding amount of data and statistics to base a sound outcome.
    • Outbreak: Emergency Room Overcrowding

      Sum, Mary Elizabeth
      A phenomenon referred to as emergency room (ER) overcrowding, which is defined as, “the demand for emergency services exceeds the ability of physicians and nurses to provide quality care within a reasonable time” (Sinclair, 2007), is happening around the world today. This problem causes much grief for the patients trying to receive quality care from the affected hospitals, and therefore hospitals are looking for any solution to solve this problem. The research was conducted by a literary review by utilizing the CINAHL and the Nursing and Allied Health Collection database. It was conducted to discover any evidence of ER overcrowding, the causes of this issue plaguing hospitals all over the globe, and finally to see if other researchers have identified any solutions to solve ER overcrowding. Overall, it was discovered that the solution is not uniform for all hospitals experiencing ER overcrowding. It will take special analysis of the hospitals individually.
    • The Past, Present and Future of the English Language: How Has the English Language Changed and What Effects Are Going to Come as a Result of Texting?

      Tuttle, E. Carlene
      This paper outlines a brief historical synopsis of both language in general and the English language to set up a common knowledge baseline for the reader to understand references made regarding historical events. Next, the paper goes through common practices seen today within the realm of text messages, textisms, text speak, and the lingo used within these practices. Common practices within the technology based language and standardized English are analyzed to compare and contrast the two forms and to help answer the question of whether or not technology is harming the English language and its practices. Findings provide evidence that there are indeed similarities between the two forms and that there is a strong relation between informal spoken language and text speak. The final portion of the paper is devoted to the future of the language and how the language is developing. Interestingly enough, many of the practices used within text speak currently are very similar to that of ancient practices. There is also a look into academia along with looking at if and how the use of technology and the lingo that comes with it is affecting students and their literacy abilities. Results were varied and researchers found a hard time coming to a consensus but there were significant negative correlations along with positive correlations.
    • The Persistent Issue of Fraud in the Public Housing Sector across the United States

      Montague, Samantha
      The public housing sector and the idea of providing those who need assistance with housing has been around since President Ronald Reagan’s days and even before that, with the New York Housing Act of 1879 (Martens, 2009), when industrial workers faced wretched housing conditions. Public housing in this nation has grown from just being provided for industrial workers and their families in major cities, such as New York and Chicago, to what it is today. Today, public housing is present all across the nation and is found in every state from Indiana to Maryland to California, Florida, Oklahoma, all over. Public housing can be available in very large cities and in smaller towns.
    • The Physiological Effects and Projected Outcomes of Urbanization and Pollution on Reptiles

      Lockman, Dale Rodney
      Research regarding urbanization and its relationship with population fluctuations and physiological responses in animals has been assessed through a multitude of studies involving stress hormone changes, white blood cell counts and other physical and behavioral changes. The scope of this paper emphasizes the explanation of urbanization, the physiological and anatomical impact it has made on reptiles, and the projected outcomes urbanization will have in the future. Some questions are brought up in this paper to serve as a basic overview of what will be learned about urbanization and pollution. In order to provide background information, my research has been conducted and many studies were summarized. Even though there have been studies done that provide an overview for this topic, there should be future research conducted to determine exact ways urbanization can be limited to help protect the class of reptiles, along with all living organisms, from the harmful effects of urbanization and pollution.
    • Prenatal Genetic Testing: An overview of history, advancements, and impacts on health care

      Neumann, Jessica
      The purpose of this research is to study prenatal genetic testing and the advancements that have been made since the human genome project has made the testing process simpler and less invasive. Prenatal genetic testing is a screen or a test that is performed in order to determine if an embryo or fetus has a certain disease or condition before its birth. A variety of different prenatal tests and screens have been studied to evaluate what genetic conditions are screened for and when. The scope of this paper focuses on the historical overview, advancements, patients, tests, and impacts related to prenatal genetic testing. Some questions are presented in the beginning of this paper in order to fully describe and understand prenatal genetic testing and the benefits and issues relating to it. Conclusion: Prenatal genetic testing and screening is available for many diseases, but the typical test screens for only a select number of diseases and conditions.
    • Pursuing Legislative Authority for Clinical Social Workers to Provide Private Independent Mental Health Services: What is the Status and What are the Issues?

      Blower, Caroline
      The scope of clinical social work practice differs among the various US states as defined by legislative codes. Understanding these differences is challenging because legislative codes are difficult to read, sometimes requires advanced knowledge to interpret, or do not provide the sufficient breadth and/or depth of information to enable a full understanding of practice limits. The study utilized an electronic survey and asked social workers throughout the US five questions about providing private independent mental health services. These questions addressed the ability of licensed clinical social workers (LCSWs) to (1) provide diagnosis, (2) create treatment plans, (3) bill third party insurance, (4) bill Medicaid, and (5) bill Medicare. Results indicated that LCSWs in at least 32 states reported ability to provide all five services independently and privately; 17 states whose respondents reported conflictual or uncertain ability to provide one or more of the services; and two states whose respondents reported inability to provide one or more of the services. Fortunately, respondents from no states reported inability to provide all the services. The conflictual or uncertain responses likely arise from complications or restrictions in scope of practice in some states and in understanding evolving definitions of private and independent practice.
    • Rising Readmission Rates: A national issue

      Anderson, Elaine
      Recently there has been a rise in hospital readmission rates. As a result of this increase in readmissions, the Affordable Healthcare Act (ACA) was implemented to assist in reducing hospital readmissions. This was done by penalizing hospitals for readmissions associated with the Medicare population. Prior to this research, the effect of this legislation on the readmission rate was unknown. Additionally, the different aspects or factors that contributed to an individual’s risk for being readmitted were unclear. Also it was uncertain how a high verses low nurse-to-patient ratio would affect patient outcomes and the readmission rate. Finally, the effects of being hospitalized on the patient were unknown. Both subjective and objective data were evaluated for this research. After extensive research it was found that the readmission rate was declining slightly, but it was still unclear whether the ACA was the cause for this decline. Additionally, it was uncovered that the main factors that contributed to being readmitted included: age, disease, literacy barriers, community support, medication and quality of care. Furthermore, high nurse-to-patient ratios contributed to an increase in a hospital’s readmission rate as a result of a decrease in the quality of care given by the nurse. Finally it was concluded that patients that experience high stress levels are at a greater risk for being readmitted and post invasive care syndrome often occurs post-discharge. In order to prevent readmission it is necessary to collaborate with other health professions to meet the unique needs of each patient.
    • The Role of Mentoring Programs

      Haack, Ashley
      The prevention of delinquency and rehabilitation of delinquent youth has been discussed, researched, and attempted over and over again, yet more and more youth seem to be entering the justice system or returning to it. This study aims to look at prevention and rehabilitation using a different lens, the lens of social connection. In my research, I have found that positive social connection is not only helpful in the development of individuals, but is also a crucial part of one’s identity and one’s future. In order to not only hypothesize, but also to apply these findings, I also researched mentoring programs and the impact they can have on the prevention of and rehabilitation from delinquency when quality relationships are built. I found that mentoring programs may be a beneficial starting place and have improved academic performance and self-confidence and moderately reduced deviant behavior such as drug use and crime. However, research also indicates that mentoring programs are only slightly helpful overall, and that changes and improvements may need to happen in order for mentoring programs to have a stronger, more lasting impact.
    • The Role of Technology in Elementary Schools How has technology taken over?

      Kersey, Alyssa
      Starting in kindergarten, at the age of five, children are beginning to learn with technological gadgets such as iPads and computers. Society today continuously brings technology into as many aspects of life as possible, even in the elementary schools. Educators need to be aware of this rapidly changing culture to keep up with the times as well as their students. Teachers can integrate this technology into their curriculum to help enhance and differentiate learning for their students. Methodologies used in conducting research on this topic consisted of online journals, books, and a survey written up and handed out to actual elementary aged students from ages nine to twelve. The surveys were conducted at a local school in Terre Haute, Indiana with the Title I label. One hundred students completed the surveys for real life feedback of their own technological usage at home and what resources are available to the students in the community. The goal of the conducted research was to determine whether or not the amount of technology in the elementary school classroom benefited the students learning. While gathering data and collecting information, the results all pointed to the success of student learning with hi-tech equipment. Advanced levels of technology used in the classroom correlates to the student success rate along with how successful the child will be. Teachers use laptops and iPads with applications to teach and have their students submit work. However, not all communities have the funds to afford these whimsical tools for their students. The school corporations with higher poverty rates along with the children living in the district are deprived the access of new technology. Educators continuously need to find new and improved ways to incorporate technology into their curriculum to keep their students up with the rest of the nation. Research shows that students with the access to more technology have a higher success rate.
    • Therapeutic Exercises: A Conservative Approach To The Treatment Of Chronic Low Back Pain

      England, Austin
      Chronic low back pain is becoming a worldwide epidemic; millions suffer from this condition every year. Back pain is one of the most frequent reasons cited for patient visits every year. It is the second most reason for days of missed work following the flu. Chronic low back pain is defined as pain persisting in the low back region for greater than three months. This pain may originate from a variety of factors. These factors can include, but are not limited to injury, disease, or different stressors on the body. Pain in the low back region may be felt as sharp, dull, achy, burning, specific, or vague. Due to the complex nature of chronic low back pain and the variety of forms in which it can take place there are a variety of different tools used to diagnose it. Research has determined the best ways to diagnose chronic low back pain, but has still not found the best way to treat chronic low back pain. This literature review will analyze one treatment form for chronic low back pain, therapeutic exercises. The following text states that therapeutic exercises are an effective conservative treatment option for chronic low back pain. The most effective therapeutic exercise approach is one that incorporates exercises from several different methods into the rehabilitation plan.
    • Thyroid Disorders

      Myers, Amanda
      Thyroid disorders are highly prevalent worldwide. In order to obtain a better understanding of these disorders research was done by analyzing current data and scholarly literature. Questions answered by this research comprise different aspects of thyroid disorders and their affects. What types of thyroid disorders exist? How do they affect the body and how detrimental are they when left untreated? How do these disorders affect the daily living of the individuals affected? And how are third world populations affected by these disorders? Research suggests that over 750 million people worldwide suffer from a thyroid disorder. These disorders have detrimental effects on the body’s functions and metabolism. When the human thyroid is interrupted a host of symptoms can occur. These symptoms make activities of daily living a challenge. Several treatments are available, the most common being supplementation of synthetic thyroid hormone. Research shows that countries in Africa suffer from a high prevalence of iodine deficiencies. Many of these deficiencies are left untreated and lead to premature death. The most cost effective treatment is supplementation of iodine in the daily diet of the populations through iodized salt. This supplementation could decrease the prevalence of these deficiencies if implemented. This thesis will investigate the causes, distribution and treatment of thyroid disorders.
    • Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement: A New Method for the Treatment of Aortic Valve Disease

      Sluyter, Erin E.
      As heart complications increase among the elderly population, transcatheter aortic valve replacement is a new procedure that can treat many aortic stenosis and congestive heart failure patients. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement is a common medical procedure across Europe; this investigates the possibility of the procedure’s adoption as common practice in the United States. Several factors have been identified as key components for adapting to this procedure. Medical institutions must update their catheterization labs and operating rooms as well as train all surgical staff members on the transcatheter valve technology and standard procedures. Intensive care unit and surgical recovery staff must also be adequately prepared to care for patients who undergo transcatheter aortic valve replacement. These changes by medical facilities could potentially allow a great expansion in the number and type of patients the facility is able to treat. Furthermore, patients who are eligible to undergo this surgery are shown to benefit in their post-surgery recovery time and in their overall health. Based on extensive research, medical professionals should be considering adoption of transcatheter aortic valve replacement as a common method for treatment of aortic valve disease.
    • Transitioning Towards Inclusion: The Quest for Equality at the Collegiate Level

      Patterson, Kade Joseph Lee
      The research inquires into the reception that members of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community receive in general, especially transgender people in particular. Different scholars and researchers have pointed out that the states have not legislated adequately or have entirely failed to legislate protection for the rights of transgender people. Other scholars have equally pointed out that there is segregation and discrimination against transgender people at the collegiate level. The research reviews the findings of various scholars who have conducted surveys on the topic. The next standard of the research is a practical investigation done on various respondents to verify the veracity in the previous findings. The general result and outcome of the investigation points towards the same direction as those other researchers have previously. The results are that there is a public hatred and vast discrimination against the transgender population. The survey concludes by providing some recommendations that will eradicate discrimination against people who identify as transgender. Some of the recommendations provided include a departure from focusing on identity towards putting an emphasis on equality and proper monitoring mechanisms that will ensure the laws protecting transgender people are performed verbatim seriatim.
    • Turnover in Public Accounting and its Effects on the Industry

      Gentry, Ashley
      There is a large turnover of employees in the public accounting firms in the United States. This research paper looks at the demographics of the employees that are leaving public accounting and what factors are causing them to leave the industry. It also looks at what kind of an effect this turnover has on the accounting industry. Research was gathered by reading past studies that have been done on this topic, as well as recent articles that have been published by credible sources. The demographics of the employees that are leaving are senior or management level and mostly women. Some of the factors that are causing employees to leave public accounting are the job description, the separation of goals between the firm and the employee, the work place culture, other career opportunities, the lack of work life flexibility, and overall stress and burnout of the job. This is having an effect on the accounting industry by causing a lack of diversity in the firms, as well as causing the firms to have to make policy changes in order to better retain their employees. This is an important study because the turnover rates in the accounting industry only continue to increase and accounting firms need to do something about it in their organizations.
    • The United States and Canadian System of Healthcare: A Comparative Study

      Akinlaja, Mopelola O.
      There is a lot to be said about the world of healthcare. The significance of the role our health plays in our lives cannot be overemphasized. The idea of this paper is to explore two of the largest and functional healthcare systems in the world. The purpose of this is because of some key differences between the systems of healthcare that are very important as they relate to the accessibility and availability of healthcare and also the quality of care that is received. The two countries being compared in this paper are the United States and Canada. These countries utilize systems of healthcare that were founded on similar principles, but that have diverged over time. The major conversation going on around the world is the fact that healthcare system in the United States needs some major adjustments. On this premise, I decided to investigate and conduct a comparative study between these two systems of healthcare. I am comparing these systems using three major criteria; the cost, the quality and the amount of funding and research these countries are involved in. After some research was conducted on my part, I came to the conclusions that healthcare is more expensive in the United States than in Canada, the quality of care produced in the United States is not necessarily better than in Canada but the United States is more advanced in technology and research and finally that the United States should consider adjusting their method of approaching healthcare to make it available to the entire population.