Recent Submissions

  • TEACHER INVOLVEMENT IN IMPLEMENTING STATE PERSONAL FINANCE MANDATES

    Franklin, Deanna M. (Indiana State University, 2015-05)
    This study examined strategies teachers are implementing for personal finance instruction in answer to the state financial-literacy mandates in Central Texas. One-on-one interviews, focus groups, and document analysis found that teachers are relying on personal experience, community resources, and Internet resources to instruct in personal finance in absence of personal finance curricula. No data emerged that school districts were providing resources; however, administrators are willing to provide resources if they were available. Teachers are using a variety of creative methods to enhance personal financial literacy in the classroom. Sporadic in-service/professional-development opportunities were available to train teachers in personal financial-literacy instruction; however, many teachers opted not to participate in those events, selecting to depend on their own personal experiences as background. Data from this study also found that there was no evidence of teachers being involved in the curriculum-change process for personal financial-literacy education.
  • FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO THE ACADEMIC SUCCESS OF LOW-SES STUDENTS

    Daanen, Lynn Kathryn (Indiana State University, 2015-05)
    The purpose of this study was to identify factors that may contribute to the success of some students of poverty to complete high school through graduation. The research examined if positive teacher–student relationship behaviors, the use of learning strategies, school locality or enrollment, years of experience as a principal, and years of teaching prior to becoming a principal had an impact on the non-waivered graduation rate of some Indiana poverty high schools. The study tested for a statistically significant difference between graduation rates or types of school locales on the relationship score and the learning style score. The study also examined if years teaching prior to holding an administrative position, gender of principal, enrollment size of the school, and years as principal might account for a significant proportion of the variance in the relationship score or the learning strategies score. The study’s results showed the participants’ current enrollment and years teaching prior to holding an administration position served as predictors of the learning strategies score. There was no significant difference between graduation rates or types of school locales on the relationship score or the learning style score. The participants’ years in current position, gender, and school location did not serve as predictors of the relationships score or the learning strategies score. The current enrollment of the participants’ schools and years teaching prior to administration did not serve as predictors of the learning strategies score.
  • A QUALITATIVE HISTORIOGRAPHICAL CASE STUDY OF THE EDUCATIVE PROPERTIES OF EUGENE V. DEBS AND JOHN DEWEY: 21st CENTURY IMPLICATIONS FOR EDUCATION

    Countermine, Bradley (Indiana State University, 2015-05)
    This study aimed to shed light on the current state of educational reform rhetoric through an analysis of previous attempts to shape public education for the benefit of all. Analyzing Eugene V. Debs’s and John Dewey’s views on democracy and education during the Progressive Era promotes a version and vision of education that inspires people to think critically, to navigate contemporary society, and to acknowledge current issues within public education and United States society at large. Because education both reflects society and has the power to transform it, the struggle for fair, equitable, and enlightening education is paramount to the success of future generations within any society. By linking Progressive Era educational reform rhetoric to issues prevalent in United States educational reform today, I illustrate the consistencies between both periods and the underlying fundamental social, economic, and political issues shaping both educational and societal reform in the 21st century. Further research can focus on intervening historical variables especially as they contribute toward the motivation behind the current corporate educational reform movement and the push toward privatization at the expense of public schools created to make education the great equalizer.
  • DETERMINING THE INFLUENCE OF THE NETWORK TIME PROTOCOL (NTP) ON THE DOMAIN NAME SERVICE SECURITY EXTENSION (DNSSEC) PROTOCOL

    Cold, Sherman J. (Indiana State University, 2015-04)
    Recent hacking events against Sony Entertainment, Target, Home Depot, and bank Automated Teller Machines (ATMs) fosters a growing perception that the Internet is an insecure environment. While Internet Privacy Concerns (IPCs) continue to grow out of a general concern for personal privacy, the availability of inexpensive Internet-capable mobile devices increases the Internet of Things (IoT), a network of everyday items embedded with the ability to connect and exchange data. Domain Name Services (DNS) has been integral part of the Internet for name resolution since the beginning. Domain Name Services has several documented vulnerabilities; for example, cache poisoning. The solution adopted by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) to strengthen DNS is DNS Security Extensions (DNSSEC). DNS Security Extensions uses support for cryptographically signed name resolution responses. The cryptography used by DNSSEC is the Public Key Infrastructure (PKI). Some researchers have suggested that the time stamp used in the public certificate of the name resolution response influences DNSSEC vulnerability to a Man-in-the-Middle (MiTM) attack. This quantitative study determined the efficacy of using the default relative Unix epoch time stamp versus an absolute time stamp provided by the Network Time Protocol (NTP). Both a two-proportion test and Fisher’s exact test were used on a large sample size to show that there is a statistically significant better performance in security behavior when using NTP absolute time instead of the traditional relative Unix epoch time with DNSSEC.
  • THE PERFORMANCE OF LEADERSHIP: ALL THE SCHOOL’S A STAGE AND THE TEACHERS AND STUDENTS ARE MERELY PLAYERS

    Fenton, Christi Anne (Indiana State University, 2015-05)
    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to identify and better understand the performance qualities that are prevalent in successful principals. Specifically, acting and leadership tools previously identified and compared by Dunklee (2000) were used to gain a better understanding of the interview process utilized to hire K-12 principals in school districts with more than 10,000 students in the state of Indiana. Arguably, the roles of the principal are much like those of an actor who must think on his or her feet in multiple situations. It is hoped that this study contributes new knowledge to assist in the selection process of principals and help in developing an interview framework to use in identifying and hiring the most effective principals by acknowledging and capitalizing on performance qualities. The following research questions framed the interviews with practicing hiring managers: 1. In what ways does acting like an effective school principal, as understood through performance qualities, result in being an effective principal? 2. What performance qualities do hiring managers perceive their successful principals utilize? A case study methodology was selected to take a more in depth look into the hiring process in five large urban school systems in Indiana. A variety of demographic data were collected about the individual school systems, with a key focus on the interview process and desirable attributes for hiring principals. The major themes and subthemes were also identified. Primary themes include the following: (a) Hiring protocols are not focused on performance qualities, (b) Performance qualities were predetermined to inform the interview process, and, (c) Districts supported professional development for both aspiring and practicing principals. The primary theme of hiring protocols included the subthemes of (a) The use of a cattlecall approach (i.e., mass interviewing) in the interview process are consistent in all districts included in the study, (b) The practice of hiring internal candidates is a prevalent practice, and (c) Current interview rubrics and questions to identify effective principals. The primary theme of nine performance qualities were maintained as subthemes in this category and later reduced in number. The primary theme of training for aspiring and practicing principals led to the subthemes of (a) Internal and (b) External use of those professional development practices.
  • MEASURING SCHOOL ACCOUNTABILITY: PERCEPTIONS FROM TEACHERS, PRINCIPALS, AND SUPERINTENDENTS

    Bush, Keith Thomas (Indiana State University, 2015-05)
    The purpose of this study was to identify the multiple factors that are utilized by accountability models and to identify the perceptions of Indiana educators in regard to what these professional educators believe should be utilized to assess school accountability. No Child Left Behind and the Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) accountability model frameworks have had an impact on all public schools in the United States. Under AYP, high stakes testing results are utilized to provide acknowledgement to schools that meet pre-established thresholds, as well as to provide consequences for schools that fail to meet these requirements. This study is significant because it measures the perceptions of educators in what variables they believe should be utilized to determine whether or not schools meet specific accountability thresholds. Potential reliability issues that are correlated to specific accountability models can be identified through the analysis of the composite score differences between the different accountability variables. Descriptive statistics, one-way ANOVAs, and a simple multiple regression were used to analyze and disseminate the data collected for this study. This study was conducted by administering an electronic survey to all public school K-12 teachers, principals, and superintendents throughout Indiana. A 17-item accountability perception survey was created to quantitatively measure the opinions and perceptions of teachers, principals, and superintendents as to the variables used measure school accountability. A total of 746 educators submitted responses to the Perception of Variables Utilized to Effectively Measure School Accountability Survey. Statistical analysis of the data included descriptive analysis for selected items as well as inferential analysis that included one-way ANOVAs and a simple multiple regression. The composite score was tabulated from the survey to determine if significant differences existed among dependent variables that included position type, locality, socioeconomic level, and school letter grade received from the Indiana Department of Education. By collecting the responses of teachers, principals, and superintendents, a composite score was determined as to the perceptions of the variables utilized to measure school accountability. A one-way ANOVA found a statistically significant difference among the composite scores when separated by position type. The teacher composite mean scores were significantly lower than the principal and superintendent composite scores. A one-way ANOVA found no statistically significant differences between locality (urban, suburban, rural), socio-economic level (0%–33%, 34%–67%, 68%–100%), or school letter grade received by the Indiana Department of Education (A, B, C, D or F) and the accountability variable composite scores. A multiple regression analysis determined that demographic factors (locality, number of years at current building, socioeconomic status, school size, Indiana A–F letter grade) do not serve as significant predictors of the composite scores for principals.
  • THE ECOLOGY, BIOGEOCHEMISTRY AND PHYLOGENY OF METHANE SEEP AND NON-SEEP BENTHIC FORAMINIFERA FROM THE PACIFIC MARGIN

    Burkett, Ashley M. (Indiana State University, 2015-05)
    In an effort to understand the relationships between active methane seep and adjacent non-seep (inactive) populations of the deep-sea foraminifera Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi, a common paleo-indicator species, from methane seeps in the Pacific were analyzed and compared to one another for genetic similarities of small subunit rDNA (SSU rDNA) sequences. Pacific Ocean C. wuellerstorfi were also compared to those collected from other localities around the world (based on 18S gene available on Genbank, e.g., Schweizer et al., 2009). Results from this study revealed that C. wuellerstorfi living in seeps near Costa Rica and Hydrate Ridge are genetically similar to one another at the species level. Individuals collected from the same location that display opposite coiling directions (dextral and sinistral) had no species level genetic differences. Comparisons of specimens with genetic information available from Genbank (SSU rDNA) showed that Pacific individuals, collected for this study, are genetically similar to those previously analyzed from the North Atlantic and Antarctic. These observations provide strong evidence for the true cosmopolitan nature of C. wuellerstorfi and highlight the importance of understanding how these microscopic organisms are able to maintain sufficient genetic exchange to remain within the same species between seep and nonseep habitats and over global distances. Although organic matter degradation rates have been studied for some time, in situ rates of protoplasm degradation in deep-sea foraminiferal tests have been estimated based on laboratory experiments and sediment distribution patterns. Information regarding degradation rates of foraminiferal protoplasm is essential in the use of non-vital stains in identifying the amount and character of protoplasm in tests which remains the most commonly used method to assess living populations of benthic foraminifera (e.g., Murray and Bowser, 2000). In an effort to examine the retention potential of foraminiferal protoplasm on the deep seafloor 36 frozen, protoplasm filled Cibicidoides wuelllerstorfi were placed in natural sediments inside experimental containers and deployed on for 390 to 396 days. Despite oxygen-poor conditions (0.24 mL/L to 0.37 mL/L) that would be expected to promote preservation of organic matter, and experimental container protection from macro- and megafauna, 72% of deployed tests containing protoplasm were destroyed beyond recognition within 396 days. Of the 10 specimens (28%) recovered, 9 retained at least some protoplasm, but only 1 individual had the potential to be identified as living based on Rose Bengal staining techniques. However, in this specimen, protoplasm was clearly altered or missing in some chambers. The results of this study suggest that it is unlikely that many, if any, benthic foraminiferal specimens containing protoplasm terminated by freezing would be conservatively considered as recently living using Rose Bengal as an indicator of the extent and character of protoplasm within the test after 396 days or less exposed to in situ conditions in deep-seafloor habitats. After 390 to 396 days on the seafloor at Hydrate Ridge in the Pacific, eight artificial substrate experiments (hereafter referred to as SEA3 for Seafloor Epibenthic Attachment Cubes) were colonized by 1058 Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi. The presence of this species has been inferred as an indicator of well-oxygenated conditions, and recruitment of such large numbers in bottom-waters with low dissolved oxygen availability (0.24 to 0.37 mL/L) indicates that this taxon is not as limited by oxygen as previously thought. Clues about substrate preferences were also evident from the distribution of individuals on SEA3. For example, the wooden rod attached directly to the plastic mesh that was heavily colonized was devoid of any epibenthic foraminifera. Few studies have examined foraminiferal colonization of hard substrates in the deep-sea (e.g., Mullineaux, 1987), and to our knowledge no previous study has compared foraminiferal colonization of seep with non-seep substrates. Comparisons of abundance, size distribution, and isotopic biogeochemistry of living foraminifera colonizing experimental substrates revealed differences between seep and non-seep environments. SEA3 within active methane seep habitats at Hydrate Ridge contained significantly fewer (406 on four SEA3s a density of 44 #individuals/100 cm2) individuals compared with those in adjacent off-seep sites (594 on three SEA3s a density of 86 #individuals/100 cm2). An additional 58 individuals were on a SEA3 22, which may have experienced seep conditions despite being deployed as a nonseep experiment (density of 25 #individuals/100 cm2). This difference in abundance may be due to active seepage conditions, however, reduced foraminiferal abundances on SEA3s located at seeps resulted from increased predation and displacement by higher abundances of macro- and meiofauna observed at active seep locations. Stable carbon isotope values of benthic foraminifera from seep substrates ranged from 0.26‰ to -0.56‰ with an average of 0.03‰ while δ13C from off-seep substrates range from 0.39‰ to -0.26‰ with an average of 0.15‰. Statistical analyses indicate a significant difference between seep and non-seep δ13C. Stable oxygen isotopes of foraminiferal carbonate from seep substrates range from 2.70‰ to 2.03‰ with an average of 2.41‰ and 2.65‰ to 1.99‰ with an average of 2.39‰ at adjacent off-seep sites. These results provide some of the first information about epifaunal foraminiferal colonization potential at methane seeps and highlight the biogeochemical and ecological influences of seep habitats on C. wuellerstorfi.
  • GENERIC ORGANIZATIONAL STRATEGY INTEGRATION IMPACTS ON PROFIT MARGIN RATIO AND INVENTORY TURNOVER IN PUBLICALLY TRADED OKLAHOMA MANUFACTURING ORGANIZATIONS

    Bell, Christopher (Indiana State University, 2015-05)
    This study sought to determine if and to what extent strategy integration was related to the financial indicators profit margin ratio and inventory turnover for publically traded manufacturing organizations in Oklahoma. Current strategy theory states that the more thoroughly an organization adopts a given strategy the greater the effect will be on these financial indicators. Hence the need to more fully understand the extent and rates at which strategy integration effects these indicators. This study looked at perceived strategy integration scores for publically traded Oklahoma manufacturing organizations taken from June to August 2014 and financial indicators from 2012 and 2013. The perceived strategy integration scores were obtained via survey while the financial indicators were calculated using Section 10-K filings from the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (US SEC or SEC). Reliable financial information is not publically available for many private organizations, so, they were excluded from the study. Summary analysis of the data indicated that strategies were not in use in equal proportions with Niche Differentiation being most popular by far. Market focus appeared to be an indicator of inventory turnover standard deviation with Broad focus and Combination strategy groups having lower standard deviation. While the product focus appeared to indicate profit margin ratio range with Low Cost strategies having lower profit margins. After performing additional analysis it was found that performance enhancing technologies and other complicating factors may have had a larger impact than previously believed. A correlation was unable to be established for most strategies. For the Niche Low Cost Strategy a relationship was found where profit margins decreased 1.634% for each 1 point increase in perceived strategy integration score. It was also found that the Broad Differentiation Strategy it was found that inventory turns increased 0.7006 turns for every 1 point increase in perceived strategy integration score. No other strategies were found to have correlation coefficients that were statistically different from the null hypothesis. However, anecdotal evidence was found in support of several other of Porter’s theories.
  • A MODEL OF PACKET LOSS CAUSED BY INTERFERENCE BETWEEN THE BLUETOOTH LOW ENERGY COMPONENT OF AN IOS WEARABLE BODY AREA NETWORK AND RESIDENTIAL MICROWAVE OVENS

    Barge, William C. (Indiana State University, 2015-05)
    Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in the United States. Advances in wireless technology have made possible the remote monitoring of a patient’s heart sensors as part of a body area network. Previous studies have suggested that stray wireless transmissions in the industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) band cause interference resulting in packet loss in Bluetooth piconets. This study investigates the impact that wireless transmissions from residential microwave ovens have on the Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) component of the body area network. Using a systematic data collection approach, two variables were manipulated. The distance between the microwave oven and the BLE piconet was varied from 0.5 meter to 5.0 meters at one-half meter increments. At each distance, the power level of the microwave oven was varied from the lowest power setting to the highest power setting. The two variables that were collected were the microwave interference generated by channel and the packet loss by channel. The results suggest more packet loss is due to the microwave oven’s power level than by the distance, the interference caused by the microwave oven affects all BLE channels equally, and the packet loss by channel is a good predictor of microwave oven interference. The significance of this study lies in providing beneficial information to the medical and digital communication industries concerning the causes and solutions to disruptions in the Bluetooth-enabled body area network devices in a very common situation. The results of this study may lend support for improvements and widespread use of body area network medical systems, which may have the benefit of better monitoring, more data, and reduced fatalities due to misdiagnosed heart conditions.
  • THE EXPERIENCES OF AFRICAN-BORN WOMEN FACULTY AND ADMINISTRATORS AT COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES IN THE UNITED STATES

    Afoaku, Oyibo H. (Indiana State University, 2015-05)
    The purpose of this study was to document the experiences of African-born women faculty and administrators at colleges and universities in the United States. The study explored the factors that motivated African-born women to immigrate to and extend their stay in the United States beyond completion of their education; factors they perceive as constraint on their quest for self-empowerment and identity as foreign students, college instructors, and/or administrators, and parents; and factors that have enabled them to adapt to their host culture and achieve their educational and professional goals even though they had to contend with multiple challenges associated with living in America as Black women. Eight women who are currently or previously serving as faculty or administrators were interviewed for this study. Participants were originally from Benin, Cameroun, Congo, Ghana, Mali, Nigeria, and Tanzania. Six of them were faculty and three were administrators. Ten themes emerged from the study: family-centered cultural orientation, multicultural perspectives, dealing with transition and culture shock, preservation of cultural heritage, American higher education culture, American higher education structure, American higher education curriculum, American higher education policy, limited leadership opportunity for African-born women, and alumni loyalty. The participants expressed reservations about the status quo and want to see significant improvement in diversity policy and practices on their respective campuses that will yield substantive outcomes for all stake holders, including foreign students, foreign-born faculty and administrators. The study concluded by recommending inclusive dialogue and communication, comprehensive policy process; broad leadership structure, and wide-ranging mentoring programs as steps that can enhance the experiences of African born faculty and administrators at colleges and universities in the United States.
  • MALE FEMINISTS: OXYMORON OR THE NEXT STEP? AN EXPLORATION OF ATTITUDES ASSOCIATED WITH MALE FEMINISTS

    Slowik, Abigail K. (Indiana State University, 2015-08)
    Although many studies have examined attitudes toward feminism and feminists, very few have been devoted to the study of attitudes toward male feminists. The existing body of literature has shown mixed results; with feminist men being rated more positively in some regards, and more negative in others. In the current study, Social Identity Theory (Tajfel & Turner, 2004) is used as a framework for understanding factors associated with attitudes towards male feminists, male feminist identification, and gender-self-esteem. Attitudes associated with male feminists were examined in a sample of 466 male and female undergraduate students from Indiana State University. Participants were randomly assigned to one of six vignette conditions in which the sexual orientation and feminist orientation of a male character were manipulated, resulting in two non-feminist (heterosexual-homosexual), two feminist (heterosexual-homosexual), and two anti-feminist (heterosexual-homosexual) conditions. After reading the vignette, the participants were asked to rate the character on the Warmth and Competence scales, which correspond to traditional female and male traits, respectively. Participants then completed several self-report measures, including the Collective Self-Esteem Scale (assesses self-esteem related to gender), Liberal Feminist Attitudes and Ideology Scale (assesses liberal feminist attitudes), and Demographic questionnaire. Participants also completed a measure of social desirability and a measure assessing current sexual orientation. Contrary to hypotheses, results indicated that regardless of sexual orientation, feminist and non-feminist men received the highest Warmth and Competence ratings, while anti-feminists received the lowest. Additionally, gender self-esteem was found to be a sufficient predictor of attitudes toward feminism in women, but not in men. Consistent with other research, participants who were more politically liberal had more positive attitudes toward feminism than those who were more conservative. Finally, higher levels of religiosity were correlated with less positive attitudes toward feminism in women, but not in men. This research will contribute to knowledge and awareness of what factors predict feminist identification in men and what factors affect attitudes toward male feminists. This current research suggests that male feminists are perceived to possess both masculine and feminine traits, regardless of their sexual orientation. Additionally, the results suggest that SIT can be a useful framework to begin to understand both attitudes toward feminism and feminist identification. Furthermore, although there are some similarities in the predictors of attitudes toward feminism and feminist identification in women, there is much less consensus on these predictors in men. Finally, greater awareness regarding the impact of rigid gender roles and stigma against feminism can lead to more effective interventions to reduce gender role strain and potentially harmful compensatory strategies.
  • OBESITY AMONG YOUNG AMERICAN INDIAN ADULTS IN NORTH DAKOTA

    Omahen, Abby (Indiana State University, 2014-12)
    Obesity among American Indian young adults is a significant health problem. There is an increase in the prevalence rate of diseases associated with obesity which tend to have high medical costs and high mortality rates. Fruit and vegetable consumption, exercise, gender and education are factors which could affect obesity among American Indians. Therefore, the primary purpose of the current study was to determine if there was an association between certain factors (fruit and vegetable consumption, exercise, gender and education level) and obesity among young American Indian adults in North Dakota. The secondary purpose was to determine if there was a statistically significant difference in obesity prevalence between American Indian young adults and non-American Indian young adults in North Dakota. Secondary data from the 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey was used for the study. Binary logistic regression analysis odds ratio was used to analyze the data in the study. Exercise, education and fruit and vegetable consumption did not show statistical significance. Gender was the only statistically significant factor. Recommendations were made for the specific population and future studies based on the results of the study.
  • College Students’ Perceptions of Barriers to Seeking Health Care

    Medavarapu, Harika (Indiana State University, 2014-12)
    Access to health care is important to obtain health equity and improve quality of life (Healthy People, 2012). Various factors such as religion, education, family income, geographic location, and travel constraints act as barriers to access health care (Celeya et al., 2010). On the other hand, the health behaviors of medical students vary from general population of same age (Clair, Wilson, & Clore, 2004). Consequently, the perceived barriers may also vary based on the majors of students. Therefore, the main purpose of this research was to identify the difference in perceived barriers between students with health-based majors and non-health based majors. Collecting these data would help to design interventions to facilitate people’s access to health services (Sharkey, Chopra, Jackson, Winch, & Minkoviyz, 2011). The Health Belief Model (HBM) was used to explain the health behaviors of students. The study participants were 248 undergraduate students in an introductory personal health course, and participants were recruited using census method. An online survey was distributed to all students to obtain information on their perceived barriers to seek health care. The Barriers to Help Seeking Scale (BHSS) was used as a part of the survey to collect data on perceived barriers (Mansfield, Addis, & Courtenay, 2005). A cross-sectional study design was used. The data collection method was quantitative except for one open-ended question. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics, a t-test, the Chi-squared test of association, and coding and summarizing of qualitative data. The results show that the mean scores for total score and five subscales’ (Need for Control and Self-reliance, Minimizing Problem and Resignation, Concrete Barriers and Distrust of Caregivers, Privacy, and Emotional Control) scores of the BHSS were significantly higher for non-health based majors compared to health-based majors. Previous studies in literature review supports the study findings indicating that non-health-based majors’ students perceived more barriers to seek health care than students in health-based majors. Also, the HBM was used to discuss the findings and to recommend future steps to public health professionals, student health centers, university administrators and staff to help students to seek health care. Future research was recommended using broader population and more qualitative questions.
  • The Influence of Underlying Factors and the Relationship of HIV/AIDS Among African Americans in Shreveport, Louisiana and Surrounding Areas

    Ellis, Frederick T., Sr. (Indiana State University, 2014-12)
    The significance of this study was to evaluate multiple underlying factors among African Americans in Shreveport, Louisiana and the influence of those factors on their relationship with HIV/AIDS. This is extremely important for two very reasons. First, in the past 30 years since the initial presentation of HIV/AIDS into society, a shift in the demographic of the infected individuals has resulted in African Americans becoming the new face of HIV/AIDS in the United States. Secondly, African Americans are only 12 to 13% of the United States population, but they represent more than 45% of all new HIV/AIDS cases reported annually. In order to evaluate this significance, this study employed multinomial logistic regression to examine the potential influence of specific underlying factors present among African Americans and the relationship of those factors to HIV/AIDS. Such factors, including incarceration, the influence of drugs or alcohol prior to sex, HIV/AIDS under-recognition, stigma, the number of sexual partners, poverty, and inflammatory sexual transmitted diseases were assessed for their significance. The populations defined in this study were sexually active African American adult men and women, aged 18 to 45, residing in predominantly black urban and rural geographical areas within Shreveport, Louisiana. There were 103 participants included in this study among the population previously mentioned. These cases were selected by a cluster of area probability sampling method. The research was quantitative, utilizing primary data from African American adult subjects who reside in predominantly black urban and rural geographical areas via an anonymous online survey. The statistical measures that were used in this study included descriptive statistics and regression analysis. The results of this study sought to demonstrate an association between the presences of the above mentioned underlying factors and the relationship of HIV/AIDS among African Americans living in Shreveport, Louisiana. Based on the results of this study, it was determined that a relationship between specific underlying factors among African Americans and HIV/AIDS status do exist. More specifically, results indicated that the factors incarceration, substance use prior to sex, and inflammatory sexually transmitted diseases all had statistical influence on the HIV/AIDS status of African Americans in Shreveport, Louisiana.
  • INVESTIGATING TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP AND RETURN ON EQUITY OUTCOMES IN SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED COMMUNITY BANKS

    Dean, Jason C. (Indiana State University, 2014-12)
    The focus of this investigation is small financial institutions based in the United States and insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC). Without a viable market for community banks individual and small business investors and borrowers, particularly in rural areas, will have less financing options and may be forced to accept the terms dictated by larger financial institutions (Walser & Anderlik, 2004). Additionally, within the literature there is minimal empirical evidence informing community banks of appropriate initiatives that may be implemented to unleash human expertise through training and development interventions related to successful leadership styles. As competition in the banking industry continues to increase, community banks may be compelled to utilize Human Resource Development (HRD) initiatives and interventions, similar to the propositions mentioned herein, to enhance their overall competitiveness and survivability. The primary purpose of this investigation was to identify the leadership styles of branch managers and financial performance outcomes as measured by the ROE framework at both small and medium-sized community banks. Second, this investigation sought to add to previous research by providing HRD scholars and practitioners with new strategies for evaluating the impact of HRD initiatives and interventions within a banking industry context. Third, through this investigation it was determined that particular styles and/or sets of leadership dimensions are common at successful small and medium-sized community banking institutions.
  • How Effective Superintendents Select and Develop Principals

    Willman, Robert W. (Indiana State University, 2014-12)
    The purpose of this qualitative study was to determine how effective superintendents select and develop principals. Through this qualitative study, the perceptions of four superintendents explored several areas: a) the process by which principals are selected which includes qualities desired, interviewing, education, and internal versus external candidates and b) the professional development that takes place after the principal has been selected. The superintendents in the study were located in the state of Indiana and met the study criteria outlined in Chapter 3. The topics of related literature reviewed included the characteristics of instructional leaders, succession management and studies of professional development. In exploring these four superintendents, several elements emerged: a) the establishment of a clearly defined process of selecting principals, b) superintendents prefer to hire principals from within their districts but value external candidates in the process, and c) professional development for principals should be both global to the needs of the district as well as specific to their strengths and weaknesses. Insight gained from this study should assist superintendents in their efforts to create a selection process and a direction for professional development of principals that will work for their school districts.
  • EFFECTIVE LITERACY INSTRUCTION ACROSS THE CURRICULUM AT THE SECONDARY LEVEL IN INDIANA

    White, Paul Michael (Indiana State University, 2014-12)
    The purpose of this study was to discover school- teacher- and student-level factors that describe effective literacy instruction at the secondary level of high-performing schools. A sub-question of the study focused on whether high-performing schools practiced “literacy across the curriculum.” National data suggest only about one-third of secondary-level students in the United States read at a proficient level. A recent trend to improve secondary-level student literacy has been to emphasize literacy development in all content areas. A mixed-method approach was used for this study. A linear regression was executed for all middle and high schools in Indiana for spring 2011, 2012, and 2013 state language arts testing results. This was used to build a predicted language arts scale score based on free and reduced lunch status for all schools. Four schools (two middle schools and two high schools) with three consecutive years of posted language arts testing results above their predicted scores were selected for a qualitative multiple case study. Teachers and administrators were interviewed and surveyed regarding their school literacy practices. This study discovered common themes regarding the literacy practices of all four high-performing schools, which included (a) high levels of teacher collaboration among the language arts teachers, (b) the incorporation of high interest reading materials while working with students on their reading comprehension skills, (c) strong levels of teacher commitment and personal responsibility among the language arts teachers to see student literacy improve, and (d) a lack of a common instructional method to improve student literacy, and none of the four schools in the study presented evidence of a developed across-the-curriculum culture for literacy development. Based on the findings, this study determined that matters of professional teaching culture such as collaboration and personal commitment may be stronger factors in student literacy development than a particular instructional approach. School leaders are reminded that the language arts teachers of a school lay the foundation of effective student literacy development. Before school leaders embark on adopting any across the curriculum approach to literacy development, it is needed to first focus on the professional functioning of the language arts staff in a school, particularly in matters of culture such as collaboration, commitment, and an interest in sharing the challenge of improving student literacy with other colleagues. Finally, each high-performing school’s language arts staff demonstrated that one particular best-practice approach to student literacy development does not work for all. It is more critical for language arts teachers to be well-versed in a variety of best practice approaches to student literacy development, and work collaboratively with teaching colleagues to employ the best-practice approaches our students need at that time to improve their reading and writing skills.
  • OUT-OF-SCHOOL SUSPENSIONS AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN INDIANA HIGH SCHOOLS

    Voelker, Joseph A. (Indiana State University, 2014-12)
    The purpose of the study was to determine whether schools that impose more days of out-ofschool suspension as a discipline consequence in Indiana high schools have a relationship with the academic results of the school. The study was conducted by administering a survey to all Indiana public high school principals. Eighty-nine principals responded to the Principal Survey on High School Discipline. The Principal Survey on High School Discipline asked respondents the number of days a student would be suspended out of school for first time offenses to 18 common discipline infractions. The sum of out-of-school suspension days (called the suspension composite score) for each high school was then compared to each high school’s scores for the 2013 sophomore cohort on Indiana’s End of Course Assessments following the completion of English 10 and Algebra I coursework. Also analyzed in the study were whether there was a difference in the suspension composite score and the school’s size; whether there was a difference in the suspension composite score and the school’s location; whether principal demographics of age, years of experience, or years in education affected the suspension composite score; if out of school suspension makes students less likely to misbehave; and if zero-tolerance policies made an impactful contribution in maintaining order at their schools. Data were analyzed through one-way ANOVA and linear regression testing and the null hypotheses were tested at the .05 probability level or better. The data analysis did not display significant findings for any of the research questions. Some of the findings when analyzing the demographic data were urban schools were more likely to suspend but less likely to expel a student for issues such as drug possession or transmission and alcohol possession or transmission. Rural schools were the exact opposite. They were less likely to suspend but more likely to expel a student for those infractions. Small schools versus large schools followed the same pattern, but the data were not as pronounced. The principals were split as to whether zero tolerance policies make an impactful contribution in maintaining order at their schools. When zero tolerance policies were broken down by school size, small schools disagreed that it helped maintain order, but medium- and large-sized high schools had nearly 60% agreeing to 40% disagreeing.
  • A COMPARISON OF TEACHER PERCEPTIONS OF PRINCIPAL LEADERSHIP ACTIONS IN HIGHLY EFFECTIVE SCHOOLS AS MEASURED BY THE AUDIT OF PRINCIPAL EFFECTIVENESS

    Stephens, Michael (Indiana State University, 2014-09)
    The role of the principal has never been as multi-faceted or as scrutinized as it is in today’s schools. Principals are looked to for leadership and guidance in the processes, communications, relationships, instructions, and curriculum of today’s schools. Marzano (2013) listed 21 responsibilities of the principal of today. Principals of today wear many hats and are looked to have knowledge and skills beyond the scope of leaders in many other professions. The purpose of the quantitative study was to examine the perceptions of the teachers in Indiana high schools pertaining to their principal’s level of effectiveness as measured by the Audit of Principal Effectiveness. The results of this study can be beneficial to principals of all schools. Regardless of the grade assigned to the school, the study suggests the value of building relationships with administrative colleagues, the interaction with students, and the setting of high professional goals for all involved.
  • DEVELOPMENT OF A METHODOLOGY FOR EVALUATING QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF FUSED DEPOSITION MODELING

    Winston Sealy, Dominique (Indiana State University, 2014-12)
    Additive Manufacturing rapid reproductive systems are gaining popularity within the manufacturing industry. One of the many benefits of such systems has been the exploration of building practical sacrificial patterns for investment casted metals. Methods such as, Castform and Quickcast, has been developed for selective laser sintering and Stereolithography apparatus technologies respectively. Research has demonstrated significant cost savings when Additive manufacturing rapid reproductive systems are utilized for customized or small batch production of sacrificial patterns. The purpose of this study was to develop a methodology for evaluating quality characteristics of Fused Deposition Modeling. Since Fused Deposition Modeling have been demonstrated by a number of experimental studies as a viable alternative to wax sacrificial patterns, this study explored the effects of wall thickness and raster resolution on quality characteristics such as, diametric accuracy, cylindricity, and concentricity. The results of the study indicated raster resolution had no effect on the measured quality characteristics, however, the ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis tests showed statistical significance (α=0.05) for wall thickness of cylindricity of a small diameter (0.5”) and concentricity of two cylindrical features of diameters 0.5” and 1”. Moreover, the main contributions of this study involved the development of an accurate and robust design of experiment methodology. In addition, implications and recommendations for practice were also discussed.

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