Browsing Indiana State University Electronic Theses and Dissertations by Subject "Fat replacer"
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Acceptability of Brownies Supplemented with Black Bean Puree by College Students at Indiana State UniversityStudies have shown that legumes can be an effective fat replacer in baked goods. However, little research has been conducted addressing black beans as a fat replacer in brownies. The purpose of this study was to determine the overall acceptability, palatability, and nutrient content of brownies made using black bean puree as a replacement for shortening. Using black beans as fat replacers in baked goods reduces total calories and fat content yielding a more nutritionally acceptable product. Today’s obesity epidemic justifies exploring lower calorie options for baked products. Black beans were chosen due to their dark color which will unlikely alter the color of the brownies. Black beans were used to replace 30%, 60%, and 90% of the shortening by weight in a control brownie formula. One hundred sixty seven untrained students from Indiana State University evaluated the product using a 9-point hedonic scale. One-way ANOVA revealed significant differences in appearance, odor, mouthfeel, taste, and total score when replacing shortening with black beans (p<0.05). For all tested sensory characteristics, Bonferroni post hoc testing indicated that 30% fat replacement was not significantly different from the control. Also, 30% fat replacement compared with the control showed a reduction in 12 calories and 1.52g fat per 1.15 ounce serving. Using an acceptability level of 20 for total score, the control, 30, 60, and 90% fat replacement were rated as acceptable. This study showed that pureed black beans can replace as much as 90% of the fat (by weight) in brownies, while yielding an acceptable and more nutritious product. However, overall acceptability, determined by total score, was lower in brownies with higher concentrations of fat replacement.