• CAD associate degree programs in public post-secondary eduaction.

      Duan, Xin-Ran
      This study investigated what community colleges were teaching in CAD associate degree programs in manufacturing and construction fields, and what knowledge and skills were required to empower CAD students to become successful in the workplace. In order to better meet business and industry needs, a model curriculum for CAD associate degree programs was developed and presented. This model curriculum could more effectively prepare students with the required knowledge and skills for successful employment.A three-round Delphi technique was used to collect data from CAD professors at community colleges and experts in industry. A total of 32 members in the Panel of Institution Experts, and a total of 30 members in the Panel of Industry Experts were selected from 29 states in four regions of the United States using a stratified random sampling method. The analysis of demographic data revealed geographic representation, professional background, and rich experience for the members of the two panels. The study found that AutoCAD was dominant in industry for CAD applications, and AutoCAD was the primary software used for CAD programs at community colleges.Also, the study found that all the surveyed colleges were accredited by six major regional accreditation agencies, and all the colleges were satisfied with program outcomes.In addition, alist of forty-seven items of required knowledge and skills were identified by the two panels, which should be included in the model curriculum as key elements.As a result of the study, a model curriculum, containing a core curriculum with 24 courses in four categories plus suggested general eduaction courses, was validated by the two panels. Thsi ideal curriculum for CAD associate degree programs provided a commbination of solid theoretical foundation, classroom studies, and laboratory practice. To make it deliverable at community colleges, adjustment may be necessary to accommodate general education courses and the core curriculum courses for an individual college.
    • Campus Environment Influence on Women’s Leadership Development at Small Private Institutions

      Weina, Kasie
      The purpose of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of women’s leadership and the important influential factors that impact women’s leadership development. Campus environmental factors and gender socialization were examined in an effort to understand women’s leadership identity and development and the potential influences on that development. Data were collected in a semi-structured interview with seven students from two different institutions. Both institutions were private and located in a Midwestern city. One institution had an entire on-campus population of women and the other institution had an on-campus population of 21% women. This study supported the existence of a connection between women’s leadership development, the campus environment, and gender socialization. Perceptions of their leadership were influenced by external factors such as role models, adult and peer affirmation, and the perceptions of others and internal factors such as confidence and initiative. The themes that emerged regarding the campus environmental differences were (a) self-perceptions through language, (b) demonstration of worth, (c) gender versus environment, and (d) expectations for behavior. Overall, the all-women’s institutional environment was perceived as more flexible and less dependent on gender socialization than the male-dominated institutional environment, which supports that the campus environment is an influential factor in how women perceive leadership.
    • Capacities facilitating school change involving project-based learning at the middle school level

      Browder, Lee Shane
      With schools continuing to fall short of No Child Left Behind standards and with future challenges just around the corner, educators must identify and make positive changes in schools. Researchers must work to recognize and exhibit how student achievement is fostered and inform educators of options on how to move in a positive direction according to research. The purpose of this qualitative, multiple-site case study was to examine what capacity-building factors were in middle schools identified as successfully implementing project-based learning. This study focused on the capacities that are consistently implemented leading to successful school change with the Schools to Watch®. The Schools to Watch® sample of three schools was purposefully selected with respect to this designation itself, as membership in that group served as a quality-assurance mechanism that participating schools strove to be high-performing, challenging to all students, infused with rigorous curriculum, imbued with rich instruction, and staffed with teachers who were trained at the highest levels with outstanding supports. These schools had completed rigorous training and development to achieve the status of being a School to Watch® member for the 2012-2013 school year. The sample schools had all addressed the issues of change as they implemented project-based learning during the past few years, since this is a focus of the Schools to Watch® program. The enrollments of these schools ranged from 255 to 915 and included Grades 5 through 8. This study focused on the capacity-building initiatives that occur within the building as a component when implementing school change. In doing so, it strived to answer the question, “What components of capacity building are essential when implementing selected school change?” Sub-questions included the following: 1.What capacities are needed to implement project-based learning at the middle school level? 2.What leadership characteristics are valuable to building capacities in implementing project-based learning at the middle school level? 3.What are the keys to sustaining successful change after implementation of project-based learning at the middle school level? This study focused on the use of interviews, observations, and document analysis to examine school capacity at the middle school level. This process created consistent results that indicated that these schools consistently focused on the personal sphere through a “we-centeredness,” through an interpersonal sphere with respect to coaching, and through the organizational sphere with respect to data, which worked together in the context of high-level school functioning.In the three conclusions, the focus was on creating better relationships that could enhance and expand upon a we-centered approach, using talent scouting and teambuilding to further the notion of leader-as-coach in school operation, and reconceptualizing the structures and operations of schools to maximize the opportunity to use data to increase the professional capacities within a school.
    • Career Decisions: Goodness-Of-Fit and Attrition of Teachers in Alternative Schools

      Coulter, Deidre S. (2010-09-21)
      Teachers are the most important element in the education system (Stronge, 2002). However, studies of teachers in certain sectors are lacking. The paucity of research on teachers who work in the alternative school environment was a driving force behind this study, which is a case study of the characteristics of alternative schools, perceptions of teacher training, attrition, and goodness-of-fit. Interviews with teachers, administrators, and support staff in an alternative school were used to investigate interactions between teachers and students and between colleagues. Classroom observations of the teachers were used to help explore the classroom climate. Emergent themes such as communication, administrative support, and a holistic view of the student population are explored using the filter of symbolic interaction theory in order to describe the characteristics of effective alternative school teachers, administrators, and staff. Symbolic interaction theory uses the internal shorthand that individuals develop to identify how their actions reflect their thoughts and feelings about the setting in which they find themselves. Implications for future research on the teacher-environment fit in alternative schools are discussed.
    • Characteristics associated with resilience in battered women.

      Chang, Mei-I (2012-04-17)
      Higgins(1994)offered resilience as an alternative conceptual approach to the traditional focus on psychological growth despite an abusive relationship.The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between staff ratings ofresilience,individual psychological resources,and situational abuse factors.A sample of 105 battered women,served by San Deigo domestic violence agencies,was administered a battery of five questionnaires assessing constructive thinking,social support appraisal,optimism,psychological distress,and abuse experiences.Agency staff members recruited participants and provided clinical ratings of resilience.Correlational and multiple regression analyses indicated that six psychological concepts were not predictive of staff ratings.Staff members rated women who utilized fewer community resources as more resilient.There were significant inter-correlations among four of the six psychological variables,suggesting that there may be different dimensions of resilience.The intrapsychic aspects of resilience may consist of greater constructive thinking,positive appraisal of social support,greater optimism,and less psychological distress.
    • Characteristics of Difficult Patients in Prisons Compared to Difficult Patients in Primary Care Settings

      Kistler, Emily (2011-07-19)
      Research has found that patients perceived as being difficult by their physicians share a number of characteristics. These "difficult" characteristics include Axis I disorders, personality disorders, somatization, complex health problems, and aggression. Current research has focused on defining "difficult patients" in community populations, while other populations have gone overlooked. One population that has prevalence rates of the "difficult" characteristics identified in community samples is offenders. As a group, offenders tend to have high rates of mental illness, chronic health problems, and behavioral issues such as aggression. While difficult patients in prison may resemble difficult patients in the community, research has not examined patient characteristics among offenders. It may be that offenders present with additional "difficult" characteristics, such as malingering, due to the uniqueness of the prison environment. This study examined nurses perceptions to difficult patients in prison and in primary care settings. It was hypothesized that difficult offender patients would be perceived as having more psychopathology, malingering more frequently, seeking medication more frequently, making more frequent requests to see the doctor, and that there would be a higher rate of difficult patients in correctional settings as compared to difficult patients in primary care settings. Results show that correctional nurses perceived difficult patients exaggerating their medical symptoms more, being less truthful about their symptoms, being more drug-seeking, and being less reasonable in their requests for medication than difficult patients in the community. There were no significant results in ratings of mental health, manipulative behavior, or requests to see the physician. Additionally, correctional nurses indicated that there are a higher percentage of difficult patients in their setting as compared to community nurses. Results from this study will help generate techniques or suggestions that may alleviate some of the problems nurses experience while treating offenders as well as improving the overall quality of the interaction between offenders and health professionals. This may, in turn, improve offender patient medication compliance, reduce the number of unnecessary doctor appointments, and reduce health-care provider burn-out. Other possible implications include improving the overall health of offender patients and reducing the amount of unnecessary spending to treat patients (e.g.improving patient compliance).
    • Characterization of Novel Extracellular Matrix (Ecm) Proteins (Mgp and Lumican) and Their Implications in Vascular Development, Angiogenesis, and Cancer

      Sharma, Bikram (2013-01-30)
      Extracellular matrix (ECM) constitutes a large component of our tissue structure. Primarily, ECM provides structural and adhesive support to our cells, but it also controls cellular signaling and behavior. Homeostasis of extracellular matrix composition and function is maintained by our body through a balanced synthesis, degradation and remodeling of ECM. However, under pathological conditions and genetic mutations, ECM homeostasis is disrupted due to deregulation in ECM synthesis, assembly, remodeling, and degradation. A number of diseases, including cardiovascular diseases and cancer, are found to occur due to alterations in ECM. Therefore, targeting ECM can be an attractive therapeutic approach to treat these diseases, and it requires our complete understanding of the ECM molecules and the molecular mechanism it employs in controlling cellular functions. To this end, this study is aimed at the characterization of two ECM proteins—Matrix Gla Protein (MGP) and Lumican—for their roles in vascular development, angiogenesis, and cancer. Findings from this study show that MGP is a critical ECM regulator that promotes angiogenic resolution by suppressing endothelial sprouting and stabilizing vascular lumen formation. In addition, MGP also inhibits tumor growth by inhibiting tumor angiogenesis. On the other hand, our findings show Lumican suppresses tumor growth and has anti-angiogenic activity in a context specific manner.
    • Chinese College Students’gender Self-Esteem and Transprejudice

      Chen, Bing
      The aim of this study was to examine transprejudice of college students from mainland China. Moreover, this study allowed us to determine if gender self-esteem, which may contribute to transprejudice in Western countries or individualistic societies, is also a significant contributor to transprejudice in mainland China, or a collectivistic society. We explored possible gender differences in transprejudice, and possible differences in prejudice towards transwomen and transmen. Additionally, we used Social Identity Theory to examine the possible relationship between gender self-esteem and transprejudice. Hypotheses were as follows: 1) heterosexual men would endorse more transprejudice than heterosexual women; 2) heterosexual men and women would report more prejudice against transwomen than transmen; and 3) heterosexual men who endorse higher levels of gender self-esteem would endorse more transprejudice, whereas heterosexual women’s transprejudice would not be related to their gender self-esteem. The final sample consisted of 148 college students from mainland China. Participants completed the Chinese versions of the Genderism and Transphobia Scale, the Collective Self-Esteem Scale, the Social Desirability-17 Scale, and the demographic questionnaire. The results demonstrated that men reported more transprejudice than women. Moreover, women reported more violence towards, teasing of, and discomfort with transwomen than transmen. Men also reported more teasing of and discomfort with transwomen than transmen, but men’s violence rating did not discriminate significantly between transwomen and transmen. Furthermore, gender self-esteem was not a predictor of transprejudice for men or for women. Because so far no research on transprejudice has been conducted on samples from mainland China, this study may contribute to the literature of transprejudice in China and to the cross-cultural research on transprejudice. This study may also contribute to the awareness of what factors can affect Chinese people’s prejudice and violence against transpeople, which in turn can lead to more effective interventions to decrease transprejudice in mainland China.
    • Chinese international student orientation to a U.S. public institution of higher education

      Lin, Yi
      The purpose of the present study was to gather information that would inform international student advisors about ways to create a new international student orientation program that would facilitate a successful cultural transition from Chinese culture to U.S. culture. Different language, different culture, different educational philosophy, different educational system s, different requir ement s , and different expectation s challenge Chinese international students in academic study and personal development dur ing their time as an international student in the United States. Cultural surprise and culture shock in the host environment confront them as they work to understand and operate within the values and norms of U.S. culture. Making a successful cross - cultura l transition in the classroom and in the wider society promotes the ultimate goal of attaining skills needed to lead the future of the world community. With targeted orientation activities and educational interventions, Chinese international students can i ncrease their self - awareness and intercultural sensitivity, and reduce the time needed for successful adjustment in the host culture. Developing skills in intercultural sensitivity promotes student development in personality, attitudes, and beliefs . Chines e international students can recognize, respect, accept, and appreciate the value of cultural differences to their advantage. A successful study abroad experience helps them increase their intercultural competence and enables them to flourish in the vibran t U.S. campus culture. Interacting with culturally confident Chinese international students, U.S. students can also increase their multicultural competence
    • Classification of Urban features using Airborne Hyperspectral Data

      Babu, Bharath Ganesh (2010-05-11)
      Accurate mapping and modeling of urban environments are critical for their efficient and successful management. Superior understanding of complex urban environments is made possible by using modern geospatial technologies. This research focuses on thematic classification of urban land use and land cover (LULC) using 248 bands of 2.0 meter resolution hyperspectral data acquired from an airborne imaging spectrometer (AISA+) on 24th July 2006 in and near Terre Haute, Indiana. Three distinct study areas including two commercial classes, two residential classes, and two urban parks/recreational classes were selected for classification and analysis. Four commonly used classification methods – maximum likelihood (ML), extraction and classification of homogeneous objects (ECHO), spectral angle mapper (SAM), and iterative self organizing data analysis (ISODATA) - were applied to each data set. Accuracy assessment was conducted and overall accuracies were compared between the twenty four resulting thematic maps. With the exception of SAM and ISODATA in a complex commercial area, all methods employed classified the designated urban features with more than 80% accuracy. The thematic classification from ECHO showed the best agreement with ground reference samples. The residential area with relatively homogeneous composition was classified consistently with highest accuracy by all four of the classification methods used. The average accuracy amongst the classifiers was 93.60% for this area. When individually observed, the complex recreational area (Deming Park) was classified with the highest accuracy by ECHO, with an accuracy of 96.80% and 96.10% Kappa. The average accuracy amongst all the classifiers was 92.07%. The commercial area with relatively high complexity was classified with the least accuracy by all classifiers. The lowest accuracy was achieved by SAM at 63.90% with 59.20% Kappa. This was also the lowest accuracy in the entire analysis. This study demonstrates the potential for using the visible and near infrared (VNIR) bands from AISA+ hyperspectral data in urban LULC classification. Based on their performance, the need for further research using ECHO and SAM is underscored. The importance incorporating imaging spectrometer data in high resolution urban feature mapping is emphasized.
    • Cloning and Characterization of Hypothetical Exported Proteins from Community Associated Staphylococcus Aureus

      Kaur, Haninder (2013-01-30)
      Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), a major cause of nosocomial infections, has acquired resistance to beta-lactam and other antibiotics. Recently, community associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) has developed independent of hospital associated MRSA (HA-MRSA). One of the major differences between the hospital and community strains is that the former is multi-resistant to antibiotics while the latter is not as resistant but is significantly more invasive. This increased invasiveness and the ability to cause life-threatening infections, even in immunocompetent individuals, makes CA-MRSA critically important as a public health problem. CA-MRSA is known to cause skin and soft tissue infections; bacteria interact with host skin cells and gain access to deeper tissues causing invasive infections. During this process the bacteria may secrete proteins that aid in the interaction with the host by adhering, invading or causing host cell death and lysis. To understand the virulence mechanisms involved in invasion, we investigated genes described as hypothetical proteins in MSSA476. The bioinformatics-selected proteins showed high probability of being secreted and most were unique to CA-MRSA. Our analysis showed 24 such genes. This study shows primer design for 15 of the genes (7 of the 24 had already been cloned in our laboratory). Using gateway cloning, the 15 genes were cloned into BL-21 expression clones. CA-MRSA’s are known for causing invasive skin infections. To further understand the involvement of our proteins of interest in invasion, human keratinocyte cell lines were used in a study of virulence and interaction with skin. To understand the involvement of our hypothetical secreted proteins, we investigated the mRNA expression level, using RT-qPCR and Livak method, of 20 hypothetical exported proteins in presence of human dermal keratinocyte cell line. Our investigation revealed two genes that showed increased mRNA expression in the presence of keratinocytes, which may be due to factors associated with keratinocytes that may have triggered increased mRNA expression. Keratinocytes are capable of forming cell-cell junctions and producing antimicrobial peptides and cytokines in response to microbes. The increased mRNA expression of two genes may be towards binding to junctions for invasion or may be expressed in response to antimicrobial peptides or cytokines.
    • Cloning and Characterization of SAS1738, a Hypothetical Exported Protein from Community-Associated Strain of Staphylococcus Aureus

      Vijaya Kumar, Deepak Kumar (2010-09-22)
      Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a group of S. aureus strains that has acquired resistance to a class of beta lactam antibiotics and is the major cause of hospital associated infections. Their discovery goes back to 1960 when the first cases were identified. Recently community associated MRSA infections have emerged and are caused by strains that are independent of those from the hospital environment, related only because they carry some of the same antibiotic resistance genes. Community associated infections (CA) are more severe, producing pus filled lesions that are painful and capable of invasion of deep tissues. Virulence factors comprised of exported proteins are associated with the invasiveness of CA strains. Most of these proteins are hypothetical in nature with unknown function. The aim of this study is to identify and characterize potential virulence factor proteins that may be involved in the infection pathway of CA-MRSA. This study focuses on a unique gene that encodes an exported protein, SAS1738, found on the chromosome of the CA strain MSSA476. The protein SAS1738 was chosen because it is unique to CA strains and has homology to some proteins identified in other S. aureus strains known for their virulence and host immune evasion. The goal of this work is to characterize SAS1738 and to determine its role in the infection pathway of the organism. The gene of interest has been successfully cloned, expressed, and tested for toxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans, a nematode. The toxicity tests showed that SAS1738 is inhibitory to the growth and development of C. elegans. The actual mode of action of this protein in C. elegans is yet to be established. However, location of SAS1738 using a GFP fusion showed that the highest concentration of the fusion protein was in the gut of the worms. The purified protein when tested in a killing assay against C. elegans, resulted in the death of the worms at an average time point of 8 min after treatment. Microbiological assay results showed that the purified SAS1738 possessed antibacterial activity towards Micrococcus luteus and Proteus vulgaris. This suggests that SAS1738 may play a dual role of antagonizing the commensal flora of the human skin such as Micrococcus luteus and also induce a toxic effect on the human cells as suggested by its toxic effect on C. elegans. Determination of the role of this protein in the infection cycle of CA-MRSA will lead to a better understanding of the pathogenicity of the organism and possible development of new treatment strategies.
    • Club work in the high school

      Downing, Burlin F. (2012-08-15)
      Not Available.
    • Cognitive,personality and demographic attributes of student change.

      Henry, Jeanne Marie (2012-04-13)
      This study was an examination as to whether cognitive,personality and demographic attributes of students have changed over time.Archival data for 10 coherts of freshman students from a private Midwest engineering institution were used.Data consisted of Myers-Briggs Type Indicator(MBTI) reults,Learning Enviornment Preferences(LEP) results, and demogrpahics.ANOVA's were performed for all interval data and Chi-Square analysess for all nominal data.Statistical significance was found for MBTI Thinking-Perceiving and Sensing-Intution scales,LEP Cognitive Complexity Index scores, and demographic variables including age,parental education level, and SAT scores.Results are discussed in terms of practical significance,trends evidenced in results,implications for further research and educational service provisions.