• Early recollection and hypnosis.

      Coram, Gregory J (2012-04-23)
      This study compared the contents of Early Recollections(ERs)obtained from Ss in a hypnotic state with the ERs obtained from the same Ss ina normal waking state.This comparison was done in an attempt to dsicover differences in the content of the ER's collected under two conditions that might be significant for a more complte understanding of personality.Forty individuals,20 scoring at or above the 60 percentile on the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility,Form A and 20 scoring at or below the 19 percentile,were randomly selected for the study.The 40 Ss were administered the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale,Form C.Subjects scoring _+ 1 of their group score were selected for continuation in the investigation.Ss failing to reach criterion were replaced by randomly selected Ss matched for sex and susceptiblity.Ss participated in two different sessions approximately two weeks apart.Two ER's were initially elicited from half of the Ss in anormal waking state;another set of ERs was solicited by using a standard induction technique.For the other half of Ss this order was counterbalanced.The counterbalance technique was utlilized to control for any carryover effects.The stattistical design for this study was a 2(sex) X2 (Levels of Susceptibility) X2(Order) X2 (Condition-with or without hypnosis) factorial design, with the last factor repeated for all subjects.After collection of ERs,scoring of protocols began.To this end the Manaster-Perryman Scoring Manual was employed.This manual contains 42 variables divided among seven categories.ERs were independently scored by 2 judges after a study of the manual.A reliability test was conducted to determine the degree of agreement between scores.Three scores were generated for each variable:a score on each varibale for each ER and a total score(T-score) overall two ERs on each variable.ER-T scores were analysed by the analysis of variance procedure to determine differences,if any,across conditions.There were no carry-over effects(the content of the ER reported earlier did not have any influence/effect on the content of the ER reported later,whether the content reported earlier was elicited while the Ss were in hyponosis or in the ordinary waking state).Carry-over effects were analysed not only for individual items but also for clusters.The content of the ERs of hypnotic Ss showed not only a significant increase in "themes" but also an increase in "details" when compared to non-hypnotized subjects.In their ERs,Ss in hyponosis mentioned "mother" offered themes conatining "misdeeds","hostility",,"mastery", and "mutality";reported "visual" and "motor" detail;and revealed "active" content significantly more often than did Ss in the "ordinary" waking state.Irrespective of state, ie hypnosis or non-hypnosis,amles offered more themes related to "death" than did females;on the other hand females verbalized more themes of "hostility" than did males.In hypnosis low suspectible males and females offered more "school-relevant" settings than did low suspectible males,whereas low suspectible females produced more "school-relevant" settings than did high suspectible females.High susceptible Ss reported more themes related to "hostility" during hypnosis,whereas low susceptible Ss did not differe in reporting "hostility" across states.Further,high susceptible males revealed more themes of "mutuality" irrespective of state than did low susceptible males;however,high susceptible females,irrespective of state,revealed significantly fewer themes of "mutality"than low susceptible females.The implications of these findings for a more comprehensive understanding of personality are discussed from Adlerian and non-Adlerian perspectives.
    • Educational publications of Caleb Mills

      Worley, Ralph
      Not Available.
    • Educational Referendum Voting in Ohio Based on District Size, Socio-Economic Status, and Median Income

      Galovic IV, Thomas A.
      The purpose of this study was to identify the successful tax levy votes for capital project referendums in Ohio over the past 17 elections and correlate those with the socio-economic level, median income, and district enrollment in which the votes took place. This will serve as a guide to predict what school districts in Indiana would have successful capital project referendum votes based on the Ohio results. The study used data provided directly from the Ohio Department of Education in regards to the levy votes and the poverty level of the school districts over the past 17 elections from school years spanning 2004-2009. Once data were compiled, a threshold was developed of the frequency of success rates of the votes relative to poverty level, median income, and enrollment.
    • Educators' Opinions Towards the Factors that increase Educational Television Programs and Channels' Effectiveness: A Survey on a sample of Teachers and Inspectors in the schools of Kuwait

      AlShammari, Fahad Z. (2010-07-22)
      The study aimed to explore the educators' opinions to increasing the effectiveness of educational television channels and programs to make them a positive influence on academic achievements. In addition, part of the objective was to investigate if the factors' priority arrangements are related to the sample educators' teaching experience, gender, and level of education. The study sample was 410 educators in the State of Kuwait, 175 males and 235 females. Of the sample, 233 have bachelors' degree and 177 hold master's and Ph.D. degrees. The researcher created a survey that measures the educator's attitudes towards educational television programs and the factors that increase the effectiveness of educational television channels. The seven factors were educational qualification, media qualification, financial factor, time factor, relation to the curriculum, curriculum overlap factor and presentation method. The result pointed out that all factors were of great importance from the educators point view, where the highest factor of importance was relation to the curriculum factor, then educational qualification, and media qualification. The results showed that the years of experience of educators were not significant. The result results of the study pointed out that educators with bachelor's degree felt the educational qualification factor and curriculum overlap factor in the educational television program has a big impact, more so than their peers who have master's or Ph.D. degrees. Also, the results showed that male educators gave more importance to the financial factor than female educators. The study concluded with other educational applications and recommendations on the research subject.
    • Effect of Core Strength on the Measure of Power in the Extremities

      Shinkle, Justin (2011-03-16)
      The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of core strength on the transfer and production of forces in the extremities. Twenty-five division 1 collegiate football players performed a series of medicine ball throws in the forward, reverse, right and left directions in a static and dynamic position. The results of the medicine ball throws were compared to several athletic performance measurements including: push press power, 1RM squat, 1RM bench press, countermovement vertical jump, broad jump, 40 yard dash, 20 yard dash, pro agility to the right and left, and the L drill. Several strong correlations were found in both the static and dynamic medicine ball throw positions when compared to the performance measures. Static reverse correlated with vertical jump (CMJ) (r=0.44), broad jump (BRD)(r=0.5) and push press power (PWR)(r=0.46). Static left (StL) and static right (StRi) correlated with PWR (r=0.59), (r=0.65) respectively, and Vel (r=0.52)(r=0.6), respectively. Fewer dynamic throws correlated significantly with the performance variables. Dynamic left (DyL) and Dynamic right (DyRi) correlated with PWR (r=0.53), (r=0.63) respectively, and Vel (r=0.55),(r=0.61) respectively. Dynamic forward (DyFw) correlated with the 1RM squat (r=0.45). A stepwise regression for push press power prediction reveals that 1RM squat is the best predictor of push press power. The results indicate that core strength does have a significant effect on the ability of an athlete to create and transfer forces in the extremities.
    • EFFECT OF DIRECTED STUDY OF MATHEMATICS VOCABULARY ON STANDARDIZED MATHEMATICS ASSESSMENT QUESTIONS

      Waite, Adel Marlane (Cunningham Memorial Library, Terre Haute, Indiana State University., 2017-12)
      The problems under investigation included (a) Did a directed study of mathematics vocabulary significantly affect student performance levels on standardized mathematical questions? and (b) Did the strategies used in this study significantly affect student performance levels on standardized mathematical questions? The population consisted of eighth-grade pre-algebra students from two different middle schools in southern Indiana. This quasi-experimental study was of a quantitative, repeated-measures design, using a population of approximately 140 eighthgrade students with a control sample of 37 and an experimental sample of 52. I performed a repeated measures ANCOVA to analyze scores from a mathematics vocabulary posttest for each participant, by the treatment and control groups, while controlling for student pretests scores. Results showed that after adjusting for pretest scores (F = 20.12, p < 0.0001), students who received intervention through a directed study of mathematical vocabulary had significantly higher posttest scores compared to the group who did not receive treatment. Students in the treatment group were required to keep a vocabulary journal, part of which was a self-rating of their understanding of each term. At the conclusion of the study, I assigned journal/understanding ratings for each term in the participants’ journals. To decide if the journal/understanding scores were associated with pretest and posttest scores, I performed a Pearson’s correlation analysis using the continuous variables of journal/understanding score and pretest and posttest scores. There was no significant correlation to the pretest scores for either the student self-rating journal/understanding scores (r = -0.04, p = 0.756) nor the v journal/understanding scores that I assigned(r = -0.04, p = 0.756). The results of the correlation analysis showed that the rating of students on their own journal/understanding (r = 0.23, p = 0.103) did not have any correlation with the posttest scores; however, the rating given by the teacher on the journal/understanding of the student was positively correlated with the posttest scores (r = 0.38, p = 0.005). Higher posttest scores were associated with higher journal/understanding scores, with a moderately positive correlation. School professionals such as teachers, administrators, and curriculum directors can assess and review the intervention done in this study and explore replicating or incorporating the approach in their curriculum. With the increase in test scores due to a directed study of mathematical vocabulary, school officials may consider this approach to increase the learning of students and as a result, increase their test scores on high-stakes examinations.
    • Effect of Fluid Administration on Fluid Consumption and Hydration Status

      Finn, Megan E. (2011-09-20)
      The use of an external fluid administrator (EFA) to deliver fluids is a recent phenomenon in athletics. However, this has yet to be compared to the traditional method of self administration(SA). PURPOSE: To examine the influence fluid administration methods have on fluid consumption, hydration status, and perceptual variables. METHODS: Nineteen recreationally active individuals [14 males, 5 females (30±10y; 176±8cm; 72.5Kg) participated in two days of exercise with varying the method of fluid administration (self-administration SA; external fluid administration EFA) between days. EFA refers to when someone else squirts water into the participant’s mouth, whereas SA, the participant squirts water into their own mouth. The water bottle (WB) was kept equal distance from the mouth for both conditions. Participants weight (t-shirt and/or shorts only) and urine samples were collected prior to exercise. Participants then completed a 10-min warm-up. Participants had a 2-min fluid break before the exercise protocol (EP), which included a series of five 15-minute stations. Exercises provided aerobic and anaerobic demands, including hill jogging, push-ups, jumping jacks, ladder drills, and intermittent rest. After completing each station, participants received a 5-min fluid breaks where they drank ad libitum. Fluid variables and perceptual variables were collected during every fluid break. Following the final fluid break,participants provided a post-exercise weight and urine sample. The order of conditions and exercise stations were randomly assigned. Fluid variables assessed were volume consumed perfluid break (VC/FB), number of squirts per fluid break (#Sq/FB), squirt volume per fluid break (SqV/FB), total squirts (TSq), total volume consumed (TVC), and average volume per squirt (AV/Sq). Hydration status was assessed via urine specific gravity (USG), body mass loss (BML),sweat loss (SwL), and sweat rate (SwRt). Perceptual measures assessed include thirst and fullness. Repeated-measures ANOVA was used to analyze condition by time for VC/FB,#Sq/FB, SqV/FB, USG, thirst and fullness. A paired t-test was used for post-hoc analysis.Independent samples t-tests were used to analyze TSq, TVC, AV/Sq, BML, SwL, and SwRt.P<0.05 a priori RESULTS: No significant interaction was indicated for VC/FB or SqV/FB (p>0.05). A significant interaction was noted for #Sq/FB (p<0.05). TSq between conditions did not indicate significance, however TVC and AV/Sq were significantly different (p<0.05). With no significant interaction for USG, participants arrived (SA=1.016±.009; EFA=1.019±.008) and remained (SA=1.019±.008; EFA=1.020±.007) hydrated throughout the EP. BML, SwL, SwRt, thirst and fullness also indicated no significant differences between conditions (p>0.05). CONCLUSION: SA promoted more TVC likely due to greater VSq. Both conditions remained euhydrated, but EFA consumed less fluids. Euhydration may have been maintained because of regularly spaced fluid breaks and when regular fluid breaks are unavailable, EFA may result in more BML and hypohydration.
    • Effect of item clarity and probability of item endorsement on response latencies on personality test items.

      Kinney, James.R (2012-04-16)
      In this study,regression analysis was used to examine the affects of item clarity and probability of endorsement on response latencies of 60 undergraduates responding on personality test items from the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire(16 Personality Factor test) (Cattell,Eber & Tatsuoka,1970,5th Edition).Response latencies to personality test items,though frequently studied,have yet to be operationally utilized in the interpretation of personality tests.Forty-four items from the 16 Personality Factor test were selected.Each item from the original test was rated for clarity and matched with an emotionally neutral statement with an equivalent number of words.The standard test items and reconstituted items were also matched for linguistic complexity.For example:Standard test item:"i consider myself a very socially bold,outgoing person."Reconstituted test item:"Books and magazines can be found in a library."Original test items were administered to 60 undergraduates in standard,pencil-and-paper format and computer format.In the computer format each standard test item was followed by a linguistically matched,emotionally neutral reconstituted item and all response latencies were recorded.The data were analysed with response latency being the dependent variable and item clarity and endorsement probability as independent variables.It was found that item clarity and endorsement probability did not relate to response latency on standard test items,neutral questions matched to standard test items or adjusted test items.This finding was attributed to the likelihood that subject responses to items reflect a binary decision-making process which requires relatively simple and consistent responses.16 Personality Factor test item response latencies adjusted by subtracting latencies of linguistically neutral items were also not affected by item clarity or probability of endorsement.Consistent with the finding of both Van Merrienboer et al.(1989) and Rattan(1992),it is suggested that the amount of time required for the successful completion of a task depends,in part,on the task's psychological complexity and specific nature.It is also suggested,consistent with Sternberg(1989),that the amount of time required for various tasks does not operate as a consistent function(of intelligence),but rather as a function of the interaction between the task and the individual's psychological and intellectual make up.
    • Effect of Tai Chi on Cardiac Autonomic Function and Salivary Cortisol Level in Healthy Adults.

      Kalsaria, Pratik (2012-05-21)
      Introduction: An estimated 8.2 million American adults (1 in 3) have 1 or more types of cardiovascular disease. Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis is considered a non-invasive procedure for analyzing cardiovascular autonomic influence. Depressed HRV has been linked to stress and abnormal cardiovascular autonomic modulation. Purpose: This study evaluated the acute effects of tai chi on cardiac autonomic function and cortisol level in healthy adults. Design: 10 healthy adults, 7 females and 3 males, with an average age of 54 ± 2.04 were included in this study. They were asked not to consume any alcoholic or caffeinated beverages at least 24 hours before the study. Each subject practiced tai chi for 1 hour. HRV measurements were obtained at supine rest using Nexus biofeedback device before and after 10 min, 20 min and 30 min post tai chi exercise. Saliva samples were collected before tai chi and after 45 min post tai chi practice. Results: The cardiac autonomic function was assessed using frequency domain HRV analyses. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed that there is significant difference in means of HR, SDNN, nLF and nHF between the pre tai chi and post tai chi groups. Using student’s T-test, we found that the nHF increased significantly from 42.79 ± 4.12 to 52.82 ± 4.39 after 30 min post tai chi exercise (p<0.05). In contrast, nLF decreased significantly from 57.21 ± 4.12 to 52.82 ± 4.39 after 30 min post tai chi exercise (p<0.05). HR significantly decreased from 73 ± 2 to 67.79 ± 2.94 after 30 min post tai chi exercise. Also, SDNN increased significantly from 34 ± 5.26 to 41.38 ± 6.42 after 30 min post tai chi exercise. No significant changes in cortisol level were observed between pre tai chi and post tai chi groups. Conclusion: Tai chi exercise can modulate cardiac autonomic tone by enhancing the vagal activity and reducing the sympathetic activity. Long-term beneficial effects of tai chi on cardiac autonomic function need further investigation.
    • Effect of Urine Agitation on Measurements of Hydration Status.

      Adams, Heather
      Hypohydration can have significant implications on physiological functions of the body and has the potential to decrease level of performance. In addition to performance decrements, hypohydration can also lead to increased thermal and cardiovascular strain. As a preventative measure athletic trainers are commonly required to attain urine specimen samples to assess athlete hydration status for weight checks and monitoring body mass losses. Unfortunately, immediate examination of urine samples is not always possible. As the urine sample sits, sedimentation develops. No current literature addresses the sedimentation of urine samples and what procedures should be performed to ensure an accurate hydration assessment. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to determine if agitation of urine samples is comparable to the criterion measure, urine osmolality measured within two hours of collection. DESIGN: We used a descriptive diagnostic validity test design to investigate the effects of agitation of urine samples on the measure of hydration status. SETTING: Biochemical Research Laboratory at Indiana State University. PARTICIPANTS: Seventy-five healthy participants (41 males, 34 females; mean age=22±5years; mean self-reported height=172±23cm and mass=77±17kg) recruited from a university campus provided one or more samples (total samples=81). INTERVENTION: The independent variable was agitation type with 3 levels: vortex mixed, hand shaken, and no agitation. Following recruitment, participants completed the informed consent and a short health questionnaire to rule out any exclusion criteria such as kidney disease, diabetes, etc. Participants were provided with a clean specimen cup and were asked to provide a sample. Large samples were encouraged as they were then split evenly into three cups and labeled according to participant number and agitation type. Hand shaken samples were shaken 10 times in an hourglass fashion, from right side up to up side down. Vortex samples were placed on the vortex mixer for 10 seconds. Non-agitation samples were not disturbed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Urine osmolality, as measured by a freezing point depression osmometer was used to determine hydration status within two hours of specimen collection and again after 48 hours. Agitation was only performed prior to the second measurement of hydration status, after 48 hours had passed. A one-way ANOVA was performed to compare the two methods of agitation against the criterion control. RESULTS: No significant differences were identified (F3,316 = 0.00027, p =0.99, 1-β=1.00) between the no agitation (mean=724±262), hand shaken(mean=723±263) and vortex (mean=724±263) methods when compared to the criterion control(mean=723±262). CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study demonstrated no differences in hydration status measurements between the two agitation methods and the control. For practitioners who are unable to immediately measure the hydration status of urine samples, agitation of the urine specimen is not necessary in order to obtain a valid measure of hydration status using an osmometer.
    • Effective Educational Leadership Attributes of Indiana High School Principals

      Perry, Bryan A.
      The purpose of this study was to gain insight about high school principals who are considered effective by organizations and institutions in the state of Indiana. Through a qualitative study, five Indiana high school principals participated in an interview with 26 structured questions. The participants were selected based on recommendations from major Indiana universities granting administrative licensure and the Indiana Association of School Principals. The participants could serve in rural, urban, or suburban districts in Indiana. Gender, race, or ethnic differences were not considered. State and federal test results were not a deciding factor for selection. There were five conclusions as a result of this study: 1. The preparation program establishes a solid base for aspiring principals regardless of program or internship. In addition, new principals benefit from an informal mentor. 2. Increased accountability is seen as a positive rather than a negative by effective principals. 3. Effective Indiana high school principals adapt their leadership skills to meet the demands necessary to lead successful schools. 4. Effective Indiana high school principals are optimistic people. 5. Stress is an accepted part of the job for Indiana high school principals.
    • THE EFFECTIVENESS OF CONCURRENT DESIGN ON THE COST AND SCHEDULE PERFORMANCE OF DEFENSE WEAPONS SYSTEM ACQUISITIONS

      Robertson, Randolph B. (Cunningham Memorial library, Terre Haute,Indiana State University, 2017-12)
      This study investigates the impact of concurrent design on the cost growth and schedule growth of US Department of Defense Major Defense Acquisition Systems (MDAPs). It is motivated by the question of whether employment of concurrent design in the development of a major weapon system will produce better results in terms of cost and schedule than traditional serial development methods. Selected Acquisition Reports were used to determine the cost and schedule growth of MDAPs as well as the degree of concurrency employed. Two simple linear regression analyses were used to determine the degree to which cost growth and schedule growth vary with concurrency. The results were somewhat surprising in that for major weapon systems the utilization of concurrency as it was implemented in the programs under study was shown to have no effect on cost performance, and that performance to development schedule, one of the purported benefits of concurrency, was actually shown to deteriorate with increases in concurrency. These results, while not an indictment of the concept of concurrency, indicate that better practices and methods are needed in the implementation of concurrency in major weapon systems. The findings are instructive to stakeholders in the weapons acquisition process in their consideration of whether and how to employ concurrent design strategies in their planning of new weapons acquisition programs.
    • Effectiveness of Information Technology Infrastructure Library Process Implementations by Information Technology Departments within United States Organizations

      Persinger, Jon F.
      This research study examined whether the overall effectiveness of the Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL) could be predicted by measuring multiple independent variables. The primary variables studied included the number of ITIL process modules adopted and the overall ITIL ―maturity level. An online survey was used to collect data from participating volunteers within the United States, and then analyzed to reveal any significant findings. The research showed a statistically significant positive relationship between overall maturity level and effectiveness, however the ability to predict effectiveness based upon the number of process modules adopted was inconclusive. Additionally, differences in module adoption from either the Service Support or Service Delivery process blocks were considered. The results suggested that process module adoption from the Service Support block has a somewhat stronger relationship to overall effectiveness than adoption from the Service Delivery block, though this finding should be viewed cautiously. Sample size and survey instrument limitations restricted the interpretation of the results.
    • Effects of Ectoparasites and Reproductive Class on Roost-Switching and Foraging Behavior of Indiana Bats (Myotis sodalis)

      2012-01-19
      Ectoparasites of bats have been known to cause harm to their hosts and to affect roost-switching. Little research exists on effects ectoparasites may have on roosting and foraging behavior of the federally endangered Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis). From 2008 through 2010, I collected ectoparasite data and documented roost-switching and foraging behavior of Indiana bats on habitat restoration lands owned by the Indianapolis International Airport (IND) in central Indiana. I tested for differences in roosting and foraging behavior between bats with varying ectoparasite loads, and for differences in ectoparasite load, roost-switching frequency, and foraging behavior between different reproductive classes of Indiana bats. I used the volume of ectoparasites of each Indiana bat when analyzing data. I found a significant difference in roost-switching frequency and ectoparasite volume between reproductive classes. Neither reproductive class nor ectoparasite load significantly affected any aspect of foraging behavior. Indiana bats in this study apparently maintained moderate loads of ectoparasites which may not affect foraging and roosting, but the insignificant results found in this study may have been due to a small sample size. The significant difference in roost-switching between reproductive classes likely demonstrates variation in bat thermoregulation. Lactating females and pregnant females have a higher need for group thermoregulation and switch roosts less frequently than post-lactating females and volant juveniles. Because ectoparasites have been found to increase in maternity colonies, volant juveniles and post-lactating females may disperse from the main colony roost and switch roosts more often to avoid higher intensities of ectoparasites.
    • Effects of gender-role orientation on responses of counselors-in-training

      Urschel, Joanne.K (2012-04-09)
      This study investigated the effects of gender-role orientation of clients and counselors-in-training, and sex of clients on response consistencies of counselors-in-training. One hundred and twelve master’s level counselor’s-in-training from twelve universities served as participants. Each participant viewed six videotaped vignettes of clients; each representing one of six gender-role orientations. At the conclusion of each vignette the participants were asked to write a response to the question, “What would you say next to the client?” Responses were categorized into consistency scores reflecting gender-role orientation of clients and counselors-in-training, and sex of clients. As hypothesized, gender-role orientations of clients and client’s sex had no effect on the responses of counselor’s-in-training. However, it was found that the gender-role orientations of counselors-in-training did affect their response consistencies. Post hoc analyses support these conclusions. Implications and recommendations are discussed.
    • Effects of Globalization on the Gas Engine Manufacturing and Parts Industry in Indiana As Experienced By Those Working In This Sector

      Polastri, Patricia (2012-01-19)
      Globalization has often been perceived as the culprit in the decline of employment in several manufacturing industries in the United States. The purpose of this research was to investigate how globalization affected the gas engine manufacturing and parts industry in Indiana during the period of 1998 – 2008, in order to assess the perception of industry professionals as to the characteristics that could, or have, led to globalization through offshoring and outsourcing. Additionally factors for the employment decline experienced in this industry were identified and assessed. For this study an anonymous online survey was conducted targeting individuals directly associated with this industry and holding positions in the areas of engineering and management. The survey addressed the areas of technology, education, globalization/competition and employment. The survey results identified factors such as the influx of foreign goods, quality, workforce skill sets, and automation as competitive deficiencies present in this industry. These results are in contrast to the common perception that offshoring is the main factor for the dislocation of workers related to this sector. Further research in these areas could be conducted to ascertain the interrelated connections, as well as the level of their impact on these manufacturers.
    • Effects of Joint Preparation Angle of Single-vee Butt Welds on the Tensile Strength of ASTM A36 Carbon Steel

      McClure, Matthew (2011-07-20)
      Welding is a multi-faceted procedure of manufacturing and can occur at any point during the creation of a product. Quality issues in welding can have disastrous, or even deadly, consequences. The issue of weld preparation angle is one of several different elements that have a direct correlation on the quality of a welded joint. The purpose of this research centers on resultant tensile strength of a single-vee butt joint in carbon steel with various preparation angles. Preparation angles were machined on twenty-six pieces of ASTM A36 carbon steel in 5° increments in order to produce thirteen samples with included preparation angles ranging from 0° to 120°. Test samples were developed using an automated welding process that remained consistent for all of the welds. Each sample was plasma cut into ten coupons, which were machined to have a uniform cross section of the welded joint and surrounding parent material using a computer numerically controlled machining center. This yielded a total population of 130 coupons, which were tested to failure using a United Testing Systems stress/strain tensile tester. The empirical data were analyzed via the use of SPSS 18 statistical software. Initially, the level of population variance was assessed within groups and between groups by use of a one-way ANOVA test at the .05 alpha level. The result showed a statistically significant difference of the sample population. Secondly, a comparison of the data at various preparation angles to that of the industry standard angle of 60° was assessed using a Bonferroni multiple comparisons at the .05 alpha level, which resulted in one angle being statistically significant compared to the industry standard.
    • Effects of Monetary Incentives on Academic Performance of Fourth-Grade Students from Low Socioeconomic Status

      Dafiaghor, Sandra O.
      Scientific investigations of monetary incentives on students‘ academic achievement have not explored effects on performance of students from low socioeconomic status (SES), nor has there been exploration of teachers‘ perceptions of how monetary incentives impact academic performance of students from low socioeconomic status. The present study explored how low SES students perceive their academic performances being impacted by extrinsic monetary incentives. The study also explored the fourth-grade teachers‘ beliefs about the impact of monetary incentive on students‘ academic performance. The study found that students believe monetary incentives will increase academic performance, depending on the size of the cash incentive. The results were mixed for teachers. The findings from this study suggest that there is a need to delve deeper into the concept of cash for grades because of unanswered questions: What amount of money is sufficient, and why are teachers‘ beliefs incongruent with their students‘ beliefs?
    • THE EFFECTS OF SECONDARY SCHOOL ACCOUNTABILITY GRADES ON COLLEGE AND UNIVERSITY TRANSFER

      Robinson Kramer, Jill (Cunningham Memorial Library, Terre Haute, Indiana State University., 2017-12)
      Workforce projections indicate that a majority of jobs to be created in the U.S. economy will require some form of postsecondary education (Cappelli, 2015; Carnevale, Smith, & Strohl, 2010). At the same time, colleges and universities are being held accountable for completion and graduation of their students (The Commission, 2014) and secondary schools are being graded under changing accountability systems (Center for Education Policy, 2008; Dee & Jacobs, 2011, Figlio & Ladd, 2008). This study looked at the longer-term implications of high school accountability grades, A–F, and the impact on student transfer, associate’s degree completion, and time to associate’s degree among Twenty-First Century Scholars students who attended Ivy Tech Community College, Indiana’s community college system. There were statistically significant differences in long-term education outcomes, earning associate’s degrees in 11 elapsed terms from the first fall term of enrollment and in transferring out with or without a degree during the same time-period, based on the accountability grade of the high school from which the students came, using two separate chi square tests for independence. However, among graduates, there was no statistically significant difference in the time it took students to complete associate’s degrees between students from A- and F-rated high schools, using an independent samples t-test.