• Parental compliance to clinical recommendations in an ADHD clinic.

      Thibodeau, Alice Samantha (2012-04-26)
      Psychological assessments are a cornerstone of clinical practice in psychology,but if results and recommendations are not used to guide treatment interventions, their value is greatly diminished. Currently, there is very little research that examines adherence to treatment recommendations given to parents or caregivers following psychological evaluations of their children. The present study expands on previous research (MacNaughton & Rodrigue, 2001) examining perceived barriers to parental compliance with psychological assessment recommendations by considering the impact of severity of child behavior problems and parenting stress on compliance. Eighty caregiver/child dyads were recruited through an ADHD evaluation clinic and caregivers completed a telephone interview approximately 4 to 6 weeks after receiving recommendations for their children's care. It was predicted that parents/caregivers reporting greater levels of stress would report lower levels of compliance; parents/caregivers reporting greater levels of compliance would report greater improvement in children's behavior; parents/caregivers would report compliance to less than 70% of the recommendations (MacNaughton & Rodrigue, 2001) and the recommendation to which parents/caregivers most commonly adhered would be that of consulting with a non-psychological professional (i.e., physician). Results revealed that caregivers reporting greater levels of parenting stress were more likely to report following recommendations, that greater levels of compliance were associated with greater levels of improvement, that caregivers reported adherence to 81.5% of recommendations, and that caregivers were equally likely to engage in active self-help recommendations (i.e., parent education on ADHD) and those for professional nonpsychological services (i.e. consulting with a physician for medication) and least likely to follow through on recommendations for psychological services (child. or family counseling). The most commonly reported barriers to following recommendations were 1) that caregivers had not had time to comply and 2) that teachers were uncooperative with implementing school-based recommendations.
    • Parenting a Child with Behavior Problems: Dimensions of Religiousness that Influence Parental Stress and Sense of Competence

      Weyand, Chelsea (2010-09-22)
      Parenting a child with behavior problems has been associated with an increase in parental stress and a decrease in parental sense of competence. While parental religiosity has generally been associated with greater child and parent functioning, it has been suggested that when parenting a child with behavior problems, some aspects of parental religiousness (e.g., negative religious coping, biblical conservatism) might decrease functioning. One hundred and thirty-nine parents of children between the ages of three and twelve completed a questionnaire in order to examine the influence of religious variables (sanctification of parenting, negative religious coping, positive religious coping, biblical conservatism) on the relationship between child behavior problems and parental stress and sense of competence. Sanctification of parenting was found to moderate the relationship between child behavior problems and parental stress, such that parents high in sanctification showed little change in parenting stress as severity of behavior problems increased. Similarly, positive religious coping was found to play a protective role in the relationship between behavior problems and parental sense of competence. Overall, positive religious coping was related to increased stress in parents of children with few behavior problems while not decreasing stress for parents of children with more difficult behavior. Parents of children with greater perceived behavior problems reported significantly higher sanctification of parenting and parenting stress, as well as lesser use of positive religious coping and lower sense of competence. Negative religious coping and biblical conservatism did not moderate the relationship between child behavior problems and parental stress, nor sense of competence. This study provides further clarification of the dimensions of religiousness that are relevant to the parenting experience. It also provides evidence to suggest that parental religiousness can have either a positive or negative influence on parental functioning, depending on parenting circumstances and personal perceptions of God and religion.
    • The Path To Another World

      Lu, Rio Ying-Shu (2012-08)
      I am a very ordinary girl and grew up in a very traditional Taiwanese family. We worship and pray to gods and our ancestors since our religion is Taoism. Also, we made traditional food by ourselves for some worship festivals. These are the memories of my childhood but I still can tell many details. I was standing at the side and watched when my grandparents were cooking for worship and I could try the food when they got some extra portions. The taste of the food is still on my tongue and still clear. My time with my family as a child is so sweet that I decided to create my project with those memories. Therefore, the food offerings and the worship culture in Taiwan are my original ideas for my thesis
    • Pedagogical research in chemistry, 1925-1935

      Powell, Wesley H. (2012-08-14)
      Not Available.
    • Perception of Control: Accuracy among Optimists and Pessimists on Noncontingency and Contingengy Tasks

      Baum, Spencer (2011-03-15)
      The learned helplessness theory asserts that depressed individuals unrealistically believe that they have little to no control over aversive outcomes in their lives. Paradoxically, research on judgment of control has demonstrated that depressed individuals are not necessarily pessimistic, but rather more realistic than non-depressed individuals. Most of the research on depressive realism has investigated individual’s perceived control in situations in which they have no actual control. Few studies have investigated perception of control in situations where control is possible. Considering that many circumstances in life are controllable, it is important to examine how different personality variables contribute to accurate judgments of control in controllable situations. In addition, many studies have found a negative correlation between optimism and depression and the positive correlation between depression and pessimism, yet the research on control lacks information on optimistic and pessimistic individuals’ perception of control. Using a computerized judgment of control task, the current study examined perception of control in both no-control and control situations among participants classified as either optimistic or pessimistic and as dysphoric or non-dysphoric. Measures of optimism and pessimism used in this study were the Attributional Style Questionnaire and the Life Orientation Test-Revised and the Beck Depression Inventory-II was used to assess depressogenic symptoms. Participants were 88 undergraduate students. It was hypothesized that optimistic participants would exhibit illusory control in both contingent and non-contingent situations, while the pessimistic participants would provide accurate judgments of control in the no-control situation and underestimate control in the iv control situations. Additionally, it was hypothesized that dysphoric participants would provide accurate control judgments in the no-control situation and underestimate control in the control conditions. The results provided mixed support for the study’s hypotheses. Participants with optimistic explanatory styles provided accurate control judgments in the high contingency task and overestimated control in noncontingent and low contingent tasks. Participants with pessimistic explanatory styles underestimated control in the high contingency task and overestimated in noncontingent and low contingent tasks. Contrary to the depressive realism hypothesis, dysphoric participants did not provide accurate judgments of control regardless of the contingency situation. Dysphoric participants underestimated control in the high contingency situation and overestimated control in noncontingent and low contingent tasks.
    • Perception of Social Presence in Asynchronous and Synchronous Online Discussion from The Perspective of Native and Non-Native Speaker

      Alruhaimi, Abdullah (2011-09-16)
      The technology innovation of telecommunication gave confidence to educational institutions to substitute some of their courses from traditional courses into virtual ones. This switch in education inspired globalization. The learners use either synchronous or asynchronous communication tools to interact with each other. Most previous studies in this field show that social presence is correlated with learner achievement satisfaction and interaction. So the researcher measured the level of social presence for both groups of learners, native and nonnative speakers, across both types of online communication, synchronous and asynchronous communication. The researcher conducted a 2x2 split-plot ANOVA design with repeated measure for this study. The four cells in this design help the researcher to find how every group differs in both discussion formats. The findings of this study will lend a hand to institutions, instructional designers, instructors, and software and hardware developers to improve and concentrate on preferable methods of communication for global virtual institutions. The researcher did not find a statistically significant difference between native and nonnative speakers across the methods of online communications. There was no statistically significant difference between the learners in general across the methods of online communications. But the reported low level of agreement toward the level of social presence in both methods of online communication emphasizes the importance for all people who are concerned about virtual education to work hand in hand to elevate the level of social presence in online learning.The researcher encourages those who are concerned about online learning, and education in general to be the early adopters of technology such as Smartphone applications and the advanced features of social networking such as Facebook and Google wave.
    • Perceptions of Faculty Caring: Comparison of Distance and Traditional Graduate Nursing Students

      Hall, Lea R. (2010-07-20)
      The concept of caring has played a vital role in nursing education. Role modeling has been identified as the primary way to teach caring and has been investigated extensively. As caring has evolved, so has the ways in which we educate nurses. Countless institutions now offer distance education programs in nursing in an effort to address the nurse and nurse educator shortage. It is unclear, however, from the nursing education literature if the modeling of caring can be transferred to students in a distance learning environment. This study investigated the impact of learning environment, program satisfaction, and persistence on graduate nursing students’ perceptions of faculty caring measured by the Organizational Climate for Caring Questionnaire. The 162 participants were recruited from 76 different accredited institutions throughout five states. Preliminary review of the data revealed no variability in persistence among the sample as all students were planning to persist or were graduating. Therefore a two-way analysis of variance was conducted and found no significant interaction between learning environment and student satisfaction and no significant main effect for learning environment. Satisfied students, however, did perceive their faculty as more caring than unsatisfied students. Results from this study indicate that as students feel cared for by their faculty, they are more satisfied with their programs of study, which may lead to better outcomes and increased student retention rates. Furthermore, no differences were found among the three learning environments indicating that role modeling of caring can occur in the distance environment as in the traditional face-to-face environment. Nurse educators need to be aware of both caring and non-caring behaviors they portray regardless of learning environment, and the impact they have on student satisfaction and student persistence.
    • Perceptions of Retention Indicators in Athletic Training

      Juzeszyn, Laura (2013-09-05)
      CONTEXT: Attrition in the profession of athletic training notably occurs in large numbers between 5-10 years of professional experience creating a profession dominated by young, entry-level practitioners. Theoretical constructs are currently used to explain the retention issues in athletic training, yet an assessment of individuals who have left the profession is lacking. Understanding reasons why athletic trainers leave their profession and their future plans may enhance retention efforts in athletic training. OBJECTIVE: To assess reasons why athletic trainers let their BOC lapse and leave the athletic training profession. DESIGN: Cross sectional-observational study. SETTING: Internet Survey. PARTICIPANTS: 1000 former certified athletic trainers who have let their BOC lapse within the past 5 years. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used SPSS to calculate descriptive statistics and a Kruskall-Wallis to assess work/family issues. We collected demographic data on all respondents and the variables contributing to a lack of retention. We assessed gender, age, relationship status, setting of employment, highest level of employment, and children on three levels: work/family, work-related, and burnout. RESULTS: We identified the majority of responses to the effect of work/family were neutral (2.5-3.5). The majority of work-related issues were neutral with the exception of ethical strain and travel demands, which contributed to retention. The majority of burnout factors contributed to individuals leaving the profession. CONCLUSIONS: Former athletic trainers fail to identify the connection between burnout and life stressors and do not make the connection that life stressors contribute to the lack of retention in the profession.
    • Perceptions of Teacher Efficacy in Changing Times

      Parker, Jack Lee Jr.
      The purposes of this study were twofold: determine how teacher perceptions change over time in their ability to create a desired effect on student learning and examine the differences between principal and teacher perceptions of teacher efficacy. Principals and teachers at 150 public schools, broken down as 50 from elementary schools with a grade configuration of pre-kindergarten through Grade 5, 50 from middle schools with a grade configuration of Grade 6 through Grade 8, and 50 from high schools with a grade configuration of Grade 9 through Grade 12 were selected to participate in the study. Each principal was sent the Teacher Efficacy Survey for principals and was asked to forward the Teacher Efficacy Survey for teachers to their teaching staffs. Of the 150 schools chosen from the population for participation in the study, 52 principals and 171 teachers responded to the survey. The principal return was 35%. The number of teachers in the sample population was undetermined due to the lack of knowledge regarding how many teachers actually received the instructions from their principals. Statistical analysis of the data included descriptive statistics comparing each of the 20 questions to the average scores of all questions for teacher and principal groups. A paired samples two-tailed t-test or an analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test the 10 null hypotheses. The level of significance for the analyses of variance was set at .05. Three of the 10 hypotheses were found to have a significant difference in perceptions of teacher efficacy among teachers in various grade level configurations, principals in various grade level configurations, and between male and female teachers. No significant differences were found among teachers with various experience levels, between the teachers and principals of each of the grade level configurations, among teachers in various school sizes, among teachers of different ages, and among schools in various geographical settings. Perceptions of teacher efficacy did differ among teachers in elementary school, teachers in middle school, and teachers in high school with teachers in elementary schools having the highest degree of teacher efficacy, teachers in middle school having the second highest degree of teacher efficacy, and teachers in high school with the lowest level of teacher efficacy among the three groups. These perceptions of teacher efficacy among principals in elementary schools, principals in middle schools, and principals in high schools also differed very similarly to those of teachers with elementary school principals having the highest degree of teacher efficacy, principals in middle school having the second highest degree of teacher efficacy, and principals in high school with the lowest level of teacher efficacy among these three groups. Along with the findings that female teachers have a higher degree of teacher efficacy than male teachers, this research supports that of others in that teacher efficacy is mostly formed during the student teaching and first year of employment for teachers. It is important that young teachers receive needed support and guidance as they form their perceptions of teacher efficacy through mastery experiences.
    • Persistent Revolutions in Colombia and Peru: A Comparative Analysis

      Huson, Brandon (2011-06-17)
      This thesis performs a comparative analysis of rural-based revolutionary movements in Latin America. The movements that are compared are the FARC, originating in Colombia, and the Shining Path, which emerged from the highlands of Peru. The comparison is meant to serve as a test for what variables are predictive of revolutionary success. Since these movements differ in their success in establishing permanent political, social and military movements in their countries over time, their dichotomous outcome can be used to point toward variables that warrant further consideration. Comparison of revolutionary movement makes sense in this case due to the similarities between the FARC and Shining Path, including geography, income distribution, historical political development and international context. However, the politics of these two countries contribute greatly to how these states adapt to their international environment and historical political development, providing a compelling point for analysis and explanation for the different scale of revolutionary success achieved.
    • Personality assessments and their uses in Washington State registered health and human service organizations.

      McKeague, Marianne Ille (2012-04-16)
      The problem of this study was to identify the uses of personality assessments and their resulting consequences on employment at organizations registered with the Northwest Region of the U.S Department of Health and Human Services.This investigation reported on the application of psychometric testing within the organizational context.Specific to this study was personality or behavioral assessments administered when recruting,evaluating or evaluating or retaining workers,the potential implications of behavioral/personality assessments on workers within the organization,and the organizational value perceived by testers utilizing these forms of personality assessments.The investigation examined the current personality measuring practices of organizations by analyzing their responses to a survey questionnaire.The intent of the questionnaire was to determine if responses represented a trend toward a standardization of personality assessment use for purposes of employment development,recruitment,and retention.Response data revealed that use of personality/behavioral tests isn't prevalent at State registered health and human service organizations.Data collected exhibited limited familiarity of personality/behavioral tests isn't prevalent as State registered health and human service organizations.Data collected exhibited limited familiarity/behavioral assessments and a trend against a standardization of personality assessment use in health and human service organizations.Recommendations for future studies are specific to the fundamental hiring and screening processes administered at health and human service organizations,and the instruments utilized for screening individuals desiring to work with vulnerable or disadvantaged populations.Additionally,a duplicate study applying equivalent methodology to a dissimilar demographic re:law firms,retail outlets,or technology companies has the capacity to render information vital for broad analysis of consistency,contextual application,and diversity of workplace personality/behavioral testing.
    • THE PERSPECTIVE OF EDUCATION FROM BLACK–WHITE–BIRACIAL STUDENTS IN MIDDLE AND HIGH SCHOOL

      Jackson, Eric Deville II (Cunningham Memorial library, Terre Haute,Indiana State University, 2017-12)
      The study examined middle and high school Black–White–Biracial (BWB) students’ perspectives of education. In order to accomplish this qualitative research study, the research I sought to (a) gain an understanding of how biracial students viewed themselves in secondary public school systems, (b) understand how BWB students identified within the school environment, and (c) learn how their identities affected their learning. The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to gain in-depth understanding of the overall educational viewpoints of BWB students in select rural, urban, and suburban public schools in Indiana. The design of this research included data collection from one-on-one interviews of BWB students. The one-on-one interviews included BWB students from urban, suburban, and rural areas around Indiana. Through qualitative data analysis, I sought to identify any themes that presented themselves among the responses of the participants. The responses to the interview questions were recorded, transcribed, and coded to identify common themes among their experiences as BWB students. Themes identified included the participants strong sense of being described as a regular person, wanting to know more about their biracial history, along with their current schools doing more to promote more programs toward multiracial students, acting in order to fit into the environment they were in, and the advantages and disadvantages of being biracial. The findings of this study serve as a voice for BWB students and to secondary educational institutions. v Because of the challenges faced by the participants is this study, the findings may also be used to provide secondary institution that are experiencing an increase in multiracial student population, a direction in how to provide educational environments for their multiracial students.
    • Phylogenomics: Molecular Evolution in the Genomics Era

      Seetharam, Arun Somwarpet (2012-10-19)
      Evolutionary studies in recent years have been transformed by the development of new, powerful techniques for investigating many mechanisms and events of molecular evolution. Large collections of many different complete genomes now available in the public domain offer great advantages to genomic scale evolutionary studies. Phylogenomics, a term often used to describe the use of genomic scale data to infer species phylogeny or to predict protein function through evolutionary history, is greatly benefitted by the revolutionary progress in DNA sequencing technology. In the present study we developed and utilized various phylogenomic methods on large genome-scale data. In the first study, we applied Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) analysis to reexamine current evolutionary relationships for 12 Drosophila species using the predicted proteins from whole genomes. An SVD analysis on unfiltered whole genomes (193,622 predicted proteins) produced the currently accepted Drosophila phylogeny at higher dimensions, except for the generally accepted, but difficult to discern, sister relationship between D. erecta and D. yakuba. Also, in accordance with previous studies, many sequences appear to support alternative phylogenies. In this case, we observed grouping of D. erecta with D. sechellia when approximately 55% to 95% of the proteins were removed using a filter based on projection values or by reducing resolution by using fewer dimensions. In the second study, we simulated restriction enzyme digestions on 21 sequenced genomes of various Drosophila species. Using the fragments generated by simulated digestion from the predicted targets of 16 Type IIB restriction enzymes, we sampled a large and effectively arbitrary selection of loci from these genomes. The resulting fragments were then used to compare organisms and to calculate the distance between genomes in pair-wise combination by counting the number of shared fragments between the two genomes. Phylogenetic trees were then generated for each enzyme using this distance measure, and the consensus was calculated. The consensus tree obtained agrees well with the currently accepted tree for these Drosophila species. We conclude that multi-locus sub-genomic representation combined with next generation sequencing, especially for individuals and species without previous genome characterization, can improve studies of comparative genomics and the building of accurate phylogenetic trees. The third study utilized the relatively new Daphnia genome in an attempt to identify 40 orthologous groups of C2H2 Zinc-finger proteins that were previously determined to be well conserved in bilaterians. We identified 58 C2H2 ZFP genes in Daphnia that belong to these 40 distinct families. The Daphnia genome appears to be relatively efficient with respect to these well-conserved C2H2 ZFP, since only 7 of the 40 gene families have more than one identified member. Worms have a comparable number of 6. In flies and humans, C2H2 ZFP gene expansions are more common, since these organisms display 15 and 24 multi-member families respectively. In contrast, only three of the well-conserved C2H2 ZFP families have expanded in Daphnia relative to Drosophila, and in two of these cases, just one additional gene was found. The KLF/SP family in Daphnia, however, is significantly larger than that of Drosophila, and many of the additional members found in Daphnia appear to correspond to KLF 1/2/4 homologs, which are absent in Drosophila, but present in vertebrates. The last study was conducted to investigate the conservation and distribution of 38 C2H2 ZNF gene families in Eukaryotes. We combined two popular approaches for homolog detection, Reciprocal Best Hit (RBH) and Hidden–Markov model (HMM) profile search, on a diverse set of complete genomes of 124 eukaryotic species ranging from excavates to humans. We succeeded in identifying 3,675 genes as distinct members of the 38 C2H2 gene families. This largely automated technique is much faster than manual methods and is able to detect homologs accurately and efficiently among a diverse set of organisms. Our analysis of the 38 evolutionarily conserved C2H2 ZNF gene families revealed a stepwise appearance of ZNF families, agreeing well with the phylogenetic relationship of the organisms compared and their presumed stepwise increase in complexity.
    • Physiological and Perceived Effects of Head Cooling During Simulated Firefighting Activity

      McKenzie, Amy L. (2011-07-19)
      Accessory cooling devices have been developed to protect firefighters (FF) from suffering an exertional heat illness by attenuating the rise in core body temperature. Head cooling (HC) via a cold gel pack placed inside the helmet is one cooling mechanism marketed to FF, but the research regarding its efficacy is limited. PURPOSE: To investigate the physiological and perceived effects of HC during simulated firefighting activity (FFA). METHODS: Participants (males; 40±8 y; 168±7 cm; 91.8±14.2 kg) were randomly assigned to either the HC group (n=9), who completed FFA while wearing a cold gel pack inside their helmet, or the control (CON) group (n=10), who received no accessory cooling during FFA. FF completed four FFA stations in full turnout gear and self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) (23.3±1.4 kg). FFA stations lasted 15 min and included an obstacle course, a high-rise drill, a two-story search and rescue drill, and car extrication. Stations were completed in random order. After each station, FF replaced their air cylinder and HC replaced their gel pack; FF then completed a different station. After every two stations, the FF rested for 15 min in the shade by removing their turnout gear and SCBA and drinking water ad libitum. Gastrointestinal temperature (GI), heart rate (HR), Stroop Test interference score (ST), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), perceived thermal strain (PTS), and hydration status were measured. Repeated measures ANOVAs were used to compare groups across time. RESULTS: No significant demographic differences were found between groups (p>0.05). GI (39.18±0.49°C) and HR (163±22bpm) increased during FFA. No significant interactions were found for GI, HR, ST, PTS, or RPE (p>0.05). There were no differences in sweat loss (2.5±0.8 L), hypohydration (0.9±0.8%), or post FFA urine specific gravity (1.020±0.008) between groups (p>0.05). Weak relationships were noted between perceived thermal sensation and gastrointestinal temperature (r=.248). CONCLUSION: HC did not attenuate the rise in GI or reduce HR during FFA. The discrepancy between perception and actual body temperature may be dangerous for FF, as it may allow them to work beyond their central drive and the critical GI threshold.
    • Physiological Responses to Temperature in the Lizard, Sceloporus Undulatus

      Ehrenberger, Joseph C. (2010-07-20)
      Temperature affects all organisms differently. Physiological processes, such as metabolism, interact with temperature to determine a minimal rate of energy loss. Physiological limits, such as heat and cold tolerances, likely constrain the activity and survival of organisms. Ultimately, these physiological processes and limits determine a species‘ geographical distribution. Through experiments, I sought to understand specifically how temperature affects the physiology of the lizard Sceloporus undulatus. This species is a model organism to answer such questions, as it is geographically widespread species and well-described phylogenetically. In the first experiment, I compared standard metabolic rates of lizards from three locales and interpreted these rates in the context of the metabolic theory of ecology—a set of models that describes the effects of body mass and body temperature on metabolic rate. My findings indicate that metabolic rate increases with body size, but that the exact nature of this relationship depends on temperature; this result contrasts a major assumption of the metabolic theory of ecology, which stresses the need to evaluate this theory through by examining intraspecific variation. In my second experiment, I measured the preferred body temperatures and critical thermal limits of S. undulatus. Existing theory indicates that physiological traits associated with temperature may be evolutionary static or labile. By measuring these traits from seven populations, which cover the majority of this species‘ range, I have provided one of the most comprehensive comparisons of thermal physiology in a single biological species. My results are consistent with the static view of thermal physiology, suggesting that thermal physiology has not adapted to local conditions in this species.