• Race Bias in the Diagnosis of Schizophrenia

      Fernandez, Rose M. (2013-01-30)
      Accuracy of diagnoses appears to be influenced by the client’s race. Previous research indicates that African Americans are overdiagnosed with Schizophrenia, whereas findings for Hispanic patients have been inconsistent. However, there is evidence that the diagnostic approach used by the clinician may influence accuracy and that bias may be reduced by using a structured assessment of symptoms prior to assigning a diagnosis. There is also some limited evidence for the role of clinician race in diagnosis, with Caucasian clinicians more likely than non-Caucasian clinicians to diagnose African American patients with Schizophrenia. This study utilized a vignette methodology to examine the effects of race of the client, diagnostic approach, and clinician race on diagnoses. A national sample of psychologists read two cases containing a mixture of psychotic and mood disorder features in which patient race was varied, rated the symptoms in the cases, and assigned diagnoses. Diagnostic approach was manipulated by asking half of the clinicians to rate symptoms before assigning a diagnosis (i.e., simulated DSM-IV approach) and half to assign a diagnosis before rating the symptoms in the case (i.e., simulated prototype approach). It was hypothesized that the African American version of the cases would receive more diagnoses of Schizophrenia, particularly by Caucasian clinicians and when clinicians utilized the prototype approach. The results of the study provided little support for the hypotheses. There were few differences based on patient race, diagnostic approach, or significant interactions between them, and the best predictors of diagnoses were the symptom ratings. There also were no significant interactions between clinician race and patient race, although minority clinicians assigned more mood disorder diagnoses and fewer Schizophrenia diagnoses than Caucasian clinicians, regardless of patient race. This latter finding may be a function of the particular symptoms included in the two cases or the low number of minority clinicians, despite efforts to recruit a diverse sample. Overall, clinicians were reasonably consistent in their assessment of the symptoms and the assigned diagnosis, and were not biased by patient race or diagnostic approach. This is an encouraging finding and suggests that these clinicians may be more aware of concerns about misdiagnosis than in the studies conducted in the past, although the limitations of the study design may have contributed to the lack of significant findings. Despite the mostly negative findings and failure to support the hypotheses, the influence of race and other individual differences on assessment and diagnosis is an important topic and worthy of continued research.
    • Racial Identity and Religiousness: Role of Religion and Racial Identity on Substance Use In African American College Students

      Mailey, Chaz D (2011-09-20)
      The present study sought to explore the relationships between Black racial identity, religiosity, and substance use in African American college students. Religiosity has commonly been identified as a protective factor against substance use for many ethnic groups, and historically religion has played a significant role in the lives of African Americans. Surprisingly, some research suggests that while important, religiosity may not be as strong of a protective factor against abuse or excessive consumption of substances for African Americans as it is for other ethnicities (Amey, Albrect, & Miller, 1996). It has been suggested that for African Americans, a strong ethnic identity can help moderate drinking (Klonoff & Landrine, 1999; Pugh & Bry, 2007). One hundred and eighty-four African American students recruited from three Midwestern predominantly White universities, one Midwestern predominantly Black university and one Historically Black Southern university completed an online questionnaire consisting of the Cross Racial Identity Scale (CRIS); the Religious Involvement subscale from the Brief Multidimensional Measure of Religion and Spirituality (BMMRS), measures of alcohol and marijuana use, and the Young Adult Alcohol Problems Screening Test (YAAPST). As hypothesized, racial identity and religiousness/spirituality were related with substance use in African American college students. The secondary hypothesis that black racial identity would be a better predictor of substance use than would religiousness/spirituality was not supported. For African American students in the current sample, religiosity was a better predictor of substance use than was Black racial identity. However, several differential relationships were observed between males and females. Overall, the study contributes support to the literature regarding how Black racial identity and religiosity influence substance use in African Americans. Limitations, significant findings, and possible directions for future research are presented.
    • Raising African American Student Graduation Rates: A Best Practices Study of Predominantly White Liberal Arts Colleges

      Pool, Robert W.
      This qualitative study sought to explore best practices at small, private liberal arts institutions that experienced large increases in African American graduation rates. Particular focus was on institutions that enrolled less than 17% minority students whose overall enrollment fell within the middle 50% of all SAT scores and the middle 50% of institutional full time equivalent (FTE) spending. Two colleges were selected for study via one-on-one interviews of key personnel, focus groups of students, and institutional document analyses. Themes from the data which participants felt contributed to the unusually large African American graduation rate increases are discussed.
    • Raising African American student graduation rates:A best practices study of predominantly white liberals arts college.

      Pool, Robert W (2012-05-21)
      This qualitative study sought to explore best practices at small, private liberal arts institutions that experienced large increases in African American graduation rates. Particular focus was on institutions that enrolled less than 17% minority students whose overall enrollment fell within the middle 50% of all SAT scores and the middle 50% of institutional full time equivalent (FTE) spending. Two colleges were selected for study via one-on-one interviews of key personnel, focus groups of students, and institutional document analyses. Themes from the data which participants felt contributed to the unusually large African American graduation rate increases are discussed.
    • Recent investigations in the teaching of secondary biology

      Graham, Ross R. (2012-07-30)
      Not Available.
    • Recreation of the young people of a typical rural community

      Smith, Fay Wilson (2013-02-26)
      Not available.
    • Relation of science teaching to pupil's reading activities

      Hoffhaus, Edwin H. (2012-08-15)
      Not Available.
    • RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ATHLETIC IDENTITY AND CAREER DECISION-MAKING SELF-EFFICACY AMONG KOREAN COLLEGIATE STUDENT ATHLETES

      Moon, Jong Joo (Cunningham Memorial Library, Terre Haute, Indiana State University., 2017-12)
      This study explored barriers that Korean collegiate student athletes confront with regard to pursuing careers outside of professional athletics. More specifically, the purpose of the study was to identify the barriers to Korean student athletes’ career development, as well as to examine the relationships among the psychological constructs of athlete identity and career decision making self-efficacy. A total of 321 Korean student athletes participated in the study, including 263 men (81.9%) and 59 women (18.1%). Participants completed demographic information along with a parental influence questionnaire, the Athletic Identity Measurement Scale, Career Decision Making Self-Efficacy Scale Short Form, and two open-ended questions. Stepwise regression analyses were employed to examine the research questions of interest. The results showed that gender (p < .001), self-appraisal (p < .001), planning (p < .001), and goal selection (p < .001) were significant positive predictors of social identity. Gender (p < .001), type of sport (p < .05), self-appraisal (p < .01), planning (p < .001), and goal selection (p < .001) were significant positive predictors of exclusivity. Finally, gender (p < .001), planning (p < .05), and goal selection (p < .001) were significant positive predictors of negative affectivity. The study also explored Korean collegiate athletes’ needs and barriers as they impact their future careers. Korean collegiate athletes felt they needed to improve their personal capability and ability, be more committed and hardworking, have qualifications and certifications, improve their athletic skills and English skills, and obtain more financial support to pursue their future careers. Injury or slump by injury, low salaries or lack of financial support iv from their families, military service, surroundings, and English skills were also perceived barriers to their future careers. The combined findings suggest that more in-depth qualitative inquiry is needed. A deeper understanding of the Korean student experience and how national priorities for athletes interface would further extend this literature which is in its infancy in the Korean context. Nevertheless, this study represents the first of its kind to attempt a comprehensive investigation of the Korean student athlete and the intersection of athletic identity and career decision-making self-efficacy.
    • Relationship between First Year Success Programs and Second-Year Persistence

      Rupley, Elissa
      Much research has been conducted on the success and retention of first-year students. Little research has been done on second-year students and their experiences. This study was completed to understand the experience of second year students.The purpose of this research study was to explore the attitudes, perceptions, and experiences of current second-year students who participated in the Academic Opportunity Program at Indiana State University to determine if the skills gained during the program transfer to the second-year. Focus groups were conducted to collect data. The results revealed that while the Academic Opportunity Program at Indiana State University is a great opportunity for many students there are changes that could benefit many of the students. Results indicated that motivation, both intrinsic and extrinsic types of motivation, is a key factor in student success and retention.
    • Relationship Between Foot Pressures and Alterations of Horizontal Velocities of the Center of Mass While Hurdling

      Cole, Braden (2011-09-19)
      This study analyzed the landing phase of hurdle clearance to investigate how the vertical displacement in the hurdler’s center of mass and foot pressures at ground contact lead to a change in the hurdler’s overall horizontal velocity of the center of mass. This study examined four male collegiate high hurdlers as they performed three trials of clearing one 42 inch high hurdle. The subjects were filmed during the three trials using three Panasonic cameras (60 Hz) and one JVC video camera (60 Hz), which was later used to provide video images in order to digitize each frame using the APAS software. The subjects’ foot pressure mapping data was also recorded at a sampling rate of 400 Hz during the three trials using the Tekscan high resolution (HR) Fscan hardware and software. The Tekscan HR Fscan hardware and software allowed for pressure measurements of the subjects’ forefoot, heel, and total foot pressure measured in pounds per square inch. The data collected from the APAS software and the Tekscan software was then calculated using the statistical software package SPSS. Multiple Pearson product correlations were analyzed between the kinematic and kinetic variables with one of these correlations resulting in a moderate relationship. The correlation between the change in the center of mass horizontal velocity and the heel pressure psi during the landing phase resulted in a moderate relationship with a correlation coefficient of r = .612, p= .034. The relationship between these two variables indicates that when a hurdler heel taps during the transitioning from flight phase to landing phase there is a decrease in their horizontal velocity.
    • Relationship between sources of support and mother-infant bonding.

      Schwing, Stephanie (2012-04-16)
      Adult women who had become new mothers within the last year completed a brief demographic questionnaire the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support,and the Post Partum Bonding Questionnaire.Mother's perceived levels of (a)significant others,(b)family,and(c)friend support were examined in relation to their perceptions of (d)general impaired bonding,(e)rejection and anger, and (f)anxiety about care of their infants.The hypothesis that all three sources of perceived social support would negatively relate to problems in the bonding relationship was supported.However,the hypothesis that significant other support would be the most significant predictor for the bonding relationship was not supported.Only familial support uniquely related to the bonding relationship.
    • Relationship satisfaction as a function of the discrepancy between experienced and desired levels of intimacy

      Malcolm, Joan I (2012-04-23)
      The present study investigated the effect of discrepancies between experienced versus desired levels ·of intimacy on relationship satisfaction using data from 135 undergraduate students. Subjects completed the Personal Assessment of Intimacy in Relationships (PAIR), the Dyaqic Relationship Questionnaire (DRQ), the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS), and a Background Questionnaire (BQ).Correlation and multiple regression analyses indicated that discrepancies between Desired and Experienced Intimacy, as measured by the PAIR and DRQ, was highly predictive of relationship satisfaction, as measured by the DAS. However, Experienced Intimacy was a better predictor of relationship satisfaction. Both males and females ranked Emotional Intimacy as most important to relationship satisfaction and it was also the strongest predictor of relationship satisfaction. The DRQ was found to be an efficacious pictorial assessment of intimacy.
    • Relationships Between Supervisory Behaviors and School Climate as Perceived by Secondary School Teachers in the State of Kuwait

      Alhajeri, Salem
      This study was conducted to investigate the perceptions of secondary school teachers of their principals‟ supervisory behaviors and of their schools‟ climate. Furthermore, the study examined the relationship between supervisory behaviors and school climate in Kuwaiti secondary schools. Data was collected using two surveys. Bulach, Boothe, and Michael‟s (1999) survey was used to assess supervisory behaviors of principals as perceived by teacher. The School Climate Survey, which was developed by Gruenert (2008), was used to assess school climate. The participants of the study consisted of 575 male and female secondary school teachers from six school districts. The participants were selected randomly. The study results revealed that there were significant differences in perceived supervisory behaviors based on gender and district. Female teachers‟ perceived their female principals‟ ability in supervisory behaviors to be higher than male teachers viewed their principals. Also, there were significant differences in school climate based on gender and district. Male teachers‟ perceptions were more positive toward school climate than female teachers‟ perceptions.‟ Significant correlation was found between supervisory behaviors and school climate. Implications for findings and recommendations for future research are discussed.
    • Remedial methods for common faults in high-school journalism

      Jardine, William C. (2013-01-22)
      Not available.
    • Remote Sensing of Tanzanian Volcano Oldoinyo Lengai: Verifying Detection Methods of Flow Activity

      Frystak, Scott Richard (2013-01-30)
      Every day volcanoes erupt with varying magnitudes across the globe, and remote sensing used to keep track of volcanic activity would be a useful application. One promising use of remote sensing to understand volcanoes at a distance is to distinguish gaseous or lava flow activity. Current methods for differentiating volcanic activity with remote sensing have only been applied at Mt. Etna, and research is still needed to verify that the detection of gaseous or lava flow activity is possible at volcanoes with different compositions. The subject of this study, the Oldoinyo Lengai volcano, is a natrocarbonatite stratovolcano with drastically different chemical composition from Mt. Etna. These composition differences allow for the verification of gaseous or lava flow activity remotely over time. Furthermore, looking closely at how volcano composition affects detection will allow us to understand the variables required to detect gaseous or lava flow activity. The results of the research are inconclusive, but provide useful information for this application of remote sensing. For Oldoinyo Lengai, the Landsat TM data were unable to resolve lava flows or degassing activity, due to a combination of the volcano’s small size, the lack of lava flows, and/or pixel saturation. Superior sensors such as hyperspectral sensors are needed to adequately perform the analysis, and would likely result in the capability to differentiate volcanic activity. Further applicability of the study is prudent due to the varying nature of volcanoes and sensors. Gathering additional detailed information should be at the forefront of volcanic monitoring research.