• Saudi College Student's preference for synchronous and asynchronous web-based courses:An exploratory study.

      Al-Jabri, Abdullah (2012-05-17)
      Technology has become an essential component of the teaching-learning process,and online-learning,in particular,has captivated the interest of many educational institutions throughout the world.Web-based learning has provided both students and teachers with new and unique ways of communicating with each other.As a result,many studies have been conducted to investigate factors affecting the establishment of productive communications in web-based settings.Likewise,the focus of this study is how the number of courses completed and the participants perception of their English language competence impacted their preferences for synchronous and asynchronous web-based learning in English instruction and in Arabic instruction.The sample consisted of 82 Saudi undergraduate students enrolled at Indiana State University during the spring 2011.The study used a hard copy modified version of a survey that was designed by Burton(2009)containing 27 items,which were divided into three parts.A four-point Likert scale was utilized to gain an overall score of student's preferences for synchronous and asynchronous web-based courses.Descriptive statistics(frequencies,means and standard deviations,skewness and kurtosis).one-way ANOVA tests,and repeated measures test(paired samples t-test)were utilized to answer the questions presented in this study.The results revealed that there was no significant difference in student preferences for synchronous web-based courses delivered in English or Arabic on the basis of grade level or the learner's perceptions of their level of English language proficiency.There were also no significant differences between preferences for synchronous learning in English(L2)and preferences for synchronous learning in Arabic(L1).The results also showed that the participants had greater preferences for synchronous online courses over asynchronous online courses.These findings mirror those found in earlier studies.The descriptive statistics revealed that learners had a strong preference for having direct conversations with the teacher,having more flexibility,studying on their own,and learning new materials through discussions with others or through having someone explain it to them.
    • School Climate, Teacher Satisfaction, and Receptivity to Change

      Daar, Sherri Eaton-Bin (2010-09-22)
      The purpose of this study was to explore what school climate factors influence teacher job satisfaction and receptivity to change. A survey based upon current literature was developed to assess teacher perceptions of the factors which may influence job satisfaction and receptivity to change. A regression analysis was conducted to determine impact of the nine school climate factors on teacher job satisfaction. A second regression was conducted using the nine school climate domains and satisfaction to evaluate which factors had an impact on teacher receptivity to change. Study findings indicated that (a) study participants report there to be two factors which influence job satisfaction in an educational environment: administration and instructional management, (b) participants’ also reported there to be three factors which influence receptivity to change: administration, student academic orientation and student activities.
    • School Factors Related to Reading Achievement in Rural Schools with and without High Poverty

      Miller, Seth W.
      This quantitative study identified how rural schools differ on five school-level factors related to student achievement according to their performance on Grade 3 reading. Through use of a MANOVA test, it was shown that principals of high-poverty rural schools that made AYP in Grade 3 reading reported significantly higher levels of guaranteed and viable curriculum than principals of high-poverty rural schools that did not make AYP. There were no significant differences in the presence of the school-level factors in rural schools without high poverty based on the principal reports. Additionally, the study identified which school-level factors predict student achievement in rural schools with and without high poverty. Through use of a multiple regression test, it was determined that the school-level factors did not serve as significant predictors of Grade 3 reading performance in the high poverty rural schools. One factor, guaranteed and viable curriculum, was shown to predict for student achievement in rural schools without high poverty. In conducting this study, additional research questions were addressed. Through linear regression, it was demonstrated that poverty accounted for much more of the variance in reading scores in non-rural schools (58%, N = 1,761) than in rural schools (19%, N = 427). Through multivariate multiple regression testing, it was found that there was not a significant ability for either Grade 3 reading performance or poverty to predict for the school-level factors in rural schools. Finally, through multiple regression testing, it was determined that three predictors (poverty, guaranteed and viable curriculum, and safe and orderly environment) were able to significantly predict reading scores for rural schools. The results of the study provide rural school leaders a better understanding of the overall strengths and weaknesses of a particular school and the potential benefits of school improvement initiatives geared around school-level factors. This knowledge will prove useful to the overall research base on rural school effectiveness. More specifically, this knowledge will help guide the decisions of school leaders concerned with improving student achievement in rural school districts with high poverty.
    • School leadership mentoring characteristics in an era of significant educational reform.

      Monahan, Bobbie Jo (2012-05-18)
      The state of Indiana is undergoing substantial educational reform,as is the nation.Educational leaders are in great need of support as they address reform initiatives.The support that educational leaders receive from mentors/coaches may be a determining factor in how they embrace the latest reform and work with their school communities.The primary purpose of this study was to understand the role of experienced superintendents/district leaders as mentors and coaches to new superintendents/district leaders in times of stressful educational reform.Four experienced district leaders were interviewed using the research method of qualitative inquiry.Based on the perceptions of four experienced district leaders in response to interview questions involving leadership skills outlined by the National Association of Secondary School Principals:Mentoring and Coaching-Developing Educational Leaders,the following conclusions were made:1)The mentor's leadership style is significant in the mentoring of new district leaders.Each participant described his or her leadership styles differently,yet there is a connection of high involvement in their organizations and the need to adapt their leadership to each unique situation. 2)Legislative agendas are directly impacting district leadership.Both Indiana Senate Bill No 575(Collective Bargaining Act,2011a)and Indiana Senate Bill No 1(Teaching Evaluation and Licensing Act,2011b)clearly focus on district leaders.3)Stress defines educational leadership and is a persistent topic between mentors and mentees. 4)Stress is a positive factor in leading.However,the stress from current educational reform is viewed as a positive factor in leading amidst the negative stressors. 5)Successful mentoring practices in education among participants are more informal than formal.6)The reasons for mentoring in an educational setting are grounded in feeling of moral accountability regarding mentoring and giving back to the craft of leading.
    • School Size and Student Achievement

      Riggen, Vicki
      This study examined whether a relationship between high school size and student achievement exists in Illinois public high schools in reading and math, as measured by the Prairie State Achievement Exam (PSAE), which is administered to all Illinois 11th-grade students. This study also examined whether the factors of socioeconomic status, English language learners status, special education rate, mobility rate, dropout rate, class size, instructional expenditure per pupil, attendance rate, and/or school enrollment exhibited interaction effects that can be used to predict student achievement as measured by reading and mathematics performance on the PSAE. This study provides quantitative data that will aid educational leaders in school decision-making that can enhance student achievement. Findings of this study revealed a relationship does not exist between school size and student performance in reading. Of nine student and building characteristics investigated, eight had a significant ability to predict student performance on PSAE reading. Socioeconomic status was found to have the most significant effect, with student attendance having the second greatest effect. English language learner status had the third greatest impact. Findings of this study revealed a relationship does exist between school size and student performance in math. Large schools in the state of Illinois outperformed both small and medium schools in math. Of nine student and building characteristics investigated, seven had a significant ability to predict student performance on PSAE math. Socioeconomic status was found to have the most significant effect, with student attendance having the second greatest effect. Instructional expenditure per pupil had the third greatest impact. This study gives educational leaders in small, medium, and large schools access to very specific information regarding the student and building characteristics that can best predict student performance in their schools.
    • School violence and its effects on academic achievement among eighth graders.

      Myers, Kevin A
      The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of school violence on academic performance among eigth grade students.The rational for this investigation was a result of the preoccupation for safety in our educational institutions.Additionally,it investigated the relationship between three specific school violence behaviors and student background characteristics.The three behaviors are negative personal behavior,school violence victimization,and school violence perception.Background varibales included in the analysis are gender,race/ethnicity,socio-economic status,family income and school type(public,Catholic,private other religious and private non-religious).The data used to explore the effect of school violence on academic achievement was taken from the the National Crime Victimization Survey:School Crime Supplement(NCVS:SVS;U.S Departments of Education and Justice,1998).Descriptive analysis was used to describe student's background characteristics and school factors.Findings indicated that negative personal behavior had a significant relationship on student's academic performance.Also,students experiencing victimization and student's perceptions of violence in their schools had a significant relationship on student's academic performance.Also,students experiencing victimization and student's perceptions of violence in their schools had a significant relationship on academic performance.Findings also indicated that students from public and private non-religious schools show similar patterns of associations between levels of school violence and school violence behaviors.
    • Science Museums, Centers and Professional Development: Teachers Self Reflection on Improving Their Practice

      Ogbomo, Queen O. (2010-07-20)
      The purpose of this qualitative case study research was to ascertain the significance of the professional development programs workshops organized by a science museum and a science center in two Midwestern cities. The research investigated the effect the workshops had on the instructional practice of the participating elementary science teachers. More specifically, this study was guided by the following research question: How do the professional development programs at museums help teachers change the way they teach and consider science in their classroom? The core of this study consists of case studies of six elementary school teachers who were identified as a result of their participation in the museum and science center workshops and an instructor from the museum and another instructor from the science center. Teachers‟ selfefficacy regarding the teaching of science was sought through a Likert-style survey and triangulated with classroom observations and interviews of individual teachers. The findings of this study revealed two overarching themes: one, that the workshops were beneficial and two, that it did not improve instructional practice. The following are the factors identified as reasons for the workshops being beneficial: 1) the opportunity to build their content knowledge, 2) opportunity to experience and discuss the materials: 3) opportunity to collaborate with colleagues: 4) workshop materials and resources are linked to state goals: and 5) that they promote teacher confidence. The teachers who thought the workshops did not improve their instructional practice gave the following reasons: 1) they already had a strong background in science: 2) there was no follow-up activity: 3) the loss of a full day of teaching: and 4) the time constraint to implement what was learned. Though this study utilized a small sample of teachers, those involved in this study felt they acquired knowledge that would be either beneficial to them or to their students and they particularly enjoyed the inquiry-based activities that were conducted in either the museum or the science center workshops.
    • Secondary school principal-central office communication:A comparitive study of team and non-team management.

      Kwak, Han Sik (2012-04-25)
      The study assumed there were possible differences in communication behavior between secondary school principles associated with team management type organizations and secondary school principles associated with non-team management type organizations in the State of Indiana.The purpose of the study was to gain an insight into Indiana secondary school principal's perceptions regarding the utlization and the desirability of the communication modes and the communication among relative to performance of secondary school principal's role functions.Method: A total of one-hundred participants from two groups were surveyed:fifty team management secondary school principles and fifty on-team management secondary school principles.The two-tailes t-test at the .05 level was used for the statistical treatment.Conclusions: 1)The Indiana non-team management principles not only practice,but also desire a greater amount of communication in regard to administration of student personnel,than the Indiana team management principals do. 2)The extent of utlization and desirability of face-to-face,instrumental,and written communication with central office administrators tends not to differ between team and non-team management principles. 3)The extent of utilization and sesirabality of communication with central office administrators concerning curriculum,budgets,evaluation and supervision of personnel,public relations programs, and physical facilities tends not to differ between the two groups of principals.4)Indiana team management principles desire a greater amount of written communication with central office administrators than is practiced concerning their specific role functions. 5)Indiana non-team management principals are not satisfied with communication with central office administrators,while Indiana team management principals tend to be satisfied with communication with central office administrators.
    • Seeing in the Dark

      Brennan, Matthew, 1955- (2011-08-30)
    • Seeking Truth

      Gibson, Ricki (2012-06-25)
      I seek to reveal truths with my art. Working with photographic portraits I try to show more than just a pretty face; I try to unveil the subjects both to themselves and to the viewer. I want to boil down their essences to the core and convey their true selves. I try to show the duality of the subjects' personalities. One side of that personality is what photographer Nelli Palomaki calls your "mirror face" 1; this is the face you choose to put out into the world and illustrates the way in which you would like to be perceived. I like to juxtapose this image, the "mirror face," with an image of the true self; the self you do not always like to show the world, the one that you only truly reveal when alone.
    • Self-concept,academic achievement,and sex as correlates of human figure drawings.

      Grubb, Deborah (2012-04-16)
      The purpose of the study was to determine whether or not there is a relationship between children's human figure drawings(HFDs),self-concept measured by the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale(CSCS),academic achievement and sex.The HFDs were analysed using the Koppitz(1984)scoring system for emotional indicators(EIs),a global rating of "pathological" or "not pathological",critical items drawn from past research,and the Goodenough-Harris(1963) scoring system.The subjects were 120 middle school students matched for sex and drawn for high or low achievement levels on the Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills(CTBS).The results indicated that each of the HFD scoring methods was related to self-concept on the Piers-Harris CSCS.However,when achievement,sex,Koppitz EIs,critical features,global score,and the Goodenough-Harris score were all included in a stepwise multiple regression analysis,achievement was by far the best single predictor of self-concept.The results indicated that three of the four HFD scoring methods used in the study were significantly related to achievement level on the CTBS.These were Koppitz EIs,one critical feature,and the Goodenough-Harris HFD score.There were no sex differences on the global HFD score or the Piers-Harris CSCS.The intent of the study was to determine if HFDs could be validated as a measure of self-concept and to determine their relationship to academic achievement and sex.The present research indicates that both global score and individual HFD features are related to self-concept for adolescents.It also indicates that there are significant sex and achievement level differences in HFD performance.It appears that the prudent use of HFDs is an adjunct to other forms of evaluation.
    • Self-Discrepancies, Symbolic Self-Completion, and the Role of Possessions in the Transition from High School to College

      Lochbaum, Ashlee (2011-03-16)
      The purpose of the current study was to explore some of the ways that possessions may be used symbolically to aid adjustment in first-semester freshmen who are transitioning to college. Based on prior literature, the transition to college is often accompanied by self-discrepancies which may be alleviated through symbolic self-completion using possessions. Overall, 219 students participated in this study. Results indicate that first-semester freshmen, as well as upperclassmen students, rely on the symbolic use of possessions in both managing negative affect and symbolizing the ideal college student identity. Furthermore, managing affect through the use of feeling regulators was found to best aid adjustment early in the transition, while symbolizing the college identity through the use of identity claims was found to better aid adjustment later in the transition. In addition, the importance of the college student identity was found to moderate this relationship. The results of this study add to the current literature on self-discrepancies and symbolic self-completion, as well as pointing to the importance of personal possessions in symbolizing the identity and facilitating adjustment in self-relevant domains.
    • Self-efficacy and health value among undergraduates following a lifetime fitness course.

      Brown, Heather M (2012-04-20)
      The question of whether perceived self-efficacy for exercise and health value,respectively,varied as a function of gender and exercise stage of change was the focus of this study.An archival data set was used.Participants were 190 college students who completed a demographic questionnaire,the Exercise Stage of Change Questionnaire,the Rokeach Values Survey,and the Self-Efficacy for Exercise questionnaire before and after completing a lifetime fitness course.Two 2-factor analyses of covariance were conducted for each dependent varible,self-efficacy and health-value.Gender and exercise stage of change were the independent variables.Exercise stage of change was divided into four subcategories:contemplation,preparation,action nand maintenance.A pretest on each dependent variable served as the covariate.Results of the analysis indicated that health valuse scores were significantly different as a function of exercise stage of change.A significant main effect was found between health value and exercise stage of change.A sigificant main effect was found between health value and exercise stage of change.A Bryant Paulson procedure was performed to determine which of the four stages of change for exercise differed on health value scores.The analysis revealed that participants in the contemplation and preparation exercise stages of change ranked health value significantly lower than participants in the action and maintenance exercise stages of change.Implications for theory and pratice and recommendations for future research are discussed.
    • Self-Expansion and Breakups: Effects on Possessions

      Sandrick, Caroline (2014-03-18)
      The current study strives to understand the influence of breakups on the expanded self and its representation through possessions. The self-expansion theory (Aron & Aron, 1986) states that involving oneself in a romantic relationship alters one’s sense of self by taking on the partner’s characteristics and qualities and integrating them into the self. The study examined the reported self-expansion in the relationship and the couple representativeness of a possession to see if this affected the outcome of the possessions (kept vs. discarded). Participants were asked to report their three favorite possessions and five possessions they would keep (or kept) and five possessions they would discard (or discarded). As hypothesized, people in self-expanding relationships kept (or would keep) possessions that were more representative of their relationships; this was not found for items that were discarded (or would be discarded). People in a prior self-expanding relationship had more relationship representative items as their favorite possessions; this was not seen for those currently in a self-expanding relationship. There was no significant relationship between self-expansion in a prior relationship and emotional distress or self-concept clarity for those who were dumped by their partner. This study provides some support for the idea that people keep possessions from self-expanding relationships to receive support for the expanded self.
    • Self-Expansion and Couple Possessions: The Representation of The Self and Other in Valued Possessions

      Paniccia, Lindsey (2011-09-20)
      The current study seeks to understand the influence of romantic relationships on identity symbolism, specifically the use of personal possessions as a means of achieving social validation. According to self expansion theory (Aron & Aron, 1986), engaging in a romantic relationship alters one’s sense of self; romantic partners take on the qualities and characteristics of a partner and integrate them into the self. To understand the process of identity symbolism due to one’s newly expanded sense of self, this study investigated the link between the amount of reported self-expansion and couple representativeness as well as the function of one’s possessions (other-direct identity claim, self-directed identity claim, feeling regulator, and utility). Participants were asked to read a vignette in which they were told their home had been destroyed by a tornado and were then asked to list three possessions which they wished to find among the rubble. Results indicated that reported self-expansion is associated with the tendency to choose couple representative possessions as indicators of the self. As hypothesized, couple representativeness was significantly correlated with tendency to use possession as other-directed identity claims (as evidenced in both reported function and placement) and feeling regulators. Additionally, reported couple representativeness was significantly correlated with the tendency to use possessions as self-directed identity claims and for utility. This study provides support for the relationship between self-expansion and the tendency to communicate one’s expanded self to others by means of material possessions as well as the emotional significance tied to such possessions.