• Under the Influence of Large Woody Debris: A Survey of the La Crosse River In the Upper Midwest Driftless Area

      Prise, Adam (2012-10-19)
      Streams are dynamic environments driven by the force of gravity and shaped by local climate, geology, and vegetation. Large woody debris (LWD) can have important influences on stream processes. The main influence of LWD on these systems is a resistance to flow; this added roughness induces a multitude of channel adjustments. Despite the importance of LWD, streams have been heavily managed by humankind, often involving the removal of debris to improve flow. Recent studies have highlighted the significance of large woody debris in mountain streams, particularly in the Pacific Northwest of the United States and Canada. However, there has been little research on the influence of LWD on streams in the Upper Midwest. This study will specifically investigate a stream (the La Crosse River) in southwestern Wisconsin’s Driftless Area. This area remained untouched by glaciers during the Last Glacial Maximum, but outwash from melting glaciers was deposited here, making the main bed material coarse sand. Combining stream survey methods (channel cross-sections) and a wood census, the influence of LWD was determined through statistical analysis of measurements of stream (velocity, depth, and width) and LWD (total counts, length, DBH, and volume) characteristics, in conjunction with qualitative analysis of detailed cross-sections. LWD are present in the study reach, but few relationships proved statistically significant, while local influences (initiation of scour and deposition) are clearly seen. Explanations of human, regional, historical, and bed form influences are explored.
    • UNDERGRADUATE MATHEMATICS STUDENTS’ ATTITUDES TOWARD USING E-LEARNING IN SAUDI ARABIA

      Alrehaili, Bakheet Wasel (2013-12)
      The main objective of this study was to investigate the attitudes of undergraduate mathematics students in Saudi Arabia towards online mathematics education. Comparisons were made among male, female, underclassmen, and upperclassmen undergraduate mathematics students at the University of Tabuk (UT). Of 161 students enrolled in the mathematics program, 118 mathematics students responded to the survey. The sample consisted of 57 male and 61 female students. A 2 x 2 ANOVA test was used to reveal any statistically significant differences between the various groups based on gender and educational level. The findings showed that underclassmen did not differ significantly from upperclassmen in their attitudes toward online mathematics, male students did not differ significantly from female students in their attitudes toward online mathematics, and there was no significant interaction between educational level and gender in terms of the students’ attitudes toward online mathematics education.
    • Undergraduate Students’ Gender Self-Esteem and Attitudes Towards Transmen, Transwomen, Gay Men, and Lesbian Women

      Glotfelter, Michael Ann (2012-10-22)
      Research on individuals who do not conform to traditional sexual norms has increased over the past two decades, but there still remains little research on attitudes towards transpeople (i.e., individuals who violate gender norms). The goal of the current research is to contribute to knowledge regarding attitudes towards transpeople who continue to be subjected to prejudice, violence, and discrimination based on non-conformity. The current research explores and compares gender differences in attitudes towards lesbian women, gay men, transwomen (i.e., male-to-female transsexuals or men who deviate greatly from male gender norms and a male gender identity), and transmen (i.e., female-to-male transsexuals or women who deviate greatly from female gender norms and a female gender identity). Social Identity Theory (SIT), as it relates to gender self-esteem, is used as a theoretical framework to help explain prejudice towards lesbian women, gay men, and transpeople. The possible relationship between gender self-esteem and prejudice is also examined. The sample consisted of 402 heterosexual undergraduates with 195 (48.5%) women and 207 (51.5%) men. Participants completed the Genderism and Transphobia Scale, the Transphobia Scale, the Modern Homonegativity Scale, a gender specific Collective Self-Esteem Scale, and the Social Desirability Scale-17. Consistent with other research, heterosexual men reported significantly higher levels of prejudice toward lesbian women, gay men and transpeople compared to women. Men reported significantly more negative attitudes toward gay men compared to lesbian women, and reported more possible violence toward and discomfort around transwomen than transmen. In contrast to men, heterosexual women reported similar levels of sexual prejudice toward gay men and lesbian women and more discomfort around a transman than a transwoman. Both men and women reported more teasing of transwomen compared to transmen. Men with high gender self-esteem reported more sexual prejudice toward gay men and lesbian. These results were not found for heterosexual women who reported high gender self-esteem.. This research will contribute to knowledge and awareness of what factors affect and predict negative attitudes, prejudice, and violence against sexual and gender minorities. This current research suggests some similarities as well as differences in the prediction of sexual prejudice and transprejudice. Additionally, the results suggest that SIT can be a useful framework to begin to understand both sexual prejudice and transprejudice. Furthermore, although there are some similarities in the predictors of sexual prejudice and transprejudice for heterosexual women and men, the differences are important enough to suggest some divergence in how social identities interact with gender to influence prejudicial attitudes. Finally, greater awareness regarding sexual prejudice and transprejudice can lead to more effective interventions to decrease prejudice and violence.
    • Understanding change for effective school improvement initiatives:critical elements of school reform.

      Schnautz, Dee Ann Piercy
      With the historical political and social changes, which ultimately affect education, it is easy to see why teachers sometimes balk at new initiatives and perceived new best practices. For change to occur it is important to understand how perception of critical elements of change impact student academic growth. It is also important to have a clearer picture of the level of implementation of critical elements of change. It is evident there are statistically significant relationships between successful school change predictors and the criterion variables, belief that the rationale of the change initiative is important, continued support of the change initiative, success of professional development embedded in the change process, and strong lines of communication at all levels. The strongest relationships exist between consistent planning for a district-wide change initiative and the predictor variables: resources are based on the instructional priorities of the initiative, staff strengths are matched with staff responsibilities, resources are used to determine annual priorities for staff learning, teachers work together, sharing what they learn to help others learn more, and free flow of information to staff is evident.
    • Understanding Non-Native English-Speaking Teachers' Identity Construction and Transformation in the English-Speaking Community: A Closer Look at Past, Present, and Future

      Tseng, Shu-Chun (2011-07-20)
      Building on Kachru‟s (2005) diagram of World Englishes and Norton‟s (2000) theoretical conception of identity, the researcher acknowledges that each Non-Native English Speaking Teacher (NNEST) comes to the English-speaking community with a different variety of Englishes. Each believes in various cultural values and norms, and his or her identity is an ongoing process that can be impacted when he or she is immersed in different contexts. Using a qualitative approach, this study examined the way NNESTs construct their self-perceptions of English Language Teaching (ELT) professionalism based on social and educational experiences in their countries. In addition, the study examined how they reconstruct professional identity depending on current social and educational experiences in an English-speaking country, and how they contribute this newly-constructed sense of professionalism in future ELT practices. Findings revealed participants possessed less awareness of the importance of professional identity in their home countries, but the education offered through Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) programs in the United States played an essential role in raising this awareness. However, the participants‟ identity was impacted by feelings of inferiority. Most participants never thought that they were as competent as Native English Speaking Teacher‟s (NESTs) in terms of English teaching. Various contributing components, such as self-confidence, expectation, perception, investment, language ideology, and language proficiency played essential roles in the development of each NNEST‟s self-image. Having a TESOL program that provides practicums and social programs that connect NNESTs with NEST‟s and other people in the society where they are studying could impact the dissonance between expectation and reality of an NNEST's educational experience. However, each NNEST retains his or her own right to develop a positive or negative self-image by nurturing an active and open-minded attitude.
    • Unemployment and Marital Quality in Single- and Two-Earner Marriages

      Bland, Andrew M. (2014-03-18)
      A need was recognized for a broad-based quantitative study on the impact of unemployment upon marital relationship quality in light of recent societal changes and the current economic climate. Recently, researchers have suggested that unemployment is less severe in partnerships that reflect progressive shifts in values and expectations within marital relationships. It was worth exploring whether this claim generalized across a broader sample of contemporary marriages, including those that uphold more traditional values. An ex post facto correlational design was used to assess how unemployment impacts marital quality in single breadwinner vs. dual-earner couples in the current economy. Participants were recruited nationwide to complete an online questionnaire consisting of a demographic questionnaire and two measures of marital quality, the Dyadic Adjustment Scale and the Revised Kansas Marital Satisfaction Scale. A canonical correlation analysis was utilized to assess the degree to which participants’ beliefs about marital roles, levels of education, duration of marriage, duration of unemployment, and frequency of unemployment affected marital quality when a spouse loses work. The canonical correlation model was not significant. The results of follow-up repeated measures ANOVAs suggested that most participants were under-satisfied with their marriages at present; however, faith in and commitment to the relationship (as evidenced by a high degree of satisfaction with how the relationship developed since it began) seemed to sustain marriages despite short-term obstacles. In addition, Pearson product moment correlations suggested that generational and socioeconomic differences may have impacted the model.
    • Urban Flash Flood Risk Assessment and Inundation Model Utilizing GIS for Terre Haute, Indiana

      Ishman, Zachary Scott (2015-01-07)
      Use of ArcGIS to examine flash flooding variables and produce a flash flood risk assessment and inundation model for Terre Haute, Indiana. Risk assessment, produced within ArcGIS, indicates that an increase in developed area leads to an increase in very high flash flood risk area and majority of very high risk area resides in developed areas of Terre Haute. Inundation model, produced using ArcGIS and Python, indicates that the proposed model can determine locations of flash flooding, but spatial extent of model predicted flooding is not reliable based on field validation.
    • Urban Vines: The Art of the Wine Label

      Frentz, Ashley (2012-07)
      Design can be found anywhere, from the shoes on your feet to the bottle in your hand. In the past few years I have developed a growing interest in the wine industry. From the moment you decide to purchase a bottle of wine you are embarking on a journey. Selecting a bottle of wine is truly a unique experience. In most cases, the task is much more enjoyable now than it was in previous decades. The design of every bottle, cork, label, and package is truly a piece of art, which can make your experience one to remember.
    • Use of Social Media as a School Principal

      McCutcheon, Neal
      The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the use of social media among principals in the state of Indiana. Data from the national 2009 report, A Survey of K-12 Educators on Social Networking and other Content Sharing Tools, were used to compare national results and data collected from Indiana. A survey was also created to analyze the use of social media among principals in the state of Indiana. The survey collected data from principals, indicating age, gender, locality, educational experience, social media use, and social media preferences. Lastly, the data were used to determine if there is a comparison between the state of Indiana results and the 2009 national results. The survey provided data to determine if social media use has increased since the 2009 national report. The research design involved a population of 1,931 Indiana school principals. Use of social media as a school principal was collected in a 16-item survey. Statistical analysis of the data included descriptive analysis for selected items, means, and standard deviations. A one-way ANOVA was used to test all 12 null hypotheses. Significance was identified at the .05 level. In all, 356 Indiana school principals responded to the survey instrument. As a result of the analysis, there were no significant differences among gender, experience, age, enrollment, and locality when using social media for school communication. There was a significant difference in school categories when social media was used for communication. High schools responded in favor over elementary and middle school principals when using social media for school communication. There was a significant difference in women versus men when social media are used for professional development.Women responded in favor over the men for social media use as professional development. There were no significant differences in experience, age, enrollment, school category, or locality when using social media for professional development.
    • Use of the Combination of the Brief and Basc-2 in Assessment of ADHD

      Knoll, Andrea R. (2014-03-18)
      ADHD is one of the most frequently diagnosed childhood disorders in the United States today; however, diagnostic specificity remains challenging. Accepted models of ADHD routinely highlight the role of executive function (EF) deficits as a core feature of ADHD. However, performance based measures of EF do not consistently discriminate between ADHD and no-ADHD clinical groups. Research has supported use of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) in discriminating between ADHD and no-ADHD and between subtypes. However, EF deficits can occur for various reasons. Broad range behavior rating scales help identify areas of behavioral concern that may aid clinicians in understanding EF deficits. The purpose of this study was to assess whether using the BRIEF in combination with the Behavior Assessment System for Children-2 (BASC-2) would better discriminate ADHD from no-ADHD in a clinical population than either measure alone. Participants included 115 children referred to an ADHD evaluation clinic. Contrary to hypotheses, a combination of scales from the BRIEF and BASC-2 did not result in higher diagnostic classification as compared to each measure alone. The best classification rate was found when combining the BRIEF-Behavior Regulation-parent and BRIEF-Metacognitive Index-teacher. This finding is in congruence with best practice guidelines that recommend using multiple raters when assessing for ADHD.
    • Using Analogues to Simulate Intensity, Trajectory, and Dynamical Changes in Alberta Clippers with Global Climate Change

      Ward, Jamie L. (2015-01-07)
      Alberta Clippers are extratropical cyclones that form in the lee of the Canadian Rocky Mountains and traverse through the Great Plains and Midwest regions of the United States. With the imminent threat of global climate change and its effects on regional teleconnection patterns like El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), properties of Alberta Clipper could be altered as a result of changing atmospheric circulation patterns. Since the Great Plains and Midwest regions both support a large portion of the national population and agricultural activity, the effects of global climate change on Alberta Clippers could affect these areas in a variety of ways. Despite this reasoning, relatively few studies have addressed Alberta Clippers, especially in comparison to the other North American storm tracks. In this study, the effects of global climate change on Alberta Clippers are examined by using atmospheric analogues chosen from 1950-2012 based on temperature and ENSO characteristics. Composite maps of regional MSLP at 12-hr intervals, 300mb vector wind and geopotential height at the time of cyclogenesis, and 850mb temperature and geopotential height patterns 36 hours after Clipper formation are constructed. Difference maps of 300mb geopotential height patterns between each of the analogues are also constructed. One-way ANOVA tests are also used to analyze Alberta Clipper latitude and longitude values at t=0, Clipper trajectory azimuths from t=0 to t=60, central MSLP values for these storms twelve hours after formation, and MSLP pressure gradients at t=24. The results from these tests indicate that, of the four analogues, the Cold and El Niño years are the most dissimilar, maintaining statistically significant differences in upper-level wind magnitude and starting longitude values. MSLP at t=12 is lower in the Cold storms than the El Niño storms, but statistical significance between these values is not quite achieved. Furthermore, geopotential height differences and their associated rate of change with respect to map distance indicate that the 300mb geopotential height patterns of the El Niño and Cold analogues are quite different from one another. The La Niña and Warm analogue years are different from one another with respect to latitude and longitude values of Alberta Clippers at cyclogenesis. Based on these results, the effects of temperature increase alone will not influence the properties of Alberta Clippers as much as changes in ENSO that could be caused by global climate change.
    • Using Fuzzy Logic With Radio Frequency Identification To develop A Theoretical Model For Model For Monitoring Package Placement

      Sarikonda, Shruthi Reddy
      Europe, the Middle East, Africa and the United States face problems of supply chain management and inventory control. Warehouse management is one of the biggest problems faced by pharmaceutical companies. Pharmaceutical companies maintain warehouses based on customer demands. Using several warehouse management systems in order to satisfy customized requirements of customers is an expensive process. Pharmaceutical companies seek for warehouse management solutions that support dynamic user defined configurations with variations in warehouse procedures including label printing, picking and sending the materials for processing and several others. Dealing with inventory control problems accounts for the largest cost component for the pharmaceutical industry. The challenge is to cut down these costs and simultaneously provide better management solutions. This thesis deals with the theoretical design of a fuzzy logic model interfaced with a radio frequency identification system that monitors drug placements in a pharmaceutical company’s warehouse. Fuzzy logic is the key interface that deals with the waste of pharmaceutical products while supplying to the customers.
    • Using Growth Rate of Reading Fluency to Predict Performance on Statewide Achievement Tests

      Hinkle, Rachelle Whittaker (2011-09-20)
      Federal legislation has prescribed the increased use of statewide achievement tests as the culmination of a student’s knowledge and ability at the end of a grade level; however, schools need to be able to predict those who are at-risk of performing poorly on these high-stakes tests. Three studies served to identify a means of predicting statewide achievement test scores in either third or eighth grade based on CBM reading scores and rates of improvement at first, second, and third grades or third, fourth, and fifth grades using readily available statistical procedures. One-half of the third-grade data was used in Study 1, while the prediction equation generated in Study 1 was validated on the second half in Study 2. The results of Study 1 indicated that, of the sample of over 1,200 third-grade students who took the third-grade statewide achievement test, the second- and third-grade spring CBM reading scores explained the highest amount of variability in third-grade reading scores; however, reading rate of improvement was also significant. The prediction equation from Study 1 was cross-validated in Study 2 on over 1,200 third-grade students, which indicated that there was more than 95 percent concordance that those who were predicted to pass the third-grade statewide test did pass. However, when using the second-grade spring cut score of 90 words read correctly per minute, the accuracy of prediction was diminished. In Study 3, using nearly 250 eighth-grade students’ scores, reading fluency scores in third, fourth and fifth grades explained approximately 30 percent of statewide achievement test scores; however, rate of improvement was not significant in any of the grades.
    • Using MyPlan as a tool for college students in maing their career decisions.

      Lamichhane, Reema (2012-05-21)
      Making a right career choice and preparing accordingly to achieve that career goal is a key to success for every individual. In this study, the researcher evaluated the effectiveness of students using MyPlan, a career assessment tool, to help them make career related decisions. The pretest-posttest analysis showed that MyPlan helped students make an informed career decision to some extent. Chi-squared and correlation analysis of students’ responses before and after taking MyPlan suggested a positive correlation between students taking MyPlan and choosing a college degree major. Also, students agreed strongly when they were asked if MyPlan was helpful in deciding their college major. Collectively, this study derived a strong suggestion that MyPlan is fairly effective and students find it helpful to guide them in making career choices. However, this study was limited as there was a time restraint, subject disparity, and small sample sizes. Therefore, a subsequent study is recommended with a larger sample size and a longer study period. Regardless, this study provided some preliminary data to indicate MyPlan can be an effective tool for college students to guide them in their career decision making process.
    • Using Stable Isotope Analysis to Study Altitudinal and Latitudinal Bat Migration

      Arias, Lily (2014-10-03)
      The general lack of knowledge on basic aspects of the biology of temperate and tropical bats, their low reproductive rates, and threats such as white nose syndrome, wind farms, and habitat loss, make them very susceptible to population declines.My research uses an innovative technique, the analysis of stable isotopes, to study the ecology of bat migration with the main goals of contributing significantly to the understanding of bat biology and assessing the conservation status and susceptibility of bats. In the first chapter,I measured the content of hydrogen isotopes in fur samples of migratory bat species killed at a wind farm in northern Indiana to determine their geographic origin.North American tree bats ( Lasiurus borealis, L. cinereus,and Lasionycteris noctivagans)are considered long distance migrants. In North America, peaks in bat mortality at wind farms occur between mid-July and mid-September. This period is associated with fall migration of bats from their summer (breeding) grounds to their wintering grounds. Thus, wind turbines may have serious negative effects on a strategic event in the life of bats by interrupting migratory connectivity and thereby imperiling the long-term persistence of migratory bat species at large scales.The analysis accurately predicted the known origin of control samples and estimated that non-control bats killed at the wind farm originated from several populations in the United States as well as in Canada. My results highlighted the threat of wind farms to local bat populations as well as to bats originating far from those farms, and emphasized the need for conservation policies across borders.High variation in stable hydrogen isotopes in migrant individuals of all 3 species was observed, suggesting that individuals or populations from a variety of regions pass through the wind farm. In the second chapter,I evaluated the triple-isotopic (hydrogen, carbon, and nitrogen) composition of the tissues of 7 bat species collected at 3 altitudes in the Central Andes of Peru,and the variation of these isotopes across an altitudinal gradient,the application of isotope analysis to migration studies, and trophic effect. Previous studies had demonstrated that iv hydrogen isotopes were a reliable tool to track altitudinal movements of birds, and there was evidence from soil and plant studies that nitrogen and carbon isotopes could serve the same purpose. However, studies focused on bats were lacking. Hydrogen and nitrogen isotopes in the sanguinivorous control were found to be enriched relative to those of the syntopic frugivores.Carbon isotopes in the sanguinivorous bat were depleted when compared to frugivores.Differences in hydrogen found between trophic groups are the first reported for the species studied and support results found elsewhere in the Neotropics.My results demonstrated that, in spite of the wide array of physiological and environmental factors producing temporal and spatial variation, the analysis of hydrogen isotopes is a promising tool to study altitudinal movements of bats when used over long distances. Neither stable isotopes of nitrogen or carbon appear to be reliable to track movements along short gradients such as those along mountains. The contrast of these findings with the results of previous studies suggests that isotopic gradients may be specific to given taxon and localities.My results contributed to the understanding of bat movement patterns and therefore to assessing their sensitivity to potential threats such as habitat loss and connectivity.
    • Using standardized tests to identify prior knowledge necessary for success in algebra: a predictive analysis

      Jensen, Jennifer J.
      This study sought to determine if there is a relationship between students’ scores on the eighth-grade Indiana State Test of Education Progress Plus (ISTEP+) exam and success on Indiana’s Algebra End-of-Course Assessment (ECA). Additionally, it sought to determine if algebra success could be significantly predicted by the achievement in one or more of the seven individual reporting sub categories on the ISTEP+ exam. The relationship between the score on the language arts portion of the test and success in algebra was also explored. Successful completion of algebra and a minimum score on the Algebra ECA is required for high school graduation in the state of Indiana. It is imperative that students master this difficult subject, and educators need to understand how to help all students achieve this goal. This quantitative study utilized regression analyses to determine if the eighth-grade ISTEP+ exam could predict a significant proportion of the variance in Algebra ECA scores. More specifically, multiple regression analysis was utilized to determine if any one of the seven reporting sub categories was a significant predictor of the variance in the algebra scores. If the specific content of one or more reporting sub categories could be linked to algebra success, educators would know where and how to focus instruction and remediation efforts. Because a review of the literature also revealed a potential link between reading and math scores, a regression analysis was conducted to determine if the eighth-grade ISTEP+ language arts score predicted a significant proportion of the variance in Algebra ECA scores. The study concluded that the language arts score was a significant predictor, although it did not explain much of the variance in Algebra ECA scores. For all three models, the scores of students from two different cohorts from the same school district were utilized in the study. The first cohort consisted of students entering ninth grade in the fall of 2010 and the second consisted of students entering ninth grade in the fall of2011. Each cohort was then divided into an advanced group consisting of students who took both the ISTEP+ and the Algebra ECA in eighth grade and an average group consisting of students who did not take the Algebra ECA until the end of ninth grade. All models in the study proved significant, although there was evidence of multicollinearity and the amount of variance predicted varied greatly.
    • USING THE SPATIAL VARIABILITY OF LEAD IN URBAN SOILS AND DEMOGRAPHIC VARIABLES TO PREDICT EXPOSURE RISKS: AN ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE ANALYSIS IN TERRE HAUTE, INDIANA

      Foxx, Heather A. (2015-01-07)
      Terre Haute, Indiana, is similar to many older cities throughout the United States with a history of manufacturing and industry that relied on extensive road and rail networks. This industrial history has resulted in the presence of over 20 brownfields and even a Superfund Site within the city today. Historic neighborhoods and abundance of pre-1950’s homes is another characteristic of the city. Unfortunately, improper removal and deterioration of lead (Pb) paints, as well as high Pb solder used in gutters, appear to be significant sources of soil Pb in Terre Haute. Despite the fact that most new environmental sources of Pb pollution have been eradicated, many areas of the city still have elevated soil Pb concentrations and the city continues to have children with elevated blood Pb levels. With the Center for Disease Control’s recent reduction in screening levels for blood Pb from 10 μg/dL to 5 μg/dL, the occurrence of children with childhood Pb poisoning could be greater than previously recognized. The goal of this study was to better understand the modern-day spatial distribution of Pb in surface soils across the city of Terre Haute. To achieve this goal, surface soil samples were collected across the city. New data were collected from city-owned properties (i.e. parks, cemeteries, and abandoned lots), Indiana State University land holdings within the city, residential properties, and community gardens. Data collected from residential areas included samples near the road, from beneath the gutter dripline of the house, in the backyard, in the garden, and other areas of importance to the homeowner. Samples were analyzed via handheld X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzer on site to provide homeowner with immediate feedback with the ultimate goal of increasing the use of safer urban gardening practices. Samples were then dried and crushed to re-analyze with the portable XRF, and samples with values >200 ppm Pb were processed and analyzed with the ICP-OES to verify the results. Results produced a wide range of Pb concentrations, from <5 ppm to >30,000 ppm for the residential areas. The spatial distribution of Pb was determined using a simple ordinary kriging method and Empirical Bayesian Kriging method by analyzing the total sample set, samples collected near the road, samples from yards and gardens, and under the gutter driplines of homes were also kriged. Samples collected near the gutter dripline had the highest Pb concentrations, while overall spatial trends depict higher Pb concentrations in the historic portion of the city, with concentrations decreasing with distance from the older part of the city. The predicted Pb concentrations generated from the total sample set was then compared to demographic, environmental, and infrastructure characteristics for Terre Haute. OLS regressions using both maximum and average Pb concentrations indicate a statistically significant (p=0.000) positive correlation between high Pb concentrations and percentage of vacant homes. Maximum and average Pb concentrations were then linked to individual U.S. Census block groups with associated demographic attributes. Bivariate local indicator of spatial association (Bi-LISA) analysis indicates populations of low socio-economic status are regularly being exposed to higher Pb concentrations in their neighborhoods, while populations with higher socio-economic status are exposed to lower Pb concentrations. The higher Pb concentrations and populations with lower socio-economic status both occur in the central portion of the city where historic development occurred representing environmental injustice.
    • Validity of Instrument Assisted Soft Tissue Mobilization for Detecting Myofascial Adhesions through Secondary Diagnostic Ultrasound Analysis

      Silbaugh, Kaitlyn (2013-09-06)
      Context: many patients have pain and restricted motion due to myofascial adhesions. Clinicians use both manual and instrument assisted soft tissue mobilization (IASTM) techniques to treat myofascial adhesions. The main difference between manual therapies and IASTM is that IASTM claims that their instruments can accurately qualitatively detect myofascial adhesions through their resonance capability. However, the validity of this capability has yet to be researched. Objective: To determine the validity of using IASTM to detect myofascial adhesions through secondary diagnostic ultrasound analysis. Design: Correlational validity study. Setting: Athletic Training Laboratory. Patients or other participants: nineteen men (age = 22.4 ± 2.5) and eleven women (age = 21.2 ± 1.9). Data collection and analysis: From the thirty participants, one hundred adhesions were found and imaged. We calculated the percent level of agreement between the two rates, and then considered chance by using a κ coefficient to understand the relationship between the two rates of diagnostic us. Results: We identified an 83% level of agreement between raters. However, when chance was considered, we found a poor inter-rater reliability (κ= 0.344, p<0.001). Conclusions: There is moderate evidence that IASTM is successful in quantitatively detecting myofascial adhesions. Sources creating instrument resonance other than myofascial adhesions may include blood vessels or adipose nodules. Future investigation should further examine what specifically IASTM is detecting through its resonance, if not myofascial adhesions. Key words: instrument assisted soft tissue mobilization, Graston technique, diagnostic ultrasound, myofascia, fascial adhesions
    • Virtual schools and the affective domain

      Tucker, Kimberly J.
      The intent of this qualitative study was to explore the following research questions: Does online instruction differ from traditional classroom instruction in regard to the development of affective learning? What emphasis is placed on developing a ffective skills in the traditional versus the virtual classroom? What instructional techniques are common or different toward developing affective learning in comparison of the traditional and virtual classroom? What specific types of lessons, activities , and assessments do teachers in each format use to ensure affective learning? What perceptions do teachers in the traditional and virtual classroom have with regard to affective learning and the implications with present and future learning in the affect ive domain through online instruction? Purposeful sampling was utilized to select five traditional classroom teachers and five virtual classroom teachers from Illinois. The state of Illinois was selected because in addition to academic learning standards , the Illinois Department of Education provides specific standards for social and emotional learning (SELS) in all grades. Three themes identified within the data include d : acknowledg ment and valu e of the impact of teacher immediacy on student learning, c ommitment to providing affective learning opportunities within the curriculum, and teacher perceptions about affective learning in online education. The responses showed that teachers in both settings acknowledged that affective learning was highly valued in their instructional program s . Interview analysis showed that teachers in the traditional and virtual settings were aware of the importance of providing affective support and developing affective skills in the classroom. Interview analysis show ed that there were many similarities between traditional and virtual curriculum in the development of instructional methodology to develop affective learning . The perspectives about online v er s us traditional education were sharply divided along the lines of teac her experience within the virtual platform. Traditional teachers did not believe that the virtual teacher or the virtual classroom could provide the necessary supports to build affective learning. Virtual teachers were much more amenable to online learni ng. Their perceptions were based on their described successes in the virtual classroom. They reflected on their efforts to build in affective supports and to implement instructional methodology which they believed were successful in developing their stud ents in terms of the academic and affective domains. Overall, the study showed that virtual schools and virtual teachers do place significant emphasis on affective learning and that their overall pedagogy is similar to that of traditional classrooms and t raditional teachers. Virtual schools have the capacity to impact student affective learning. Research into the impact that virtual schools have on K - 12 students and the affective domain will provide parents with the information needed to place their chil d ren in the best - suited learning environment. It will also provide educators with the data to inform and reform instruction to better meet the needs of all K - 12 learners.