• Validity of Instrument Assisted Soft Tissue Mobilization for Detecting Myofascial Adhesions through Secondary Diagnostic Ultrasound Analysis

      Silbaugh, Kaitlyn (2013-09-06)
      Context: many patients have pain and restricted motion due to myofascial adhesions. Clinicians use both manual and instrument assisted soft tissue mobilization (IASTM) techniques to treat myofascial adhesions. The main difference between manual therapies and IASTM is that IASTM claims that their instruments can accurately qualitatively detect myofascial adhesions through their resonance capability. However, the validity of this capability has yet to be researched. Objective: To determine the validity of using IASTM to detect myofascial adhesions through secondary diagnostic ultrasound analysis. Design: Correlational validity study. Setting: Athletic Training Laboratory. Patients or other participants: nineteen men (age = 22.4 ± 2.5) and eleven women (age = 21.2 ± 1.9). Data collection and analysis: From the thirty participants, one hundred adhesions were found and imaged. We calculated the percent level of agreement between the two rates, and then considered chance by using a κ coefficient to understand the relationship between the two rates of diagnostic us. Results: We identified an 83% level of agreement between raters. However, when chance was considered, we found a poor inter-rater reliability (κ= 0.344, p<0.001). Conclusions: There is moderate evidence that IASTM is successful in quantitatively detecting myofascial adhesions. Sources creating instrument resonance other than myofascial adhesions may include blood vessels or adipose nodules. Future investigation should further examine what specifically IASTM is detecting through its resonance, if not myofascial adhesions. Key words: instrument assisted soft tissue mobilization, Graston technique, diagnostic ultrasound, myofascia, fascial adhesions
    • Virtual schools and the affective domain

      Tucker, Kimberly J.
      The intent of this qualitative study was to explore the following research questions: Does online instruction differ from traditional classroom instruction in regard to the development of affective learning? What emphasis is placed on developing a ffective skills in the traditional versus the virtual classroom? What instructional techniques are common or different toward developing affective learning in comparison of the traditional and virtual classroom? What specific types of lessons, activities , and assessments do teachers in each format use to ensure affective learning? What perceptions do teachers in the traditional and virtual classroom have with regard to affective learning and the implications with present and future learning in the affect ive domain through online instruction? Purposeful sampling was utilized to select five traditional classroom teachers and five virtual classroom teachers from Illinois. The state of Illinois was selected because in addition to academic learning standards , the Illinois Department of Education provides specific standards for social and emotional learning (SELS) in all grades. Three themes identified within the data include d : acknowledg ment and valu e of the impact of teacher immediacy on student learning, c ommitment to providing affective learning opportunities within the curriculum, and teacher perceptions about affective learning in online education. The responses showed that teachers in both settings acknowledged that affective learning was highly valued in their instructional program s . Interview analysis showed that teachers in the traditional and virtual settings were aware of the importance of providing affective support and developing affective skills in the classroom. Interview analysis show ed that there were many similarities between traditional and virtual curriculum in the development of instructional methodology to develop affective learning . The perspectives about online v er s us traditional education were sharply divided along the lines of teac her experience within the virtual platform. Traditional teachers did not believe that the virtual teacher or the virtual classroom could provide the necessary supports to build affective learning. Virtual teachers were much more amenable to online learni ng. Their perceptions were based on their described successes in the virtual classroom. They reflected on their efforts to build in affective supports and to implement instructional methodology which they believed were successful in developing their stud ents in terms of the academic and affective domains. Overall, the study showed that virtual schools and virtual teachers do place significant emphasis on affective learning and that their overall pedagogy is similar to that of traditional classrooms and t raditional teachers. Virtual schools have the capacity to impact student affective learning. Research into the impact that virtual schools have on K - 12 students and the affective domain will provide parents with the information needed to place their chil d ren in the best - suited learning environment. It will also provide educators with the data to inform and reform instruction to better meet the needs of all K - 12 learners.
    • Voluntary control of penile tumescence while receiving both cognitive and physical stimulation.

      Carpenter, Todd M (2012-04-19)
      Voluntary control of erectile responses represents a serious threat to the validity of phallometry( or penile plethysmography).Cognitive methods,such as not attending to the sexual stimuli or distraction through the use of fantasy,may be used effectively to distort phallometric measures.The primary purpose of this study was to explore the degree of control men have over their sexual arousal while receiving both cognitive and vibrotactile stimulation.More specifically,this study examined the ability of males to suppress penile tumescence to preferred sexual stimuli as well as their ability to enhance tumuscence to nonpreferred and neutral stimuli.Participants were randomly assigned to view one of three 4-minute video clips(heterosexual scene,homosexual scene,or neutral scene) while also receiving low-level penile vibrotactile stimulation. A 3 X 2 X 2 mixed model MANOVA was used to analyse the data.The results indicated that while receiving low-level vibrotactile stimulation,participants were able to "enhance" sexual arousal when instructed to do so regardless of video type but had much greater difficulty "suppressing" sexual arousal to the preferred video.Furthermore, under "enhance" instructions,mean and peak tumescence measures were not significantly difficult when comparing men who viewed a heterosexual VS homosexual video.The findings of this study are somewhat inconsistent with those of previous research and raise important issues clinically,theoretically and legally regarding the use of penile plethysmography.
    • Walking ATM’S: a Criminological Examination of Hispanic Robbery Victimization Pre and Post Hurricane Katrina in Metropolitan New Orleans

      Thornton, Dennis (2010-09-22)
      The Aftermath of Hurricane Katrina sparked the largest influx of Hispanic laborers in the metropolitan New Orleans area ever recorded in Louisiana’s history. Inhabiting impoverished neighborhoods with minimal resources, unable to speak the language and illegal in status, may prime this migrant class as vulnerable targets of robbery. Hence, robberies against Hispanics have increased in Jefferson Parish, which is the basis for the present study. The intention of this research is to ascertain whether such robbery victims sustain greater secondary violence during the commission of the crime than that of Non-Hispanics and also if geographic confinement is contributory factor to Hispanics being robbed.
    • Walking on water:African American male freshmen mastering transition for the purpose of retention and persistence at a midwestern university

      Underwood, Oscar J Dowell (2012-05-21)
      The purpose of this study was to examine the postsecondary experiences of African American college men at a Midwestern university. This study explored their college transition and endeavored to understand their lived experiences. The intent of this study was also to understand the coping strategies that African American men employ to achieve and succeed in college. The goal of this study was to describe the higher-education experiences of eight Black men in order to ascertain what major and minor themes emerged that could contribute to the literature concerning African American male transition, retention, and persistence at postsecondary institutions. The data from the transcripts of the focus group interviews of eight African American college males revealed five major themes that emerged as influential factors in the college experiences of the majority of these Black males. The themes were (a) the impact of being perceived as leaders; (b) the influence of possessing a perception of being a burden of hope for significant others; (c) the impact of a decision to overcome personal habits that could threaten achievement and college success; (d) the influence of having success connections with family, mentors, and campus organizations, whether cultural or otherwise; and (e) the influence of possessing a no-failure option college success strategy. Implications for African American college men, college leadership, student affairs leadership, faculty, and campus groups and organizations were discussed, as well as recommendations for future research.
    • Website Compliance with Ethical Guidelines by Psychologists and Professional Counselors

      Yazvac III, Joseph (2009-08-26)
      There is currently very little research investigating the ethical practice of e-therapy, and none that distinguishes between types of therapists in terms of their compliance with ethical codes pertaining to e-therapy. The American Psychological Association does not have ethical standards specific to the provision of e-therapy but the American Counseling Association does. The purpose of this study was to assess differences in ethical compliance for e-therapy websites sponsored by psychologists and e-therapy websites sponsored by professional counselors. Specific ethics codes for the practice of e-therapy of the American Counseling Association were used to generate an assessment instrument, which served as the measure of ethical compliance for both groups. E-therapy websites primarily sponsored by psychologists or professional counselors were located by predetermined search terms through the Google search engine and then evaluated for compliance. A MANOVA was then conducted to analyze differences between the two groups on compliance with sections A.12.a., A.12.g., and A.12.h. of the American Counseling Association Ethics Code, as well as an aggregate total of all three. Professional counselors were found to be significantly more compliant than psychologists with section A.12.h. and the aggregate total of all sections. However, compliance rates for both groups were generally low, and implications are discussed.
    • Weight Loss Methods and Eating Disorder Risk Factors in Collegiate Wrestlers

      Rea, Jessica (2014-03-18)
      Purpose: The purpose of the study is to investigate the weight loss of collegiate wrestlers and assess their risk for eating disorders (ED). Methods: Wrestlers were recruited by contacting the athletic trainer (AT) at the institution they wrestled. ATs who agreed to participate were sent an electronic link containing a survey, 143 wrestlers provided usable data. The survey was created from two surveys one allows the athlete to describe his eating behaviors and the ATHLETE questionnaire which measures risk for ED. We analyzed the data using descriptive statistics and frequencies. Results: 76.6% of wrestlers indicated binge eating; eating behaviors are similar to those in previous literature including gradual dieting, restricting food/fluids, fasting, and exercise. Wrestlers in this study do not appear to be at risk for ED. Clinical applicability: Wrestlers display dangerous eating behaviors but are not at risk for ED. Key Words: Disordered eating, anorexia, bulimia, body image
    • What Educational Initiatives contribute to higher than expected achievement in Student performance for Public Schools in the State of Indiana?

      Keeley, Thomas Allen
      The purpose of this study was to determine whether the areas of teaching methods, teacher-student relationships, school structure, school-community partnerships or school leadership were significantly embedded in practice and acted as a change agent among school systems that achieve higher than expected results on their state standardized testing while controlling for their socio-economic status. Another area of insight gained from the comparison of the specific practices at the building level that were found in high-achieving schools and may not be present in schools identified as low-achieving. Individual characteristics of students impact the learning environment for all children. Educators can make informed decisions by examining what teaching methods, a school‟s structure, teacher-student relationships, school to community partnerships, and what school leadership aspects are common among schools identified as high-achieving. If the identification within these five areas showed a significant relationship for improved student performance for high-achieving schools, the classroom teacher and building administration may use the results as a guide for student improvement. The study used a 50-question survey divided into five constructs. The data showed significant differences in implementation between the high-achieving and low-achieving schools in four of the five constructs. The four constructs that were significantly higher in level of implementation as compared to low-achieving schools were teaching methods, teacher-student relationships, school-community partnerships and school leadership. Of the four constructs showing significance, teacher-student relationships showed the highest amount of variance for high-achieving schools as compared to low-achieving schools. School structure did not show statistically significant differences in variance for high-achieving schools. Interesting findings of differences between high-achieving schools and low-achieving schools were noted in the instructional methods construct for ensuring proficiency in reading and math, frequently assessing reading levels for all students, linking instruction to learning benchmarks, and implementing flexible skill grouping. Differences were also noted for high-achieving schools for facilitating two-way home/school communication, creating partnerships with parents and families and offering career exploration as part of the curriculum.
    • What Effective Principals Do to Improve Instruction and Increase Student Achievement

      Turner, Elizabeth Anne
      The purposes of this mixed method study were to (a) Examine the relationships among principal effectiveness, principal instructional leadership, and student achievement; (b) examine the differences among principal effectiveness, principal instructional leadership and student achievement; and (c) investigate what effective principals do to improve instruction and increase student achievement within their schools. All 585 pre-K through grade 5 elementary public schools in Indiana were included in the original sample. Phase 1 was quantitative using the Principal Instructional Management Rating Scale (PIMRS, Hallinger, 1983) to examine the perceptions of the principal’s instructional leadership, the Principal Leadership Inventory (PLI; Downey, 1999) to measure principal effectiveness, and the Indiana standardized test (ISTEP) to look at student achievement. Statistical analysis of the data for the 232 schools that returned all of the instruments included descriptive statistics regarding the mean, standard deviation, frequency, and standard error. A Pearson product moment correlation, one-way independent measured ANOVA, one-way between subjects ANOVA, and standard multiple regression were used to test the study questions at a .05 level of significance. Findings indicated a teacher’s perception of the principal’s overall leadership ability makes no difference in student achievement data, but the teacher’s perception of the principal’s instructional leadership abilities does positively predict student achievement on standardized mathematics and English/language arts tests. Phase 2 was qualitative, identifying five more effective principals’ schools whose standardized test scores were above predicted and above state average and three less effective principals’ schools whose standardized test scores were below their predicted performance level as well as below the state average for site visits. The quantitative data in this study laid the foundation for the qualitative portion of this study informing the on-site, semi-structured principal interviews and separate teacher focus groups that explored what effective principals do to improve instruction and increase student achievement. Principals and teachers were asked the same open-ended, semi-structured interview questions. Keeping the focus group and interviewing questions in mind, themes for more and less effective principals could be grouped into four categories: (a) principal leadership characteristics, (b) instructional expectations, (c) procedures for change, and (d) measures of student achievement.
    • What happens to third parties and their demands

      Watkins, Robert F. (2013-03-15)
      Not Available
    • What Highly Effective Leaders Do During Difficult Times

      Raisor, Michael Louis
      The purpose of this study was to determine what the most highly effective leaders do during difficult times to be successful. The backdrop of the study was the 2009 $300 million cuts to the Indiana K-12 education budget, a uniform crisis that affected all 293 public school districts at the same time. The subjects in this study were those identified as the most highly effective public school superintendents in the state of Indiana. Education authorities across the state were polled and provided recommendations. The results were tabulated and five superintendents distinguished themselves as outliers among their peers. On-site structured interviews were conducted with each of the superintendents. The initial generalized summary findings were then given back to the superintendents for their review and member data checking. The superintendents confirmed the summary findings as accurate representations of their individual philosophy and behaviors. The five outlier superintendents all shared the same basic philosophies and behaviors in relation to leadership during difficult times. The first most telling finding was in regards to crisis leadership. The research found that highly effective leaders do not have a different style of leadership during difficult times. Highly effective leadership behaviors and actions are universal regardless of the circumstance. Highly effective leaders share core philosophies when faced with a difficult time, however once again, these are their philosophies at all times. They believe that within any crisis lies opportunity. They believe that difficult times define leaders and their organization. They believe in finding the best people for the job, communicating their vision, giving autonomy, and then getting out of the way. They believe in the value of networking, collaborating, and the input of their community, including criticism. They believe in leading by example and from the front. They realize that people are looking to them for guidance, leadership, and direction. Highly effective leaders also share universal leadership behaviors. They are constantly planning and preparing for the future. They have a defined process of how they lead and do business and they do not deviate from it. They have a laser-like focus on their organization‟s core business and do not deviate from it. They build trusting relationships with their staff and community. They get out in front of situations by being highly visible and communicating clearly. They are positive and poised. They share accolades and own mistakes. They do not attack problems as a whole, but instead break them down into smaller manageable pieces. They ask a lot of questions and take the time necessary to make a good decision, and then take decisive action.
    • What Indiana School Board Members Look for when Hiring a Superintendent

      Orr, Leonard
      The purpose of this quantitative study was to determine whether there are any differences in what school board members look for in the areas of personal characteristics and professional skills when hiring a superintendent. A sample population of school board members who were serving at a school that had an opening for a superintendent during the 2007–2008 school year was used. A survey with 24 questions was e-mailed to school board members. Results from this group indicated that there were no major differences between large school corporations and small school corporations when it came to personal characteristics and professional skills for a superintendent. Likewise there was no large spread between means among rural school corporations and urban/suburban school board members or between school board members who had served on the board four or less years compared to those who served on the board for 5 to 16 years or over 16 years.The results indicated that the school board members had high expectations in every category they were questioned about. The premise was that superintendents should be generalist rather than specialist and that they should be well versed in all areas of superintendency.

      Alraddadi, Abdulaziz Ibrahim (Cunningham Memorial library, Terre Haute,Indiana State University, 2017-12)
      This study explored the influence of form-focused instruction (FFI) in teaching English copula and auxiliary (be) to English as a second language (ESL) learners. Following the noticing hypothesis, FFI, and the basic principles of curriculum and instruction theory, this study investigates if ESL learners make omission, misuse, or misjudgment errors while acquiring English as a second language. Also, the study examined whether ESL learners show significant improvement in their knowledge of English copula and auxiliary (be) after receiving FFI. Previous copula and auxiliary (be) research (Jishvithaa, Tabitha, & Kalajahi, 2013; Muftah & Eng, 2011; Unlu & Hatipoglu, 2012) has shown that ESL learners commit omission and misuse errors. It was the aim of this study to investigate that ESL learners commit those errors and to add misjudgment errors to the investigation. Moreover, the study also aimed at examining the influence of FFI on the ESL learners’ knowledge of copula and auxiliary (be). Previous research on FFI influence (Ellis, 1984; Tomita & Spada, 2013; Valeo, 2013) has shown a positive influence of FFI on learning and acquiring grammatical structures. This study adds more findings by focusing on the influence of FFI on the ESL learners’ knowledge of the copula and auxiliary (be) in the present tense. This study was a quantitative quasi-experimental one. It utilized a control group and an experimental group. It followed a pretest-treatment-posttest, control-group design. Participants were 14 ESL learners (10 in experimental group, 4 in control group) who were in two existing groups at two ESL classes in a Midwestern university. The results reflect that participants made v omission, misuse, and misjudgment errors. The participants committed more misjudgment errors and less omission and misuse errors. All participants showed a significant change overtime in regard to making misjudgment errors. The outcomes highlight misjudgment errors as a potential type of errors that ESL learners may commit with copula and auxiliary (be). The experimental group outperformed the control group over time by significantly making less omission errors. When compared over time and between groups, participants’ scores on the grammatical judgment tasks have shown improvement suggesting a positive effect of FFI treatment on the participants’ knowledge of copula and auxiliary (be). Further research is needed to involve a larger participant population and more types of copula and auxiliary (be) errors.

      Schwartz, Erin Coale (2011-07-20)
      Affiliation with religious organizations is prevalent in the United States and within some of these organizations negative messages about lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals are regularly espoused. Exposure to such homophobic sentiment has been found to have a detrimental impact on the mental health of sexual minorities and thereby, makes the exploration of religiosity and homophobia an imperative. This study examined differences in homophobia among the sociodemographic variables of gender, age, education level, religious affiliation, frequency of attendance at religious services, and amount of contact with lesbian, gay, and bisexual people. Additionally, a stepwise multiple regression was conducted to determine which religiosity variables were the best predictors of homophobia. The religiosity variables used in the study were Religious Fundamentalism, Quest, Immanence, as well as Intrinsic and Extrinsic religious orientations. Significant differences in homophobia were found for gender, age, religious affiliation, frequency of attendance at religious services, and number of known lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals. Religious Fundamentalism and Intrinsic religious orientation were found to be the best predictors of homophobia.
    • Women's Use of Violence: An Ecological Systems Model

      Byczek, Sara (2013-01-30)
      Women’s use of violence within intimate relationships is an important area of which both researchers and clinicians can benefit from gaining a better understanding. In the current literature on women’s use of violence, two main perspectives dominate, including the family violence perspective and the feminist perspective. The main goal of the present study was to gain a better understanding of women’s use of violence. Specifically, qualitative methodology was utilized to explore the possibility that typologies may exist within women’s use of violence that may help to explain the discrepant findings within the literature. Twelve women completed an online questionnaire that included interview-style questions developed utilizing Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems model, the Conflict Tactics Scale-2, and a measure created by the main researcher called the Contextual Relationship Measure. Key findings included (a) development of four typologies, (b) identification of characteristics associated with women who have used violence in their relationship, and (c) development of a grounded theory on women’s use of violence. Limitations and suggestions for future research are also discussed, including (a) issues related to the methodology utilized, (b) issues related to the population being studied, and (c) suggestions on how to build from the current findings.