Now showing items 1-20 of 1489


      Harman, Donald Edward (Indiana State University, 2015-05)
      The purpose of this study was to determine whether a relationship exists between Indiana Endof- Course Assessments (ECA) in English 10 and Algebra I and the following indicators at the high school level: (a) socioeconomic status, (b) instructional expenditures per student, (c) attendance rate, (d) school size, (e) percentage of ELLs, (f) mobility rate, (g) minority rate, and (h) percentage of special education students. This study examined which indicators had the greatest effect on English 10 ECA scores and Algebra I ECA scores in Indiana. To expand the purpose of this study to a specific variable, the study also examined if there was a relationship between SES of a building and the instructional expenditures. The study used quantitative research data collected from all public, non-charter high schools in Indiana from 2008 through 2013. In this study, a significant relationship was found between SES and instructional expenditures per student. The impact of an increase on the percentage of a school’s SES significantly impacts a school’s instructional expenditures per student. Findings in this study concluded that five out of the eight factors analyzed had a significant impact on the passing rate percentage of English 10 ECA. Specifically, the significant factors for the passing rate percentage of English 10 ECA were SES, attendance rate, enrollment, minority rate, and percentage of special education. Factors that did not have a significant impact on the passing rate percentage of English 10 ECA were instructional expenditures per student, percentage of English limited learners (ELL) and mobility rate. Findings in this study concluded that two out of the eight factors analyzed had a significant impact on the passing rate percentage of Algebra I ECA. Specifically, the significant factors were SES and attendance rate. Factors that did not have a significant impact on the passing rate percentage of Algebra I were instructional expenditures per student, enrollment, percentage of ELL, mobility rate, minority rate, and percentage of special education. The finding that instructional expenditures per student did not have a significant impact on Algebra I ECA could be significant as educational leaders attempt to allocate funds in schools. It is also significant to evaluate the three factors that did not impact Algebra I ECA but did impact English 10 ECA.

      Haire, Travis Brent (2015-05)
      This quantitative study examined the communication preferences of superintendents and public school board members. The data for this study were analyzed and interpreted using descriptive statistics, t test, and one-way ANOVAs. All public school superintendents and school board members in Indiana were eligible to participate in this study. This study administered a survey to all public school superintendents and school board members in Indiana. A total of 271 participants responded, 84 superintendents and 187 school board members. The survey measured the preferred methods and frequency of communication by superintendents and school board members. The survey was tested for reliability using a Cronbach’s alpha test, the result of this test was a .748, demonstrating strong reliability. Superintendents and school board members completed an on-line survey, which provided descriptive and inferential data for this study. Descriptive data were used to address Research Questions 1, 2, and 3. These questions focused on the preferences of communication skills and methods between superintendents and school board members. Research Question 4 utilized an independent sample t test to determine if there was a significant difference in regard to position type. Research Questions 5 and 6 utilized one-way ANOVAs to determine the differences in location and longevity. In conducting the research, there were significant differences between the urban respondents and their other two counterparts, rural and suburban. In each case, the urban respondents reported significantly less importance with regard to communication. The suburban and rural communication composite scores were not found to be significantly different. There were no significant differences on the communication composite scores based on the longevity of the position which the person held.

      Gutwein, Heidi Lynn (Indiana State University, 2015-05)
      The purpose of this quantitative study was to determine if a dominant MBTI preference in Indiana alternative school teachers predicted overall school quality within their respective schools. This study examined all four dichotomies: Extraversion-Introversion (EI), Sensing-Intuition (SN), Thinking-Feeling (TF), and Judgment-Perception (JP) as predictors of school quality. Factors that determine the quality of the alternative school are based on the average score of three areas of state-collected, outcome-based data specific to Indiana alternative schools (students who made adequate progress, students who obtained a high school diploma, and students who attained their individual service plan goals). Each participating Indiana alternative school has an average score based on the above criteria. Based on the findings, this study determined that there was a meaningful predictor among the alternative school teachers’ extraversion score and the school quality score (Question 1). As the extraversion score increased, the school quality score increased; therefore, an extraverted individual appears to get higher school quality scores. The sensing score for teachers within an alternative school (Question 2) was not a predictor of the school quality score; therefore, it did not serve as a significant predictor of the school quality score. There was a significant predictor between the alternative school teachers’ thinking score and the school quality score (Question 3). As the thinking score increased, the school quality score increased; therefore, a thinking individual appears to get higher school quality scores. The judging score for teachers within an alternative school (Question 4) was not a significant predictor of the school quality score; therefore, it did not serve as a significant predictor of the school quality score.

      Ginkins, Michelle M. (Indiana State University, 2015-05)
      The purpose of this quantitative study was to better understand the instructional strategies of Algebra I teachers and leadership characteristics of administrators among secondary public schools with high and low performance on Algebra I End-of-Course Assessments (ECAs). The impact of poverty on student achievement was also investigated in relation to first-time test taker Algebra 1 ECA passing rates. The study south to determine if schools’ free and reduced lunch rates, teacher characteristics, and/or principal characteristics were significant predictors of first-time test taker Algebra 1 ECA passing rates. Whether there were significant differences in implementation of Marzano, Pickering, and Pollock’s (2001) research-based instructional strategies and/or prioritization of McREL’s (Waters & Grubb, 2004) 21 leadership responsibilities based on school ECA performance levels was also investigated. The data used for these determinations was collected via teacher surveys that were sent to Indiana public high school Algebra 1 teachers and principals and data on 2012-2013 Indiana public high school free and reduced lunch rates and first-time test taker Algebra 1 ECA passing rates. Following a linear regression being run on the school free and reduced lunch rates and first-time test taker Algebra 1 ECA passing rates, it was determined that there was a significant, negative relationship between the two variables. Descriptive statistics were run and analyzed on data from both teacher and principal survey results related to implementation of Marzano et al.’s (2001) instructional strategies (teachers) and McREL’s (Waters & Grubb, 2004) leadership responsibilities (principals). Independent samples t-tests were run on the instructional strategies and leadership responsibilities composite scores for high- and low-performing schools. No significant difference was found between high- and low- performing schools for either of those areas. Multiple regressions were run on teacher characteristics and on principal characteristics and Algebra 1 ECA residual scores. For teachers, the characteristics were not found to be significant predictors of the ECA scores. For principals, the characteristics of school locale and principal educational degree attainment were found to be significant predictors of first-time test taker Algebra 1 ECA residual scores.

      Ghattu, Anupama (Indiana State University, 2015-05)
      Mobile technology is revolutionizing the American higher education system. Integrating mobile technology into college classrooms is changing the teaching and learning process. Today’s millennial generation students are tech savvy and using their mobile devices to learn and explore in many possible ways. Mobile technology devices can be used as effective tools to enhance teaching and learning. The ubiquitous nature of these mobile devices with wireless capabilities makes learning possible instantly anywhere and everywhere with easy access to information for everyone. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of integrating mobile wireless technologies (MWT) on preservice teachers’ attitudes and learning outcomes in teacher education classrooms. A pretest-posttest exploratory model was used to examine the effect of using MWT in the classroom setting. Students’ learning outcomes and attitudes were compared between two teacher education classes to see if there was a significant effect in using MWT. This quantitative study explored the effects of using MWT for classroom activities. Undergraduate students enrolled in two sections of a teacher education course were the study participants; one section was the control group and the other was the experimental group that used iPads for in-class activities. Data were collected at pretest before the treatment and at posttest after the treatment using an achievement test on the assigned chapter for investigating students’ learning outcomes and a Likert-scale survey for investigating students’ attitudes. The attitude survey was categorized and analyzed using four factors: a confidence/anxiety factor, a liking factor, a usefulness factor, and a training factor. The study results showed no significant change in students’ learning outcomes and attitudes towards using MWT. Due to a small sample size, use of a single intervention, and a limited period for the experiment were some of the major factors for insignificant results of this study. The information from this study can be the basis for further research to determine better ways to use MWT in teacher education classrooms.

      Garland, Timothy James (2015-05)
      The primary purpose of this quantitative study was to determine if there is a relationship between fatherly involvement in students’ lives and select factors of student descriptors and school success. Specifically, the study sought to discover if there is a significant relationship between fatherlessness and student success and if there is a significant relationship between fatherlessness and select student descriptors. Descriptive statistics and linear regression were used to interpret and analyze the data for the study. There were 1,780 respondents who participated in the study. Respondents included seniors from rural, suburban, and urban public schools. In conducting this study, the following inferential questions were addressed and analyzed by a comparison of responses submitted by public school principals from Indiana public schools: 1. Are there differences on the proportions between fatherless homes and homes with fathers based on the socioeconomic status of the student? Specifically, the Pearson chi-square test was selected to determine goodness of fit and examined whether the distribution was higher in one group than expected. The result of the Pearson chi-square test indicated a significant difference in the expected and actual counts within the two-by-two design, providing justification to split the remaining null hypotheses into two different samples based on lunch status. 2. Is there a significant difference on academic achievement based on the presence or absence of a father in the home for students eligible for free-and-reduced price lunches? This question revealed there was a significant difference. These students, if they did not have a father in the home, scored lower on Indiana End of Course Assessments (ECA; i.e., English/language arts and Algebra I), and college admission standardized tests (i.e., ACT, SAT, PSAT). 3. Is there a significant difference on academic achievement based on the presence or absence of a father in the home for students not eligible for free-and-reduced price lunches? It was found that there was a significant difference. Students who do not have a father in the home scored lower on Indiana ECA (i.e., English/language arts and Algebra I), and college admission standardized tests (i.e., ACT, SAT, PSAT). 4. Does attendance, discipline, fatherlessness, grade point average (GPA), and gender serve as a predictor for academic achievement for students not eligible for free-and-reduced price lunches? This question demonstrated that discipline and GPA served as predictors for academic achievement for this group of students. 5. Does attendance, discipline, fatherlessness, GPA, and gender serve as a predictor for academic achievement for students eligible for free-and-reduced price lunches? It was found that attendance, fatherlessness, GPA, and gender serve as predictors for academic achievement for this group of students.

      Forbes, Sarah A. (Indiana State University, 2015-05)
      Most high school students have not spent deliberate time preparing for their transition to college. Knowing this, institutions have developed a first-year seminar geared toward transitional issues inherent to a specific institution. While the research on these programs illustrates their utility, there appears to be an opportunity to further their success by incorporating peers as educators in the classroom. Bandura (1986) saw the potential of observational learning through peer modeling, though few researchers have studied first-year seminars from this theoretical perspective. Through a postpositivistic philosophical paradigm, this exploratory qualitative study utilized a phenomenological design to investigate two research questions: what are the academic and social challenges freshmen face in the transition to a small, private, highly selective, STEM-focused institution and how does the presence of sophomore peer educators in a first-year seminar influence freshman preparation for those fall quarter challenges. A total of 41 freshmen participated in the study. Data were collected through student journals and focus group interviews. The results of this study confirm that the transition to this specific type of institution is just as complex as the transition to other types of institutions, with students reporting similar academic and social challenges as found in the literature. However, their emphasis was on the core (i.e., academic) rather than the periphery (i.e., social) of the collegiate experience. The application of modeling, however, was not strong enough to determine whether observational learning influenced these transitional challenges.

      Nicole, Bailey (Indiana State University, 2016-03)
      This ethnography, conducted at Stellenbosch University in South Africa, conveys the experiences of tutors, students, and administrators in a multilingual writing lab. As the number of both multilingual and international students in American universities increases, more writing centers in the United States have begun to explore the idea of multilingual tutoring. This study offers implications for establishing American multilingual writing centers based on data that emerged from observations and interviews conducted at Stellenbosch. Several themes emerged from the data that have important implications for American centers. First, there must be a clear understanding of what defines a multilingual writing center. To that end, this study presents three different models from which American labs can choose. Findings also discuss the importance of a strong language policy to back up the work of the lab, as well as information on when and how multilingual tutors and students codeswitch in sessions. These findings are tied to theories of Ubuntu, social justice, developmental ecology, and literature on multilingualism. Given that this study took place at a time during which Stellenbosch students were protesting the university language policy, findings on the operations of the writing lab are tied to the greater context of student protests, which are now taking place in the United States as well as South Africa. One of the primary implications to emerge from this study was that writing labs can serve as a much needed safe space amid even the most stressful political and racial tensions. The overall finding was that the Stellenbosch University multilingual writing lab serves a social justice function in helping underrepresented students succeed in college.

      Frey, Susan (Indiana State University, 2021-05)
      This study is a hermeneutic investigation into the phenomenon of organizational role conflict as experienced by five long-term department chairpersons, four long-term department heads, and two former long-term department chairpersons working at universities and colleges located in Indiana, Illinois, and Massachusetts. Organizational role conflict for department chairpersons and department heads is a byproduct of their frontline manager position. By occupying a position between the collegiate and administrative branches of their institution, these managers serve as an important link in the chain of command, but suffer from ambiguous, contradictory, and competing expectations placed on them because of their hybrid status as faculty members and administrators. Over six decades of research has established organizational role conflict as elemental to the department chairperson position, yet people who occupy this position on a long-term basis are neglected in these investigations, while the conflict of department heads has not been fully examined. This study addresses these deficiencies in the research canon, as it provides an examination of the long-term frontline manager’s experience of organizational role conflict in academe. In-depth interviews and field notes were used to collect data, which were analyzed through the lenses of organizational role theory and organizational and management theory. Study findings indicate that the participants, guided by a strong sense of purpose and duty, mitigate their organizational role conflict while enacting their frontline manager role by employing strategies and embracing perspectives that reinforce their hybrid roles as scholar/educators and frontline administrators.

      Watson, MariEtta Joleen (Indiana State University, 2022-05)
      Optional Practical Training (OPT) is a highly valued and highly underutilized program designed to offer international students an opportunity to work in the U.S. and train in their field of study. This qualitative study collected and analyzed the narratives of three alumni of a Midwest university who completed OPT in the manufacturing engineering field. Four themes were identified in the narratives. These themes were inextricable to the premise that OPT is a deeply appreciated opportunity for F-1 students. The first theme is viewing the OPT experience as a system which includes the university, USCIS, and the employer and moreover a need to improve this system. Secondly, subjects demonstrated an acute reluctance to disclose information, an important point to keep in mind when conducting future research. The third theme is the desirability of sustained professional development. This theme was expressed through descriptions of actions and as advice for future OPT workers. Finally, subjects identified the uncertainty of new experiences as a bigger challenge than the reality of the experience. Efforts to remove barriers for these workers should include the time leading up to the action and address uncertainty.
    • An Experiential Analysis of Job Site Safety: Delineating Between Positive Safety Culture and Excessive Safety

      Tighe, Steven (Indiana State University, 2020-12)
      In general industry and in construction many safety requirements are mandated on job sites and in facilities. Many requirements move past simple compliance and enter the realm of cultural safety. This high level of cultural safety is what is typically the level most safety professionals strive for in any company. The balance is tipped to excessive when we move past the cultural safety into redundant or multi layers of requirements that affect production rates and have no actual value to safety but have the appearance of safety. This research looked into a large construction project that had multiple layers of safety professionals and multiple layers of redundant safety requirements. Some of the items reviewed were additional fall protection in scissor lifts, self-retracting utility knives, 100% PPE on site and other items above regulatory minimums. What was identified in the research was that if the hazard was high with potential catastrophic results, additional safety precautions were welcomed. If the perceived risk was low, it was viewed as a nuisance. Additionally, some redundant safety items significantly contributed to fatal incidents. The most important aspect of this paper is that true safety comes from a proper honest risk assessment and right sized mitigation of those hazards identified.

      Short, C. Grant (Indiana State University, 2019-12)
      The respective Bodies of Knowledge (BoKs) as described by the American Society for Quality (ASQ) for Certified Quality Engineers (ASQ, 2015a) and Certified Six Sigma Black Belts (ASQ, 2015b) are quite similar, yet anecdotally, six sigma black belts are recognized and consequently rewarded more highly than are quality engineers. While Quality Engineering work is typically regarded as preventive in nature, work performed by six sigma black belts is in the realm of improvement, hence is reactive in nature. Consequently, a dichotomy exists in that preventive actions, which are less costly by their nature, are not rewarded as well as costlier reactive actions. This results in loss to the owning organization. The intent of this research is to determine the validity of the anecdotal evidence, and subsequently determine the root cause therefor. The research method was to perform a survey of managers knowledgeable in the duties of both quality engineers and six sigma black belts combined with a Delphi Study of the ASQ certification board, which develops the respective bodies of knowledge, and a comparison in salaries of the two positions, based on the ASQ salary survey for several years. The results reflect the validity of the anecdotal evidence and indicate the need for further research.

      Seifers, Harold Leon III (Indiana State University, 2019-12)
      The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a correlation between the number of reported incidences of rape and stalking on college campuses and campuses that utilize CampusClarity by EVERFI as an educational tool to “reduce risky student behavior and prevent sexual assault on your campus.” The study investigated the relationship between the dependent variables, incidences of rape and stalking, versus the independent variables: partnership, men’s population, women’s population, on-campus drug crime, on-campus alcohol crime, on-campus domestic violence, and on-campus dating violence. The 11,181 campuses that report crime data required by the Clery Act were included as data with partnership information on 186 reported partners. A multiple linear regression analyses was used to determine a correlation. The results of the study show a positive statistically significant correlation between rape and stalking with partnership. This does not necessarily mean that partnership increases the occurrences of sexual assault. It is possible that the campuses that use these tools are already different from campuses that do not utilize their tools. A lack of information on implementation could also lead to varying results, as early and repetitive implementation could lead to less assaults occurring. It is also possible that the universities that utilize these tools are producing better educated students regarding sexual assault, which means they are more likely to report incidences than students at campuses that do not provide this type of training to its students, staff, and faculty.

      Schoff, Ronald D. (Indiana State University, 2020-08)
      Worker Safety is an area of high focus. Costs and impacts associated with incidents of workplace injury or fatality can have powerful effects on the organization. Workplace leadership style studies have shown statistically significant relationships between leadership style and rates of OSHA incidence and severity. One such example is transformational leadership. Studies have been completed in various industries, including high hazard industries that confirm this positive relationship. Organized labor offers many benefits of value to the employment sector. Such benefits as higher wages and better workplace safety practices contribute to society in economic and health related ways, among others. Transformational leadership and subordinates safety have been studied in non-union settings. Prior to this study, no study had been conducted to explore if a relationship existed between the leaders’ management style of transformational leadership and incidents of safety in a workplace setting that utilized a unionized workforce. This study addressed that literature gap. Specifically, this study examined if a relationship existed between transformational leadership style and OSHA incidence and severity in a unionized high hazard public private partnership utility. The study consisted of an analysis of transformational leadership ratings of front line, non-union supervisors as rated by their union-member subordinates and OSHA incident and lost time or severity rates. The results of the study indicated that, contrary to the results of the previous non-union based studies, this study found no statistically significant relationship between transformational leadership management style and OSHA incidence and severity rates.

      Phipps, Gregory Edward (Indiana State University, 2020-12)
      This study analyzed four determinant factors attributed to the acceptance of Bonded Cellular (BC) technology and applies the tenants of Diffusion of Innovation and Technology Acceptance Models. BC “bonds” available cellular channels and transmits a multiplexed signal to a broadcaster. This study will advance the understanding of factors that may impact the acceptance of BC at the management level. Research Questions 1. Can behavioral intention (BI) to adopt BC tools be predicted by using an independent variable representing Perceived Ease-Of-Use (PEOU)? 2. Can behavioral intention (BI) to adopt BC tools be predicted by using an independent variable representing Perceived Usefulness (PU)? 3. Can behavioral intention (BI) to adopt BC tools be predicted by using an independent variable representing the Relative Advantage (RA)? 4. Can behavioral intention (BI) to adopt BC tools be predicted by using an independent variable representing Compatibility with existing operations (COMP)? Null Hypotheses 1. H01:B1=0. There is no correlation between the (PEOU) intention to adopt BC. 2. H02:B2=0. There is no correlation between the (PU) and intention to adopt BC. 3. H03:B3=0. There is no correlation between (RA) and intention to adopt BC. 4. H04:B4=0. There is no correlation between (COMP) and intention to adopt BC. Adoption of BC technology is the dependent variable, behavioral intent (BI). An Internal Review Board approved Qualtrics questionnaire was disseminated to a targeted population comprised of TV technology and media production managers. The 32 carefully constructed Likert-Scaled questions explore a manager’s current familiarity, current usage, anticipated plans and time-frames regarding the adoption of BC technology. The survey results were tabulated using IBM SPSS statistical Linear Regression analysis models that correlates aspects of DOI and TAM to examine the independent variables (IV) to arrive at a determination of the factors contributing to the behavioral intent (BI) to adopt BC technology.

      Hajjami, Omaima (2020-07)
      The focus of this present study is to understand the factors that influence Moroccan millennial employees to stay at or to leave their organizations. To reach this purpose, the study followed a qualitative phenomenological research design, using interviews as a data collection type. Interviews were conducted with ten Moroccan millennials who have worked or still work in a private organization based in Casablanca, the economic capital of Morocco. Findings of this study discovered five factors that influenced Moroccan millennials to stay, including links with co-workers, good leadership style, responsibilities and tasks, training opportunities, and career advancement. Additionally, five factors were discovered to influence Moroccan millennials’ reasons to leave. These factors include autocratic leadership style, limited career path, low pay, learning saturation, and job discrepancy. This study can serve as input for Moroccan managers to understand their Moroccan millennial employees and to take effective retention efforts that best meet the needs of Moroccan millennials. For this aim, findings suggested four retention strategies that Moroccan millennials think should be important to improve their retention. These strategies are upward performance appraisal, learning and development opportunities, workplace flexibility opportunities, and personalized recognition. Moroccan millennials could use the findings of this research and adapt them to their specific organizational context.

      Muller, Heidi M. (Indiana State University, 2021-05)
      This research and development study created an item pool for the TMGT 698 graduate research methods course taught by the Department of Applied Engineering and Technology Management at Indiana State University. The Department of Applied Engineering and Technology Management at Indiana State University can use the item pool created in this research and development study to evaluate the dissemination of knowledge to graduate students from the course materials provided to them. The Department of Applied Engineering and Technology Management at Indiana State University can use the item pool in conjunction with the written assessments and discussion response assessments to evaluate ABET student outcomes and the course objective. A total population of 100 items was created, based on ten items for each of ten objective assessments (quizzes). The study consisted of presenting individuals with ten quizzes selecting items from each assignment’s item pool. Statistical item analysis was then performed on the results to verify internal consistency and reliability, initial assumptions of difficulty, and to determine item discrimination. The results of the study indicate that the majority of items in the item pool are acceptable to use in conjunction with the writing assessments and discussion response assessments to determine student retention of knowledge and attainment of the ABET student outcomes and the course objective.

      Cherry, Miriah L. (Indiana State University, 2019-05)
      The company experienced a high volume of recordable injuries and decided it was time to implement an ergonomic program in order to drive down the number of ergonomic related injuries. The ergonomics program was implemented in mid-2016 and positively impacted the company’s incident rate. Due to the high ergonomic related incident rate the company had in 2016, the decision was made to implement an ergonomic improvement program in 2017. The goal is to determine the effectiveness of the ergonomics improvement program. This project consists of the study of data before and after the implementation as well as a review of related literature. This study began with assessing risk of each job task in the facility after realizing the need for an improvement. After each task was assessed and assigned a risk priority number, the project was added to a common spreadsheet. The project leaders chose projects to complete from the common spreadsheet and produced a PDCA for each completed project. The PDCA entailed a section for planning, doing, and checking for sustainability of the project. Upon completion of the project, a walk to present the improvements was conducted for recognition. No statistically significant reduction of injuries was found, although there was a 17% reduction of injuries. However, a significant reduction in severity of each injury was noted throughout the study.

      McCauley, Kathleen H. (Indiana State University, 2019-05)
      The chaotic and complex nature of the construction industry and construction projects hinders maximization of productivity. Certain aspects of lean manufacturing are adaptable to construction with the goal of improving work flow reliability; for example, measuring work flow reliability by Percent Planned Complete (PPC). As more construction projects are being built with lean methodologies, it is important to bring this knowledge into the undergraduate Construction Management (CM) programs so that new graduates have relevant knowledge of emerging trends and can serve as change agents in industry. The purpose of this study was to construct a mathematical estimation of project dynamics through a future-oriented regression model for predicting PPC at various times throughout a project. A hands-on learning activity utilizing small diameter PVC piping materials was developed to collect data for the PPC model. The hands-on activity was executed at various universities using a homogeneous sample of undergraduates in CM courses. A secondary purpose was to assess whether or not participating in the hands-on activity improved learning as compared to a control group which only experienced a lecture. The results indicated various internal and external events experienced by the students were useful in predicting PPC. There is consistent negative direction in the coefficients for the predictors TI, number of Internal events, and TE, number of External events, indicating that for every unit of increase for either TI or TE, there will be a decrease in the future PPC. Furthermore, the hands-on activity did not improve learning in CM students as no statistically significant differences were observed between the test and control groups. A number of approaches are considered for future research to build on the PPC model by utilizing different materials and components, different internal and external events, weighting these events, and collecting data from different industry stakeholders.

      Houseworth, Matthew A. (Indiana State University, 2020-05)
      This research provides the automotive collision industry empirical evidence of the effects of Lean-for-Collision Training and Development Initiatives facilitated by a targeted sample of three automotive collision repair centers. Through formal interview and review of artifacts, the findings showcased in this study are in terms of automotive collision industry metrics; a balance in cost, quality, and service delivery, specifically, vehicle cycle-time, vehicle touch-time, employee turnover, and the Return-on-Investment (ROI) of their Lean training. In addition, this research provides automotive collision centers with critical knowledge and understanding of how to successfully navigate and progress through the Framework for Six Sigma Implementation in SMEs to achieve and develop a Lean culture in order to ultimately sustain the results of Lean Six Sigma training implementation.