• A convenient synthesis of 2,6-Dichloromonicotinic acid.

      Buchanan, Chase;; Fitch Richard (2012-05-21)
      In our synthetic efforts toward the alkaloid phantasmidine, we required a convenient source of the title compound. Herein, we describe a short synthesis of 2,6-dichlorohomonicotinic acid by direct allylation of 2,6-dichloropyridine with LDA/allyl chloride, followed by permanganate oxidation of the side chain [figure1]. Yields for the allylation are high, while permanganate oxidation required more adjustment. Successful conditions require the modest acidification of the mixture with acetic acid and cleanup by acid base workup. No chromatography is needed.
    • Candy Unicorn Horn Chandelier

      Breitigam, Kari (2012-05-21)
    • Cloning and characterization of SAS0754, a hypothetical protein from community associated Staphylococcus aureus

      Aureus, Staphylococcus (2012-05-21)
      : Community associated Staphylococcus aureus (strain MSSA476) is a gram positive cocci capable of infecting many different parts of the body and known to cause serious infections that can be fatal, such as bacterial arthritis and acute endocarditis. To find effective ways of fighting against CA-MRSA strains we must learn more about their ability to infect. The focus of this study was cloning and characterization of a protein referred to as SAS0754. The size of SAS0754 is 340 amino acids and the gene sequence is 1023 nucleotides. The hypothetical function of this protein is that it is an extracellular matrix binding protein. Virulence in S. aureus is related to the formation of biofilms and adherence to fibronectin in host cells, both of which are mediated by extracellular matrix binding proteins. Previous work on CA-MRSA in this laboratory has isolated several genes, unique to CA-MRSA, to determine the extent of their role in host infection. This protein SAS0754 was chosen because it is one of these hypothetical proteins and does not yet have a confirmed functionality. Gateway cloning techniques were used for cloning of the gene of interest. Using his-tag purification techniques we isolated the protein of interest for characterization. The protein was visualized using SDS-PAGE and the bands were seen at 36,000 kDa. Future work on this project will include further characterization of the SAS0754 protein.
    • Cloning and purification of SAS0397 from community associated Staphylococcus aureus

      Wannemacher, Amber; Dannelly, Kathleen H (2012-05-21)
      Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a unique bacterium that can cause painful abscesses that require surgical treatment and can be confined to the skin surface or burrow into the skin causing life-threatening infections. There are two types of MRSA: hospital associated-MRSA (HA-MRSA) and community associated-MRSA (CA-MRSA). Community associated-MRSA is acquired through direct contact with an infected individual or sharing of personal items and is often seen in locations such as athletic facilities, dormitories, and daycare centers. This study involves cloning and purification of SAS0397, a putative exported protein predicted, according to bioinformatics, to be unique to community associated Staphylococcus aureus MSSA476. The predicted size for the gene, sas0397, is 1503 nucleotides long and the protein, SAS0397, is 500 amino acids. SAS0397 has a mass of 56.21 kDa. Cloning of the gene was performed using the Gateway Technology provided by Invitrogen. Results from SDS-PAGE showed that cloning was successful based on gene expression with a distinct band appearing around 66 kDa in the induced sample. Protein purification will be performed using his-tag column chromatography. Based on bioinformatics, SAS0397 is predicted to be an immunoglobulin G binding protein. Further research to determine its role in the infection pathway is planned. Determining the interaction of SAS0397 during the immune response with B-cells, T-cells, and also its response to normal flora will help to better understand CA-MRSA and provide further information on its invasiveness mechanisms.
    • Convenient Parallel Synthesis of Alkyl- and Aryl-S-tert-Butyl Thiothers

      Rebecca Norcross; Jessica Stanfield; Richard W. Fitch (2012-05-21)
      While preparing novel cysteine derivatives as oxidation catalysts, we needed S-tert-butylcysteine. We also examined acid-promoted tert-butylation of thiols using tert-butanol as reagent and solvent. While cysteine and aminoethanethiol work well using tBuOH in 4M HCl, other thiols fail in the aqueous environment and aerobic conditions. We examined a variety of aliphatic and aromatic thiols in tBuOH with H2SO4 catalysis and found that argon sparging and the use of 1 eq of acid led to good yields in a parallel format.
    • Digital and clinical refractometers are valid instruments for the measure of hydration status.

      Niemann, AJ; Yeargin SW; Eberman LE; Mata HM; Adams HA; Dziedzicki DJ (2012-05-21)
      Although some instruments have been validated for clinical measure of hydration status, new and currently invalid instruments are available for purchase and clinical use. Athletic trainers commonly use these instruments to assess hydration status for weight checks and body mass loss charts due to their ease of use. However, the validity of these popular instruments has not yet been established.
    • Effect of Urine Agitation on measurements of hydration status.

      Adams, HM;; Yeargin SW; Eberman LE;; Niemann AJ;; Mata HL;; Dziedzicki DJ (2012-05-21)
      Hypohydration can have significant implications on physiological functions of the body and has the potential to decrease level of performance. Hypohydration can lead to increased thermal and cardiovascular strain. • Athletic trainers are commonly required to attain urine specimen samples to assess athlete hydration status for weight checks and monitoring body mass losses. Unfortunately, immediate examination of urine samples is not always possible. • As the urine sample sits, visible and non-visible sedimentation develops. No current literature addresses the sedimentation of urine samples and what procedures should be performed to ensure an accurate hydration assessment.
    • Electronic properties of memantine(Alzheimer's disease)and amantadine(anti-flu)drugs.

      Middleton, Kirsten;; Zhang, Guo-ping;; George, Thomas (2012-05-21)
      Alzheimer’s Disease is the 5th leading cause of death for Americans 65 and older Treatment The U.S. Food and Drug Administration Only five drugs approved that “temporarily slow worsening of symptoms for about six to 12 months.” Effective for only about half of all patients
    • Energy-saving hypothermia reduces flight ability in mourning doves.

      Lima, Steven L;; Carr Jennie (2012-05-21)
      Overwintering birds are frequently exposed to thermal challenges that can quickly decrease energy reserves, thus leading to an increase in the risk of starvation. During these periods of energetic hardship, many avian species use nocturnal hypothermia to conserve energy that would otherwise be lost remaining warm throughout the night (McKechnie & Lovegrove 2002). However, a cool body temperature (Tb) may limit a bird’s ability to monitor the environment and may slow their response to a potential threat. Thus, birds likely trade-off between the benefits of energy-saving hypothermia and the potential costs of reduced behavioral responsiveness to predators (Welton et al. 2002). Our study organism, the mourning dove (Zenaida macroura), is frequently exposed to energetic challenges and high predation during winter (Roth & Lima 2003), making them an ideal species for such a study. Our preliminary work has also demonstrated that doves routinely use nocturnal hypothermia when energetically stressed during food deprivation; doves typically drop their Tb by 2 °C on control nights with food available ad libitum with an approximate 4 °C and 7 °C drop in Tb following one and two days of food deprivation, respectively (Carr & Lima, unpublished data). These drops in body temperature can lead to significant energy savings during periods of energetic stress. However, the flight muscles also cool significantly, potentially leading to slower muscle contractions and reduced flight ability. In this study, we tested the flight ability of hypothermic mourning doves to examine how these energy-saving drops in nighttime Tb influence a bird’s ability to escape from a potential threat. The behavior of hypothermic birds has not been examined in detail (but see Laurila & Hohtola 2005) and testing flight ability while hypothermic will provide valuable insights into potential trade-offs between energy-conservation and predation risk. This research will also provide the ground-work for future tests of hypothermia under different levels of perceived risk to further examine potential mechanisms behind these behavioral responses.
    • Interactive Concept to Aid in understanding dimensional analysis.

      Hicks, Alicia (2012-05-21)
      Many students struggle with learning how to utilize dimensional analysis .This confusion is due to not understanding the concept of dose per volume, leading to difficulty when starting the sequencing. This could be one of the contributing causes to medication errors in clinical practice. Does using models, such as Play-doh and pebbles, help students learn the concept of milligrams per milliliters when calculating dosages using dimensional analysis method?
    • Kinesio Tape and its effects on internal and external range of shoulder.

      Renner, CM; Ujino A; Kahanov L; Eberman LE; Demchak TJ (2012-05-21)
    • Risk factors associated with ACL injuries in females.

      Eberman, Lindsey; Young, Kiersten (2012-05-21)
    • Sedimentology and geochronology of holocene paleochannel features in the lower ohio river valley,Indiana.

      Kathryn G.De Rego; Russell Stafford; Mark Cantin (2012-05-21)
      Rivers condition human settlement strategy by determining both the location of aquatic resources and the stability of the landscape. Therefore, understanding where the river was and how quickly it migrated in the past aids in predicting buried site potential. This study investigates the sedimentology and geochronology of paleochannel deposits along the Lower Ohio River floodplain. A series of low, wide swales are prominent features in a series of bottoms in a ~40 km section of the river valley downstream from the Falls of the Ohio. Previous studies in Knob Creek Bottom indicate that one of these paleochannel swales was active during the early Holocene, roughly 10K to 7.4K rcybp. The positioning of the others suggest that they are the remains of a single channel that flowed on the west side of the river valley during the early Holocene. To test this proposition, cores were collected in several locations within and adjacent to prominent swales. The channel is characterized by laminated point bar deposits overlain by overbank sediment containing a heavily weathered Alfisol, Mollisol, or Inceptisol soil with prominent redox mottles. The sediment ranges from silt to silt loam. In some reaches, alluvial fan sediments interfinger with the point bar deposits. Datable organic carbon was found in both point bar and overbank contexts. This study compares the sedimentology, weathering, and age of these channel segments to determine their geomorphic relationship.
    • The effects of a gluteus medius training protocol on muscle activation.

      Dorpinghaus, ND;; Gage MJ;; Dominguese D;; Kingsley D;; Yoder A (2012-05-21)
      Context: Researchers have suggested that a weak or dysfunctional gluteus medius (GM) has been linked to a number of lower extremity injuries. Identifying an appropriate intervention to prevent or correct deficits of the GM and determine associated outcomes has become a subject of increased interest. Objective: To determine if GM training changes lower extremity muscle activation during a dynamic task. Design: Controlled laboratory study Setting: Biomechanics research laboratory. Participants: Eighteen healthy, physically active participants (7 men, 11 women; age = 21.2±2.01yrs; height = 168.39±8.92cm; mass= 77.76±16.39kg) volunteered for the study. All participants served as their own control. Intervention(s): All of the participants completed a six week GM training protocol. Muscle activation of 5 trunk muscles were measured bilaterally before and after the protocol during a single-leg drop landing and normalized. Main Outcome Measure(s): Peak and mean muscle activation was measured 400ms pre- and post-landing. Results: Decreased muscle activation was observed in the right GM [pre-mean (P=.001), pre-peak (P=.007), post-mean (P=.033), and post-peak (P=.045)]. Increased biceps femoris (BF) mean muscle activation was observed on the stance leg pre-landing (p=.044). Conclusions: Six weeks of GM training was enough time to observe improved GM neuromuscular efficiency. The increased BF muscle activation prior to landing suggests participants had an increased feedforward response in preparation for landing. Therefore the combination of improved neuromuscular efficiency and a greater feedforward response suggest pelvic stabilization may be improved during a single-leg drop landing as a result of six weeks of GM training.