• Digital and clinical refractometers are valid instruments for the measure of hydration status.

      Niemann, AJ; Yeargin SW; Eberman LE; Mata HM; Adams HA; Dziedzicki DJ (2012-05-21)
      Although some instruments have been validated for clinical measure of hydration status, new and currently invalid instruments are available for purchase and clinical use. Athletic trainers commonly use these instruments to assess hydration status for weight checks and body mass loss charts due to their ease of use. However, the validity of these popular instruments has not yet been established.
    • Effect of Urine Agitation on measurements of hydration status.

      Adams, HM;; Yeargin SW; Eberman LE;; Niemann AJ;; Mata HL;; Dziedzicki DJ (2012-05-21)
      Hypohydration can have significant implications on physiological functions of the body and has the potential to decrease level of performance. Hypohydration can lead to increased thermal and cardiovascular strain. • Athletic trainers are commonly required to attain urine specimen samples to assess athlete hydration status for weight checks and monitoring body mass losses. Unfortunately, immediate examination of urine samples is not always possible. • As the urine sample sits, visible and non-visible sedimentation develops. No current literature addresses the sedimentation of urine samples and what procedures should be performed to ensure an accurate hydration assessment.
    • Electronic properties of memantine(Alzheimer's disease)and amantadine(anti-flu)drugs.

      Middleton, Kirsten;; Zhang, Guo-ping;; George, Thomas (2012-05-21)
      Alzheimer’s Disease is the 5th leading cause of death for Americans 65 and older Treatment The U.S. Food and Drug Administration Only five drugs approved that “temporarily slow worsening of symptoms for about six to 12 months.” Effective for only about half of all patients
    • Energy-saving hypothermia reduces flight ability in mourning doves.

      Lima, Steven L;; Carr Jennie (2012-05-21)
      Overwintering birds are frequently exposed to thermal challenges that can quickly decrease energy reserves, thus leading to an increase in the risk of starvation. During these periods of energetic hardship, many avian species use nocturnal hypothermia to conserve energy that would otherwise be lost remaining warm throughout the night (McKechnie & Lovegrove 2002). However, a cool body temperature (Tb) may limit a bird’s ability to monitor the environment and may slow their response to a potential threat. Thus, birds likely trade-off between the benefits of energy-saving hypothermia and the potential costs of reduced behavioral responsiveness to predators (Welton et al. 2002). Our study organism, the mourning dove (Zenaida macroura), is frequently exposed to energetic challenges and high predation during winter (Roth & Lima 2003), making them an ideal species for such a study. Our preliminary work has also demonstrated that doves routinely use nocturnal hypothermia when energetically stressed during food deprivation; doves typically drop their Tb by 2 °C on control nights with food available ad libitum with an approximate 4 °C and 7 °C drop in Tb following one and two days of food deprivation, respectively (Carr & Lima, unpublished data). These drops in body temperature can lead to significant energy savings during periods of energetic stress. However, the flight muscles also cool significantly, potentially leading to slower muscle contractions and reduced flight ability. In this study, we tested the flight ability of hypothermic mourning doves to examine how these energy-saving drops in nighttime Tb influence a bird’s ability to escape from a potential threat. The behavior of hypothermic birds has not been examined in detail (but see Laurila & Hohtola 2005) and testing flight ability while hypothermic will provide valuable insights into potential trade-offs between energy-conservation and predation risk. This research will also provide the ground-work for future tests of hypothermia under different levels of perceived risk to further examine potential mechanisms behind these behavioral responses.
    • Interactive Concept to Aid in understanding dimensional analysis.

      Hicks, Alicia (2012-05-21)
      Many students struggle with learning how to utilize dimensional analysis .This confusion is due to not understanding the concept of dose per volume, leading to difficulty when starting the sequencing. This could be one of the contributing causes to medication errors in clinical practice. Does using models, such as Play-doh and pebbles, help students learn the concept of milligrams per milliliters when calculating dosages using dimensional analysis method?
    • Kinesio Tape and its effects on internal and external range of shoulder.

      Renner, CM; Ujino A; Kahanov L; Eberman LE; Demchak TJ (2012-05-21)
    • Risk factors associated with ACL injuries in females.

      Eberman, Lindsey; Young, Kiersten (2012-05-21)
    • Sedimentology and geochronology of holocene paleochannel features in the lower ohio river valley,Indiana.

      Kathryn G.De Rego; Russell Stafford; Mark Cantin (2012-05-21)
      Rivers condition human settlement strategy by determining both the location of aquatic resources and the stability of the landscape. Therefore, understanding where the river was and how quickly it migrated in the past aids in predicting buried site potential. This study investigates the sedimentology and geochronology of paleochannel deposits along the Lower Ohio River floodplain. A series of low, wide swales are prominent features in a series of bottoms in a ~40 km section of the river valley downstream from the Falls of the Ohio. Previous studies in Knob Creek Bottom indicate that one of these paleochannel swales was active during the early Holocene, roughly 10K to 7.4K rcybp. The positioning of the others suggest that they are the remains of a single channel that flowed on the west side of the river valley during the early Holocene. To test this proposition, cores were collected in several locations within and adjacent to prominent swales. The channel is characterized by laminated point bar deposits overlain by overbank sediment containing a heavily weathered Alfisol, Mollisol, or Inceptisol soil with prominent redox mottles. The sediment ranges from silt to silt loam. In some reaches, alluvial fan sediments interfinger with the point bar deposits. Datable organic carbon was found in both point bar and overbank contexts. This study compares the sedimentology, weathering, and age of these channel segments to determine their geomorphic relationship.
    • The effects of a gluteus medius training protocol on muscle activation.

      Dorpinghaus, ND;; Gage MJ;; Dominguese D;; Kingsley D;; Yoder A (2012-05-21)
      Context: Researchers have suggested that a weak or dysfunctional gluteus medius (GM) has been linked to a number of lower extremity injuries. Identifying an appropriate intervention to prevent or correct deficits of the GM and determine associated outcomes has become a subject of increased interest. Objective: To determine if GM training changes lower extremity muscle activation during a dynamic task. Design: Controlled laboratory study Setting: Biomechanics research laboratory. Participants: Eighteen healthy, physically active participants (7 men, 11 women; age = 21.2±2.01yrs; height = 168.39±8.92cm; mass= 77.76±16.39kg) volunteered for the study. All participants served as their own control. Intervention(s): All of the participants completed a six week GM training protocol. Muscle activation of 5 trunk muscles were measured bilaterally before and after the protocol during a single-leg drop landing and normalized. Main Outcome Measure(s): Peak and mean muscle activation was measured 400ms pre- and post-landing. Results: Decreased muscle activation was observed in the right GM [pre-mean (P=.001), pre-peak (P=.007), post-mean (P=.033), and post-peak (P=.045)]. Increased biceps femoris (BF) mean muscle activation was observed on the stance leg pre-landing (p=.044). Conclusions: Six weeks of GM training was enough time to observe improved GM neuromuscular efficiency. The increased BF muscle activation prior to landing suggests participants had an increased feedforward response in preparation for landing. Therefore the combination of improved neuromuscular efficiency and a greater feedforward response suggest pelvic stabilization may be improved during a single-leg drop landing as a result of six weeks of GM training.