The College of Arts and Sciences is home to 20 academic departments, as well as 13 inter-disciplinary and pre-professional programs. The departments encompass arts and humanities, social sciences, and natural sciences and mathematics and computer science.

Sub-communities within this community

Recent Submissions


    Burkett, Ashley M. (Indiana State University, 2015-05)
    In an effort to understand the relationships between active methane seep and adjacent non-seep (inactive) populations of the deep-sea foraminifera Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi, a common paleo-indicator species, from methane seeps in the Pacific were analyzed and compared to one another for genetic similarities of small subunit rDNA (SSU rDNA) sequences. Pacific Ocean C. wuellerstorfi were also compared to those collected from other localities around the world (based on 18S gene available on Genbank, e.g., Schweizer et al., 2009). Results from this study revealed that C. wuellerstorfi living in seeps near Costa Rica and Hydrate Ridge are genetically similar to one another at the species level. Individuals collected from the same location that display opposite coiling directions (dextral and sinistral) had no species level genetic differences. Comparisons of specimens with genetic information available from Genbank (SSU rDNA) showed that Pacific individuals, collected for this study, are genetically similar to those previously analyzed from the North Atlantic and Antarctic. These observations provide strong evidence for the true cosmopolitan nature of C. wuellerstorfi and highlight the importance of understanding how these microscopic organisms are able to maintain sufficient genetic exchange to remain within the same species between seep and nonseep habitats and over global distances. Although organic matter degradation rates have been studied for some time, in situ rates of protoplasm degradation in deep-sea foraminiferal tests have been estimated based on laboratory experiments and sediment distribution patterns. Information regarding degradation rates of foraminiferal protoplasm is essential in the use of non-vital stains in identifying the amount and character of protoplasm in tests which remains the most commonly used method to assess living populations of benthic foraminifera (e.g., Murray and Bowser, 2000). In an effort to examine the retention potential of foraminiferal protoplasm on the deep seafloor 36 frozen, protoplasm filled Cibicidoides wuelllerstorfi were placed in natural sediments inside experimental containers and deployed on for 390 to 396 days. Despite oxygen-poor conditions (0.24 mL/L to 0.37 mL/L) that would be expected to promote preservation of organic matter, and experimental container protection from macro- and megafauna, 72% of deployed tests containing protoplasm were destroyed beyond recognition within 396 days. Of the 10 specimens (28%) recovered, 9 retained at least some protoplasm, but only 1 individual had the potential to be identified as living based on Rose Bengal staining techniques. However, in this specimen, protoplasm was clearly altered or missing in some chambers. The results of this study suggest that it is unlikely that many, if any, benthic foraminiferal specimens containing protoplasm terminated by freezing would be conservatively considered as recently living using Rose Bengal as an indicator of the extent and character of protoplasm within the test after 396 days or less exposed to in situ conditions in deep-seafloor habitats. After 390 to 396 days on the seafloor at Hydrate Ridge in the Pacific, eight artificial substrate experiments (hereafter referred to as SEA3 for Seafloor Epibenthic Attachment Cubes) were colonized by 1058 Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi. The presence of this species has been inferred as an indicator of well-oxygenated conditions, and recruitment of such large numbers in bottom-waters with low dissolved oxygen availability (0.24 to 0.37 mL/L) indicates that this taxon is not as limited by oxygen as previously thought. Clues about substrate preferences were also evident from the distribution of individuals on SEA3. For example, the wooden rod attached directly to the plastic mesh that was heavily colonized was devoid of any epibenthic foraminifera. Few studies have examined foraminiferal colonization of hard substrates in the deep-sea (e.g., Mullineaux, 1987), and to our knowledge no previous study has compared foraminiferal colonization of seep with non-seep substrates. Comparisons of abundance, size distribution, and isotopic biogeochemistry of living foraminifera colonizing experimental substrates revealed differences between seep and non-seep environments. SEA3 within active methane seep habitats at Hydrate Ridge contained significantly fewer (406 on four SEA3s a density of 44 #individuals/100 cm2) individuals compared with those in adjacent off-seep sites (594 on three SEA3s a density of 86 #individuals/100 cm2). An additional 58 individuals were on a SEA3 22, which may have experienced seep conditions despite being deployed as a nonseep experiment (density of 25 #individuals/100 cm2). This difference in abundance may be due to active seepage conditions, however, reduced foraminiferal abundances on SEA3s located at seeps resulted from increased predation and displacement by higher abundances of macro- and meiofauna observed at active seep locations. Stable carbon isotope values of benthic foraminifera from seep substrates ranged from 0.26‰ to -0.56‰ with an average of 0.03‰ while δ13C from off-seep substrates range from 0.39‰ to -0.26‰ with an average of 0.15‰. Statistical analyses indicate a significant difference between seep and non-seep δ13C. Stable oxygen isotopes of foraminiferal carbonate from seep substrates range from 2.70‰ to 2.03‰ with an average of 2.41‰ and 2.65‰ to 1.99‰ with an average of 2.39‰ at adjacent off-seep sites. These results provide some of the first information about epifaunal foraminiferal colonization potential at methane seeps and highlight the biogeochemical and ecological influences of seep habitats on C. wuellerstorfi.

    Slowik, Abigail K. (Indiana State University, 2015-08)
    Although many studies have examined attitudes toward feminism and feminists, very few have been devoted to the study of attitudes toward male feminists. The existing body of literature has shown mixed results; with feminist men being rated more positively in some regards, and more negative in others. In the current study, Social Identity Theory (Tajfel & Turner, 2004) is used as a framework for understanding factors associated with attitudes towards male feminists, male feminist identification, and gender-self-esteem. Attitudes associated with male feminists were examined in a sample of 466 male and female undergraduate students from Indiana State University. Participants were randomly assigned to one of six vignette conditions in which the sexual orientation and feminist orientation of a male character were manipulated, resulting in two non-feminist (heterosexual-homosexual), two feminist (heterosexual-homosexual), and two anti-feminist (heterosexual-homosexual) conditions. After reading the vignette, the participants were asked to rate the character on the Warmth and Competence scales, which correspond to traditional female and male traits, respectively. Participants then completed several self-report measures, including the Collective Self-Esteem Scale (assesses self-esteem related to gender), Liberal Feminist Attitudes and Ideology Scale (assesses liberal feminist attitudes), and Demographic questionnaire. Participants also completed a measure of social desirability and a measure assessing current sexual orientation. Contrary to hypotheses, results indicated that regardless of sexual orientation, feminist and non-feminist men received the highest Warmth and Competence ratings, while anti-feminists received the lowest. Additionally, gender self-esteem was found to be a sufficient predictor of attitudes toward feminism in women, but not in men. Consistent with other research, participants who were more politically liberal had more positive attitudes toward feminism than those who were more conservative. Finally, higher levels of religiosity were correlated with less positive attitudes toward feminism in women, but not in men. This research will contribute to knowledge and awareness of what factors predict feminist identification in men and what factors affect attitudes toward male feminists. This current research suggests that male feminists are perceived to possess both masculine and feminine traits, regardless of their sexual orientation. Additionally, the results suggest that SIT can be a useful framework to begin to understand both attitudes toward feminism and feminist identification. Furthermore, although there are some similarities in the predictors of attitudes toward feminism and feminist identification in women, there is much less consensus on these predictors in men. Finally, greater awareness regarding the impact of rigid gender roles and stigma against feminism can lead to more effective interventions to reduce gender role strain and potentially harmful compensatory strategies.

    Ramsey, Jamie (Indiana State University, 2014-12)
    This is the first known study to examine the relationship between Native identity and psychological well-being, which is defined by Ryff in positive psychology as existential strengths. It is also the first known study to investigate the relationship between Native identity and blood quantum through quantitative measures. Overall, 199 Natives from two American Indian Centers, three Indiana powwows, and online from Facebook participated by completing the Ryff’s Scales of Psychological Well-being, Phinney’s Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure, and demographic information. The main hypothesis was to explore whether any of the psychological well-being subscales (positive relations, autonomy, mastery of environment, selfacceptance, personal growth, and/or life purpose) was associated with achieved Native identity status. Interestingly, only positive relations was significant in correlation with Native identity. A second hypothesis that diffused Native identity development would be associated with less Native ancestry, based on the negative, internalized socialization of blood quantum, was not supported; Native identity appears to be more complex with its multiple influences. However, the third hypothesis that achieved Native identity status was associated with more Native community involvement was supported. This is understandable in light of its high importance in Native values and identity formation. The discussion reviews the potential reasons for such results, as well as implications for promotion of more traditional community involvement in Native programs and services.

    Alfrey, Danielle D. (Indiana State University, 2014-12)
    Electronic dance music (EDM) events are strongly associated with polydrug use, or the use of several substances at one time (Fernandez-Calderon et al., 2011), which has contributed to overall negative stereotypes of the EDM scene. Nitrous oxide use has been documented in EDM research, but mainly in qualitative designs (Hunt, Evans, Moloney, and Bailey, 2009). Qualitative research suggested participants pair nitrous oxide inhalation with use of ecstasy, or MDMA, for feeling an enhanced effect. This EDM study examined nitrous oxide use using a quantitative design and investigated how polysubstance use was related to positive and negative consequences of involvement in the EDM scene. Electronic music fans completed an Internet-based survey (N=147, 50% female) that assessed for amount of nitrous oxide use, amount of other drug use (i.e., lifetime use), gender, age, and degree of involvement in the EDM scene. Criterion variables included drug related consequences, positive and negative well-being, relationship satisfaction, and self-rated health. EDM involvement by itself was not significantly predictive of negative psychosocial functioning. However, EDM Involvement was predictive of increased positive affect. Nitrous oxide use and other substance use independently predicted psychosocial functioning. Nitrous oxide use predicted lower levels of positive affect and self-rated health. Moderation analyses testing the hypotheses that nitrous use moderated the effect of EDM involvement on negative outcomes were not supported. However, nitrous oxide use did appear to moderate the relationship between other drug use and positive well-being. For participants reporting lower nitrous oxide use, there was a positive relationship between other drug use and positive well- being, but for participants reporting higher nitrous oxide use, the relationship was no longer significant. Future research should assess a broader range of nitrous use frequencies as well as ask about drug use during the past month and year in addition to lifetime use.

    Lacy, Sara B. (Indiana State University, 2014-08)
    Due to the role of trauma in the etiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), borderline personality disorder (BPD), and disorders of extreme stress, not otherwise specified (DESNOS), and noted similar clinical pictures, it is important to explore differential diagnosis. There is evidence that gender influences the diagnosis of PTSD and BPD and of an “anchoring effect” in which disclosure of childhood trauma early versus late in a case vignette results in more diagnoses of PTSD or BPD, respectively. Additionally, as many veterans seek care within the private sector, it is important to understand possible diagnostic differences between VA and private sector clinicians. The present study explored gender bias, the anchoring effects of placement of childhood trauma in a case, and differences between VA and private sector clinicians in the diagnosis of PTSD and BPD. A national sample of 62 VA psychologists and 87 private sector psychologists read one of four versions of a case vignette and assigned a diagnosis, diagnostic ratings, and symptom ratings. The vignettes included PTSD and BPD symptoms, and a history of childhood trauma and combat-related trauma, and the versions differed with regard to patient gender and the placement of a childhood trauma within the case. Overall, the cases tended to be seen as PTSD, with PTSD being the frequent diagnosis, followed by BPD. Gender played a role in BPD diagnoses, with the female version of the case receiving significantly more BPD diagnoses and higher BPD ratings than the male version, as hypothesized. However, gender did not influence the diagnosis of PTSD. There was little support for an anchoring effect of placement of the childhood trauma in the case. VA clinicians assigned significantly lower PTSD ratings, as predicted, but also more diagnoses of BPD than private sector psychologists. Methodological limitations of the study and implications of the results are discussed.

    Dumke, Ryan (Indiana State University, 2014-08)
    Attention Restoration Theory (Kaplan, 1995) posits that the prolonged use of directed attention results in directed attention fatigue and that exposure to environments with restorative properties leads to increased attentional capacities. Despite a great deal of evidence illustrating this effect, there has been little research into the specific mechanisms accounting for this effect, and no research examining what is occurring in the mind during the restorative process. Most researchers have operated on the assumption that the relaxation of directed attention faculties accounts for the effect of attention restoration, with little evidence to completely support this assumption. However, conflicting evidence suggests that similar restorative effects for attention can be achieved by very different methods than attention restoration. Reflection has been conceptualized as a component or side-effect of the restorative process, but no research has examined how or if reflection adds to the effects of attention restoration. This study examined how reflective processes contribute to the restorative effect of attention restoration. In a randomized 2X3 design, 81 participants drawn from undergraduate university classes were given an attention-draining task, and then exposed to either restorative or non-restorative environments, and given either directed or generic prompts to reflect, or no prompt. Exposure to restorative environments was associated with greater attentional recovery than exposure to non-restorative enviornments. The greatest restoration appeared to occur in conditions with generic prompts to reflect, although this difference was not significant. Directed prompts were found to increase positive affect, and restorative conditions experienced significant decreases in negative affect and perceived arousal. Differential effects were found for the amount and type of reflection elicited in the conditions, but largely suggested that directed prompts elicited more internally-based feedback while generic prompts tended to elicit more externally-based reflection, and that the prompting reflection led to increases in reflection. These results suggest that reflection may play a greater role in the attention restoration process than previously believed.
  • Alternative Ways to Enumerate Data on Race in Puerto Rico: Are Racial Segregation and Spatial Clustering more Evident when Using a Culturally Grounded Methodology?

    Allen, Reuben (Indiana State University, 2014-08)
    Nationalist discourse concerning race in Puerto Rico generally states that residents are of the same racially mixed heritage—a combination of Spanish, West African, and indigenous ancestry of various degrees. However, literature and casual observations suggest that the population is characterized by greater variation in physical appearances than what is posited by “admixture” discourse. Moreover, and further complicating the understanding of race, 2010 U.S. Census data show that over 75 percent of Puerto Ricans self-identified as “White, alone”, and that only 3.3 percent of respondents indicated “Two or More Races.” Researchers, employers, and governmental agencies attempting to address or further analyze issues of inequality, discrimination, and residential segregation have had to rely on existing U.S. Census data to identify possible links between race and socioeconomic attainment. Thus, the need for an alternative data collection process that can be used for various forms of socioeconomic and spatial analysis has become evident. In this study, I administered alternative datasets that emphasized a locally suited, culturally grounded, and standardizable conceptual foundation for the purpose of establishing more representative racial statistics for the Puerto Rican population. The socioeconomic and spatial implications of resulting data were analyzed to determine if members of certain racial classifications are more privileged than others, and to determine if racial identity is characterized by spatial autocorrelation. Results showed that “Whites”, defined by different enumerators through various instruments, have attained slightly higher levels of socioeconomic attainment than nonwhites. However, there were no indications of spatial clustering or segregation based on race. Lastly, I interviewed a subsample of participants to garner feedback concerning their assessments of the survey instruments, their general understanding of race and historical admixture, their perceptions of racial inequality, their opinions of affirmative action, and finally, their observations of racialized spaces.
  • PTSD and Disclosure: Understanding the implications of personality

    Wierwille, Jena (Indiana State University, 2014-08)
    Despite decades of research outlining the onset, course, and treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), the question of why some, but not others, develop the disorder remains unanswered. One of the most widely accepted predictors of the disorder is the presence of negative posttraumatic cognitions. However, because the term “posttraumatic” implies a retrospective prediction, the clinical utility of this finding is relatively insignificant; it does not allow for the identification of those most at risk for developing PTSD prior to trauma exposure. A more promising area of research concerns the degree to which individuals feel comfortable discussing their thoughts and feelings surrounding their trauma experience; this process is otherwise known as disclosure. Specifically, individuals who are reluctant to share their experiences of trauma demonstrate greater symptom severity than those who willingly share. The purpose of the present study was to not only better understand the relationships between disclosure and PTSD, but also to explore how these relationships may be impacted by personality. A path analysis with one predictor variable (disclosure), one mediation variable (posttraumatic cognitions), and two outcomes variables (posttraumatic symptoms and posttraumatic growth) was hypothesized. Given the limited amount of literature related to PTSD and personality, specific predictions regarding this relationship were not made. The present study found evidence to suggest that, indeed, one reason individuals may develop and maintain high levels of anxiety following a trauma may be their attitudes toward sharing this experience with others. As reluctance to disclose a traumatic experience increased, individuals reported higher levels of PTSD symptoms and lower levels of posttraumatic growth (positive outcomes following a trauma). Further, these relationships appeared to be partially mediated by negative cognitions about the trauma, including thoughts about the self, thoughts about others, and self-blame. Although the direction of these relationships was limited in the present study by its correlational design, the results provide preliminary evidence to warrant future research.
  • A New MMPI-2 Measure Of Psychopathy: An Empirical Approach

    Greene, Erin M. (Indiana State University, 2014-08)
    The purpose of the current study was to develop a new scale on the MMPI-2 to identify individuals with global psychopathy, as measured by the PCL-R. The study consisted of four smaller studies, including 1) derivation of the scale 2) cross-validation 3) external validation, 4) factor analysis. The derivation sample consisted of male prison inmates (N = 170) and a second sample of male prison inmates (N = 126) was utilized for cross-validation. A third sample of male and female college students (N = 308) was utilized for the purpose of correlating the developed scale with existing measures of personality disorders and an emotion recognition task. Using empirical keying methods, 32 items were identified for the resulting scale, Psychopathic Attitudes and Behaviors (PAB). Results of study 1 demonstrated PAB to have adequate internal consistency and the strongest correlation to PCL-R total scores when compared to extant MMPI-2 scales. Further, PAB was found to adequately predict group membership. These results were replicated in Study 2 and PAB appeared to successfully cross-validate in an alternative sample. Results of Study 3 examining the relationship between PAB elevations and errors on an emotion recognition task indicated no significant relationship between scores on PAB and deficits in the ability to recognize facial expressions of emotions. However, results examining the relationship between mean scores for those above the cutoff and those below the cutoff on PAB and the PDQ-4 narcissistic, antisocial, and conduct disorder scales were significant, providing some support for external validation. Finally, the exploratory factor analysis in Study 4 yielded a three-factor solution, which did not parallel the PCL-R factors. Overall, the study was successful in developing a more efficient MMPI-2 scale to measure psychopathic traits, as it outperformed the theoretically-related scales already existing on the MMPI-2. However, the item content was not representative of the full range of interpersonal and affective traits associated with primary psychopathy and the scale was more significantly related to the social deviance factor of the PCL-R, which suggests PAB may be more representative of the secondary variant of psychopathy.

    Young, Ashleigh C. (Indiana State University, 2014-08)
    The goal of the current research is to contribute to knowledge regarding the ways in which religion impacts the mental health of lesbian women and gay men. A body of existing literature shows support for religion as a means of bolstering psychological wellbeing. However, there is a dearth of research on the unique ways in which religious sexual minority individuals may be differentially affected by religion, considering the presence of heterosexist beliefs and norms in many mainline Western religions. The current research explores the effects of the interaction between religion and internalized homonegativity on psychological well-being. Possible relationships between religious coping, internalized homonegativity, and mental health outcomes are examined. The final sample consisted of 57 lesbian and gay individuals with 44 religious individuals and 13 agnostic individuals. Participants completed the Brief Symptom Inventory-18, the Brief RCOPE Long Form, and depending on self-identified gender, either the Lesbian Internalized Homophobia Scale (women) or the Internalized Homophobia Scale (men). Participants also completed a demographic scale, which included measures of religiosity and spirituality. Consistent with research demonstrating the protective role of religion, the results demonstrated that better psychological health was associated with religiosity and religious involvement among a sample of only religious participants, as well as a sample of religious and agnostic participants combined. The hypothesized role of internalized homonegativity as a mediator between religious coping and psychological well-being could not be explored due to lack of association between religious coping and internalized homonegativity. However, higher levels of internalized homonegativity were associated with worse psychological health among only religious participants as well as religious and agnostic participants combined. More frequent use of positive religious coping was associated with better psychological health among religious and agnostic participants combined, but not among only religious participants. This research will contribute to the knowledge of how the mental health of sexual minority individuals is affected by religion. The results of the current research suggest that lesbian and gay individuals may benefit from the protective effects of religion on mental health, and that social stressors may have a deleterious effect on psychological well-being among lesbian and gay religious and agnostic individuals. Greater understanding of the interactions between religion, social stress, and psychological outcomes may assist clinicians in providing more effective treatment to assist religious sexual minority clients in navigating conflicts between potentially competing intersecting identities.

    Ishman, Zachary Scott (Indiana State University, 2014-08)
    Use of ArcGIS to examine flash flooding variables and produce a flash flood risk assessment and inundation model for Terre Haute, Indiana. Risk assessment, produced within ArcGIS, indicates that an increase in developed area leads to an increase in very high flash flood risk area and majority of very high risk area resides in developed areas of Terre Haute. Inundation model, produced using ArcGIS and Python, indicates that the proposed model can determine locations of flash flooding, but spatial extent of model predicted flooding is not reliable based on field validation.
  • Multi-Timescale Dynamics of Land Surface Temperature

    Fu, Peng (Indiana State University, 2014-08)
    Spatial and temporal patterns of land surface temperature (LST) have been used in studies of surface energy balance, landscape thermal patterns and water management. An effective way to investigate the landscape thermal dynamics is to utilize the Landsat legacy and consistent records of the thermal state of earth’s surface since 1982. However, only a small proportion of studies emphasize the importance of historical Landsat TIR data for investigating the relationship between the urbanization process and surface thermal properties. This occurred due to the lack of standardized LST product from Landsat and the unevenly distributed remote sensing datasets caused by poor atmospheric effects and/or clouds. Despite the characterization of annual temperature cycles using remote sensing data in previous studies, yet the statistical evidence to confirm the existence of the annual temperature cycle is still lacking. The objectives of the research are to provide statistical evidence for the existence of the annual temperature cycle and to develop decomposition technique to explore the impact of urbanization on surface thermal property changes. The study area is located in Los Angeles County, the corresponding remotely sensed TIR data from Landsat TM over a decadal year (2000-2010) was selected, and eventually a series of 82 cloud-free images were acquired for the computation of LST. The hypothesis technique, Lomb-Scargle periodogram analysis was proposed to confirm whether decadal years’s LSTs showed the annual temperature cycle. Furthermore, the simulated LSTs comprised of seasonality, trend, and noise components are generated to test the robustness of the decomposition scheme. The periodogram analysis revealed that the annual temperature cycle was confirmed statistically with p-value less than 0.01 and the identified periodic time at 362 days. The sensitivity analysis based on the simulated LSTs suggested that the decomposition technique was very robustness and able to retrieve the seasonality and trend components with errors up to 0.6 K. The application of the decomposition technique into the real 82 remote sensing data decomposed the original LSTs into seasonality, trend, and noise components. Estimated seasonality component by land cover showed an agreement with previous studies in Weng & Fu (2014). The derived trend component revealed that the impact of urbanization on land surface temperature ranged from 0.2 K to 0.8 K based on the comparison between urban and non-urban land covers. Further applications of the proposed Lomb-Scargle technique and the developed decomposition technique can also be directed to data from other satellite sensors.

    Keating, John (Indiana State University, 2014-08)
    Spring peepers and cricket frogs produce advertisement calls to attract females. As ectotherms their body temperatures are greatly affected by ambient air temperature. Some characteristics of their advertisement calls are correlated with temperature. I analyzed advertisement calls of both species recorded in western-central Indiana. I compared call characteristic correlations with temperature found in our populations to those in populations in other geographic areas and found similar trends throughout the range of both species. Secondly, I examined aggressive calls in the spring peepers. Aggressive calls are used in male-male interactions, and in the spring peeper are a distinct call type different from advertisement calls in two characteristics. I used a habituation-discrimination protocol to test which of the two call characteristics, that differ between advertisement and aggressive calls, males use to distinguish advertisement and aggressive calls. I found that males responded with intermediate aggression to calls that only differ from advertisement in one of the two characteristics and responded with the most aggression to calls that differed from advertisement calls in both characteristics.
  • Using Analogues to Simulate Intensity, Trajectory, and Dynamical Changes in Alberta Clippers with Global Climate Change

    Ward, Jamie L. (Indiana State University, 2014-08)
    Alberta Clippers are extratropical cyclones that form in the lee of the Canadian Rocky Mountains and traverse through the Great Plains and Midwest regions of the United States. With the imminent threat of global climate change and its effects on regional teleconnection patterns like El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), properties of Alberta Clipper could be altered as a result of changing atmospheric circulation patterns. Since the Great Plains and Midwest regions both support a large portion of the national population and agricultural activity, the effects of global climate change on Alberta Clippers could affect these areas in a variety of ways. Despite this reasoning, relatively few studies have addressed Alberta Clippers, especially in comparison to the other North American storm tracks. In this study, the effects of global climate change on Alberta Clippers are examined by using atmospheric analogues chosen from 1950-2012 based on temperature and ENSO characteristics. Composite maps of regional MSLP at 12-hr intervals, 300mb vector wind and geopotential height at the time of cyclogenesis, and 850mb temperature and geopotential height patterns 36 hours after Clipper formation are constructed. Difference maps of 300mb geopotential height patterns between each of the analogues are also constructed. One-way ANOVA tests are also used to analyze Alberta Clipper latitude and longitude values at t=0, Clipper trajectory azimuths from t=0 to t=60, central MSLP values for these storms twelve hours after formation, and MSLP pressure gradients at t=24.

    Foxx, Heather A. (Indiana State University, 2014-08)
    Terre Haute, Indiana, is similar to many older cities throughout the United States with a history of manufacturing and industry that relied on extensive road and rail networks. This industrial history has resulted in the presence of over 20 brownfields and even a Superfund Site within the city today. Historic neighborhoods and abundance of pre-1950’s homes is another characteristic of the city. Unfortunately, improper removal and deterioration of lead (Pb) paints, as well as high Pb solder used in gutters, appear to be significant sources of soil Pb in Terre Haute. Despite the fact that most new environmental sources of Pb pollution have been eradicated, many areas of the city still have elevated soil Pb concentrations and the city continues to have children with elevated blood Pb levels. With the Center for Disease Control’s recent reduction in screening levels for blood Pb from 10 μg/dL to 5 μg/dL, the occurrence of children with childhood Pb poisoning could be greater than previously recognized. The goal of this study was to better understand the modern-day spatial distribution of Pb in surface soils across the city of Terre Haute. To achieve this goal, surface soil samples were collected across the city. New data were collected from city-owned properties (i.e. parks, cemeteries, and abandoned lots), Indiana State University land holdings within the city, residential properties, and community gardens. Data collected from residential areas included samples near the road, from beneath the gutter dripline of the house, in the backyard, in the garden, and other areas of importance to the homeowner. Samples were analyzed via handheld X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzer on site to provide homeowner with immediate feedback with the ultimate goal of increasing the use of safer urban gardening practices. Samples were then dried and crushed to re-analyze with the portable XRF, and samples with values >200 ppm Pb were processed and analyzed with the ICP-OES to verify the results. Results produced a wide range of Pb concentrations, from <5 ppm to >30,000 ppm for the residential areas. The spatial distribution of Pb was determined using a simple ordinary kriging method and Empirical Bayesian Kriging method by analyzing the total sample set, samples collected near the road, samples from yards and gardens, and under the gutter driplines of homes were also kriged. Samples collected near the gutter dripline had the highest Pb concentrations, while overall spatial trends depict higher Pb concentrations in the historic portion of the city, with concentrations decreasing with distance from the older part of the city. The predicted Pb concentrations generated from the total sample set was then compared to demographic, environmental, and infrastructure characteristics for Terre Haute. OLS regressions using both maximum and average Pb concentrations indicate a statistically significant (p=0.000) positive correlation between high Pb concentrations and percentage of vacant homes. Maximum and average Pb concentrations were then linked to individual U.S. Census block groups with associated demographic attributes. Bivariate local indicator of spatial association (Bi-LISA) analysis indicates populations of low socio-economic status are regularly being exposed to higher Pb concentrations in their neighborhoods, while populations with higher socio-economic status are exposed to lower Pb concentrations. The higher Pb concentrations and populations with lower socio-economic status both occur in the central portion of the city where historic development occurred representing environmental injustice.
  • The Effect of Intentionally Engaging Attention when Viewing Restorative Environments: Exploring Attention Restoration Theory

    Jaggard, Charles E. (Indiana State University, 2014-08)
    Although research exploring Attention Restoration Theory has been extensive, certain procedures for its study seem to be taken as implicit, but require investigation for a deeper understanding and application of both the theory and its underlying processes. This study aimed to answer the questions: “What is the result of engaging directed attention when viewing otherwise restorative environments?” and “Does this intentional engagement have any effect on already fatiguing non-restorative environments?” Participants were asked to complete a task designed to fatigue their directed attentional capacity and then view images of restorative or non-restorative environments, wherein they either were asked to direct their attention to these environments, or were allowed to view them freely. Those viewing restorative environments but asked to direct their attention had significantly lower and even inhibited recovery from Directed Attention Fatigue than participants viewing these environments freely. Additional analyses explored this effect between environments and on a number of subjective measures. Discussion focuses on the role of tasks in the restorative process and the seemingly inherent neutrality or facility of different environments in regards to restoration.

    Jones, Ann E. (Indiana State University, 2014-08)
    The current study examined the moderating effect of religious orientation on the relationship between sexual self-discrepancies and guilt. There is some evidence of a positive correlation between sex-guilt and higher levels of religiosity. In this study it was proposed that sex-guilt in religious individuals is partially driven by discrepancies between actual sexual behaviors and how the individual thinks that they ought or ideally should behave. In order to test this idea a survey was administered to 151 undergraduate students to assess religious orientation, actual, ought, and ideal sexual behaviors, and sex guilt. Gender differences were found in reporting intrinsic religiosity, sexual behavior, and sexual attitudes. Men reported more favorable attitudes toward sexual behavior, also, men reported more sexual behaviors than women, no significant difference was found between women and men in the intrinsic religiosity scores, and women reported higher levels of sex anxiety and sex guilt than men. Moderate negative correlations were found between intrinsic religious orientation and penile-vaginal sex for women; and mutual manual stimulation, and attitudes towards sexual permissiveness for men. Intrinsic religious orientation moderated the following relationships: ideal total sexual behavior discrepancy and sex anxiety for men and women combined; ideal manual stimulation discrepancy and sex guilt for men and women combined; ideal total sexual behavior discrepancy and sex guilt in men; and ought masturbation discrepancy and sex guilt in women. That is, those who reported higher levels of intrinsic religious orientation also report higher levels of anxiety and guilt, associated with discrepancies related to sexual behavior. This study contributes to the awareness of how religiosity can affect sex guilt. Based on the results of this study, the bogus pipeline methodology had limited utility when examining the relationships between intrinsic religiosity, sex anxiety, and sex guilt.

    Yanders, Jacinto (Indiana State University, 2014-05)
    The category of Young Adult (YA) Literature has experienced tremendous growth in terms of readership and works produced over the course of the last fifteen years or so. While there has been some scholarly work done on the category, the research pales in comparison to almost any other facet of literature. For whatever reasons, scholars have largely decided to ignore the changes that have occurred in YA. However, that has not stopped readers from continuing to read these books. In fact, this paper not only addresses the background and what I believe to be the defining characteristics of YA, but also it speaks to who is reading YA, who is avoiding YA, and the reasons behind deciding either way. Specifically, I use Stephen Chbosky’s The Perks of Being a Wallflower to not only illustrate particular incentives that lead people to reading YA, but also to simply demonstrate the literary quality that does in fact reside within the YA category. It is my belief that, just like any other category of literature, YA has numerous benefits that are useful to readers and that, despite those benefits, the category gets an unfairly negative reputation simply because it is associated with teenagers. By thoroughly examining these various aspects of YA, I hope to show that the category is deserving of scholarly attention and that if people are willing to give YA a chance, they just might end up finding some truly amazing books.

    Willingham, Jake (Indiana State University, 2014-05)
    The distribution and abundance patterns of modern benthic foraminifera are used by paleoceanographers to assess changes in ocean conditions over geologic time. Examination of modern foraminiferal analogs provides the means to determine how these single-celled protists record clues about ambient conditions in their morphology and abundance/distribution patterns. Abundance and vertical distribution patterns of deep-sea benthic foraminifera were examined along the South Australian Margin and Tasman Sea of Australia. This was one of the first studies to examine microhabitat preferences of living (Rose Bengal stained) deep-sea benthic foraminifera within the region. A total of 11 sediment cores were collected via multicorer. Substantial infaunal populations were found in these cores from a region characterized by well oxygenated bottom-water (> 4.0 ml/l) and organic-rich sediments (8-11% organic matter). This mesotrophic environment supported populations of Globocassidulina subglobosa, Valvulineria oblonga, Melonis barleeanum, Pullenia bulloides, Chilostomella oolina, and Hoeglundina elegans. Transport of organic-rich sediments via submarine canyons may account for increased food availability for deep-sea foraminifera in this region. A relationship between foraminiferal test morphology and ambient oxygen availability has been noted by a number of studies (e.g., Glock et al., 2011; Kuhnt et al., 2013). In an attempt to quantify the relationship between ambient oxygen availability and foraminiferal test pore characteristics, percentage and number of surface pores of 97 specimens of Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi and related taxa were examined from a variety of habitats along an oxygen gradient (0.04 – 6.20 ml/l). Using ArcGIS and high-resolution SEM images of living (Rose Bengal stained) specimens of Cibicidoides, percentages and number of pores on the tests were quantified. Surface pore percentage (SPORE) analyses of a standardized subset of penultimate and antepenultimate chambers plotted verses ambient bottom-water oxygen concentration yielded a negative correlation with an R2 value of 0.7291, p < 0.001. This SPORE approach provides an effective means to assess ancient bottom-water oxygen concentrations from epifaunal Cibicidoides.

    Van Gehuchten, Toke (Indiana State University, 2014-05)
    Humor in discourse is often characterized by the specific, i.e. humor arises in a particular context. Sitcoms often provide a medium for humor in that the characters act as types through the aid of linguistic tools. In the case of ‘Allo ‘Allo, for instance, the German character of Herr Flick is exemplified by his extensive usage of syntactic features, which are associated with speaker dominance, e.g. frequent use of the imperative, deontically used modal verbs and conciseness of utterance. On the other hand, the character of Lieutenant Gruber is typified by his usage of mitigation speech devices, such as the use of the modal phrase “could/can you” in requests and the avoidance of the imperative and deontically used modal verbs. This study shows how the use or avoidance of five syntactic features contributes to the linguistic personification of the sitcom characters Herr Flick and Lieutenant Gruber in ‘Allo ‘Allo.

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