• Analytical Modeling and Feasibility Study for Adoption of Renewable Energy Sources in a Single Family Dwelling

      Linn, Jimmy B. (Indiana State University, 2014-12)
      In the last four or five decades, increased political and social pressure has been placed on commercial and residential consumers to reduce consumption of fossil fuels and invest in alternative methods of energy production for electricity, heating and cooling. Commercially, wind turbines and photovoltaic energy production equipment has sprung up all over the country. Other forms of energy production such as hydroelectric and geothermal energy production facilities have also been built. During this time however, very few residential ‘green energy’ investments have been made. Only in recent years have residential home owners begun to “wet their feet” on ‘green’ energy equipment. Cost has been the major factor. Of late though, costs have been coming down and efficiency has been going up making home owners begin to sense that alternative energy may now be entering the realm of economic feasibility. Unfortunately, home owners have had no reliable or credible tools to assess economic viability of such systems. The purpose of this research is to develop a tool to access the potential of alternative energy sources and test it statistically by surveying subjects in five different ‘green’ energy categories. Since atmospheric (air-to-air) heat pumps have been around for many years and represent a mature heating and cooling technology, upgrading older inefficient HVAC equipment to new high efficiency atmospheric heat pumps is the category used to baseline the experiment. Ground source heat pumps and direct solar heating systems were modeled and compared to the baseline. Wind energy and photovoltaic energy production systems were modeled, surveyed and compared to using only grid supplied electricity. Results show that in four of the five cases tested, the less mature ‘green’ energy equipment; photovoltaic solar, direct solar and ground source heat pump equipment are in general not economically viable without tax rebates to significantly lower the net investment. Setback rules and environmental and aesthetic ordinances against siting them in those counties severely restrict the population of wind energy devices so that an effective test of this category using the model could not be done. The model performed well with the baseline data. Performance of the model with ground source heat pumps was reasonable, but improvements in the model reflecting differing features of ground source heat pumps need to be made. Performance of the model with photovoltaic energy production equipment was also good. Extending the test population to all fifty states and extending the utility bill test range from one year to five years will provide much more useful data to test and improve the model. Although the model development and testing done in this work only represents a small contribution to the bridging of a large gap in consumer confidence in green energy products, it represents a big step into an area that very few have attempted to venture into.

      Raiola, Joseph A., III (Indiana State University, 2014-08)
      Many mainstream architecture, engineering, and construction (AEC) professionals are using Building Information Modeling (BIM). Although more and more firms are using BIM and this trend is forecast to continue, it is unclear what skills and competencies a construction manager will need in five years related to BIM. This research aims to answer that question through the use of a Delphi panel comprised of AEC professionals. The panel consists of members with the following qualifications: a minimum of eight years industry or academic experience or a combination of the two, a minimum of three years BIM experience, and membership in a nationally recognized professional organization. The results of the three round Delphi study identified skills and competencies in the following areas related to construction management: cost estimating (78 skills and competencies), scheduling and control (85 skills and competencies), project administration (71 skills and competencies), contract documents (29 skills and competencies), and other skills that were not in other categories (20 skills and competencies). In addition, this study reached consensus on descriptors that individual firms (24 descriptors) and construction mangers (22 descriptors) will need to possess to maintain or increase BIM usage in five-years. Although the panel identified many “new” BIM related construction management skills and competencies, “traditional” skills and competencies are a top response in each respective category. Within these “traditional” skills was the reinforcement of soft skills. BIM is a collaborative project management system so many soft skills are more important than with traditional project management systems. BIM requires some efficient communication along with strong soft skills, an area reinforced by the findings of this research. Furthermore, this research concluded that as BIM diffuses into the construction community, social systems interested in increasing BIM usage should augment “traditional” skill sets with the “new” BIM related skills and competencies. Any academic programs seeking to implement BIM related topics into existing courses should do so in a careful manner. This research revealed in five-years BIM will continue to enter the mainstream. Building Information Modeling theory suggests that AEC industry will completely change because of BIM. However, this is not the entirely the case. This research discovered that soft skills are more important because of BIM diffusion. This research will be of particular interest to industry and academic programs seeking to increase BIM usage, or begin development of curriculum that incorporates BIM. The results include a consensus of the most important skills and competencies related to BIM for a construction manager to possess, as ranked by mean and standard deviation,
    • Attitudes of Northwest OHIO UAW Locals regarding Lifelong Learning, Use of Online Strategies, and Union-Led Learning

      Heiser, David P.
      United States workers are facing a workplace in which globalization, outsourcing, accelerating technology innovation, and changing demographics demands changes in the way they keep their job skills current. As a primary representative of workers‘ interests in the workplace, unions want their members to acquire and improve the skills, knowledge, and qualifications that enhance their employability and increase autonomy and self esteem. The problem was to identify the attitudes of two Northwest Ohio UAW locals regarding participation in lifelong learning, and utilization of online learning strategies within a union environment. The study was a quantitative descriptive study that utilized cross sectional survey research design. The data collection instrument for this study consisted of a 24-item survey that was posted online as a web survey and also distributed in hard copy format to two UAW locals in Ohio. The population included a wide range of workers who were diverse in terms of race, gender, levels of education and skills. A sample of n = 74 responded to questions designed to investigate attitudes of union members towards lifelong learning, union-led learning, and online learning. Independent variables were age and education level, and dependent variables consisted of responses to survey questions. A chi-square statistical test was performed to determine if there were any associations between responses and the independent variables. No statistical significance was found, but there was a positive response over the range of ages and education level demonstrating support for lifelong learning, union-led learning and online learning.

      Folse, Debra Landry (Indiana State University, 2014-12)
      Small medical and dental practices must comply with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) of 1996, and Title XIII Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009. The case study, utilizing interviews, observations, and existing documentation of two medical and the two dental practices, not only analyzed the compliance solution choices made involving procedures and technologies, but also analyzed the emotion aspects of fear of non-compliance, perceived confidence in compliance, and the primary and secondary appraisals of the compelled compliance. Although compliance is not an easy process, small medical and dental practices can discover a number of possible options and identify the best fit solution for their practice in the effort to affect compliance.
    • Chinese College Students’gender Self-Esteem and Transprejudice

      Chen, Bing
      The aim of this study was to examine transprejudice of college students from mainland China. Moreover, this study allowed us to determine if gender self-esteem, which may contribute to transprejudice in Western countries or individualistic societies, is also a significant contributor to transprejudice in mainland China, or a collectivistic society. We explored possible gender differences in transprejudice, and possible differences in prejudice towards transwomen and transmen. Additionally, we used Social Identity Theory to examine the possible relationship between gender self-esteem and transprejudice. Hypotheses were as follows: 1) heterosexual men would endorse more transprejudice than heterosexual women; 2) heterosexual men and women would report more prejudice against transwomen than transmen; and 3) heterosexual men who endorse higher levels of gender self-esteem would endorse more transprejudice, whereas heterosexual women’s transprejudice would not be related to their gender self-esteem. The final sample consisted of 148 college students from mainland China. Participants completed the Chinese versions of the Genderism and Transphobia Scale, the Collective Self-Esteem Scale, the Social Desirability-17 Scale, and the demographic questionnaire. The results demonstrated that men reported more transprejudice than women. Moreover, women reported more violence towards, teasing of, and discomfort with transwomen than transmen. Men also reported more teasing of and discomfort with transwomen than transmen, but men’s violence rating did not discriminate significantly between transwomen and transmen. Furthermore, gender self-esteem was not a predictor of transprejudice for men or for women. Because so far no research on transprejudice has been conducted on samples from mainland China, this study may contribute to the literature of transprejudice in China and to the cross-cultural research on transprejudice. This study may also contribute to the awareness of what factors can affect Chinese people’s prejudice and violence against transpeople, which in turn can lead to more effective interventions to decrease transprejudice in mainland China.

      Osipitan, Osileke Odusanya (Indiana State University, 2014-08)
      The improvement of infrastructure by a public agency is to ensure satisfaction of the general public using such infrastructure, based on available funds. In order to implement and sustain the public good, an efficient project delivery method or the assessment of existing project delivery methods used to develop such infrastructure is necessary. Project delivery method is a process that defines the relationship between parties involved in a specific project. Any of the methods could affect a project budget, schedule, quality and the involvement of the project owner. This study investigated the impact of project delivery methods used by different type/class of railroad organization, which include passenger and freight railroad organizations on completed public highway-rail intersection projects in New York State, within a period of 10 years. Two hundred and fifty six (256) projects with similar scope, which were performed at independent locations, were selected. The research questions were answered based on hypotheses, which were tested with non parametric test using SPSS Statistical package version 20. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to determine the statistical significant difference between the total cost of Highway-Rail Intersection projects when Design-Build and Design-Bid-Build methods were used by railroad companies. The Kruskall Wallis test was used to determine the statistically significant difference between the total cost of projects performed by Passenger, Class 1 (Large), Class 2 (Regional) and Class 3 (Short-Line railroads) railroad companies operating in New York State, and a post-hoc test depicts the significant differences between the railroad organizations that differ. Findings indicated that there were statistical significant differences in total costs for project delivery methods as well as types/class of railroad organizations. It was recommended that the New York State Department of Transportation should partner with the railroad organizations for share cost agreement, develop short or long term plans to either close railroad grade crossings or grade separate crossings along railroad corridors so that passenger and Class 1 railroad organizations can significantly contribute to HRI improvements. Furthermore, NYSDOT need to adequately monitor HRI projects performed by the railroad organizations.
    • Comparing the Perceived Relevance of Informal and Formal Learning in Skill Acquisition in a Leadership Development Program

      Smith, William Kirk
      Leadership development is at or near the top in importance to senior executives within organizations. In the criteria for the Malcolm Baldridge National Quality Award, leadership has the second highest weighting, behind only business results but ahead of customer focus, measurement, analysis, knowledge management, workforce focus, process management, and strategic planning. Corporations in the United States spend an estimated $20-30 billion per year in leadership training and there is a question of whether the learning that takes place outside the classroom, informal learning, is more relevant than formal learning. Learning within organizations is vital to success. It is the lifeblood that grows and sustains human capital. Many methods for the measurement and evaluation of the impact of formal learning and performance improvement programs in organizations have been introduced in the past decade but measuring and evaluating the value of informal learning that filters through patterns of relationships in organizational networks has been elusive. Very few studies have attempted to address the effects of informal and formal learning in management or leadership training. The objective of this study was to compare the perceived relevance of informal learning and formal learning in acquiring leadership skills in a leadership development program. This study attempted to compare the perceived relevance of informal learning versus formal learning in skill acquisition in a specific leadership development program. This was done using data from McKesson Corporation‘s McKesson Center for Learning Lead the Way program. This study provides insights into the perceived relative importance and relevance of informal and formal learning. Using paired-samples t-tests, the study analyzed the perceived relevance and importance in a leadership development program.

      Cold, Sherman J. (Indiana State University, 2015-04)
      Recent hacking events against Sony Entertainment, Target, Home Depot, and bank Automated Teller Machines (ATMs) fosters a growing perception that the Internet is an insecure environment. While Internet Privacy Concerns (IPCs) continue to grow out of a general concern for personal privacy, the availability of inexpensive Internet-capable mobile devices increases the Internet of Things (IoT), a network of everyday items embedded with the ability to connect and exchange data. Domain Name Services (DNS) has been integral part of the Internet for name resolution since the beginning. Domain Name Services has several documented vulnerabilities; for example, cache poisoning. The solution adopted by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) to strengthen DNS is DNS Security Extensions (DNSSEC). DNS Security Extensions uses support for cryptographically signed name resolution responses. The cryptography used by DNSSEC is the Public Key Infrastructure (PKI). Some researchers have suggested that the time stamp used in the public certificate of the name resolution response influences DNSSEC vulnerability to a Man-in-the-Middle (MiTM) attack. This quantitative study determined the efficacy of using the default relative Unix epoch time stamp versus an absolute time stamp provided by the Network Time Protocol (NTP). Both a two-proportion test and Fisher’s exact test were used on a large sample size to show that there is a statistically significant better performance in security behavior when using NTP absolute time instead of the traditional relative Unix epoch time with DNSSEC.

      Winston Sealy, Dominique (Indiana State University, 2014-12)
      Additive Manufacturing rapid reproductive systems are gaining popularity within the manufacturing industry. One of the many benefits of such systems has been the exploration of building practical sacrificial patterns for investment casted metals. Methods such as, Castform and Quickcast, has been developed for selective laser sintering and Stereolithography apparatus technologies respectively. Research has demonstrated significant cost savings when Additive manufacturing rapid reproductive systems are utilized for customized or small batch production of sacrificial patterns. The purpose of this study was to develop a methodology for evaluating quality characteristics of Fused Deposition Modeling. Since Fused Deposition Modeling have been demonstrated by a number of experimental studies as a viable alternative to wax sacrificial patterns, this study explored the effects of wall thickness and raster resolution on quality characteristics such as, diametric accuracy, cylindricity, and concentricity. The results of the study indicated raster resolution had no effect on the measured quality characteristics, however, the ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis tests showed statistical significance (α=0.05) for wall thickness of cylindricity of a small diameter (0.5”) and concentricity of two cylindrical features of diameters 0.5” and 1”. Moreover, the main contributions of this study involved the development of an accurate and robust design of experiment methodology. In addition, implications and recommendations for practice were also discussed.

      Erukulapati, Kishore (Cunningham Memorial library, Terre Haute,Indiana State University, 2017-12)
      Organizations are constantly in search of competitive advantages in today’s complex global marketplace through improvement of quality, better affordability, and quicker delivery of products and services. This is significantly true for software as a product and service. With other things being equal, the quality of software will impact consumers, organizations, and nations. The quality and efficiency of the process utilized to create and deploy software can result in cost and schedule overruns, cancelled projects, loss of revenue, loss of market share, and loss of consumer confidence. Hence, it behooves us to constantly explore quality management strategies to deliver high quality software quickly at an affordable price. This research identifies software quality management best practices derived from scholarly literature using bibliometric techniques in conjunction with literature review, synthesizes these best practices into an assessment tool for industrial practitioners, refines the assessment tool based on academic expert review, further refines the assessment tool based on a pilot test with industry experts, and undertakes industry expert validation. Key elements of this software quality assessment tool include issues dealing with people, organizational environment, process, and technology best practices. Additionally, weights were assigned to issues of people, organizational environment, process, and technology best practices based on their relative importance, to calculate an overall weighted score for organizations to evaluate where they stand with respect to their peers in pursuing the business of producing quality software. This research study indicates that people best practices carry 40% of overall weight, organizational best v practices carry 30% of overall weight, process best practices carry 15% of overall weight, and technology best practices carry 15% of overall weight. The assessment tool that is developed will be valuable to organizations that seek to take advantage of rapid innovations in pursuing higher software quality. These organizations can use the assessment tool for implementing best practices based on the latest cutting edge management strategies that can lead to improved software quality and other competitive advantages in the global marketplace. This research contributed to the current academic literature in software quality by presenting a quality assessment tool based on software quality management best practices, contributed to the body of knowledge on software quality management, and expanded the knowledgebase on quality management practices. This research also contributed to current professional practice by incorporating software quality management best practices into a quality management assessment tool to evaluate software.

      Taylor, James (Indiana State University, 2014-08)
      Lean six sigma is a hybrid continuous improvement methodology that is not standardized and is not well understood. A review of literature found that the spectrum of lean six sigma approaches extends from those that are lean dominant to those that are six sigma dominant. This research illuminated the lean six sigma methodology by methodically assessing the literature via text mining and cluster analysis. Text mining was used to establish the degree to which lean six sigma models, as described in articles published in the International Journal of Lean Six Sigma, are lean dominant versus six sigma dominant. The iterative cluster analysis was used to identify clusters of articles that were interpretable. A cluster of lean dominant lean six sigma articles was identified and statistically validated as being distinct from other models. It was determined that characteristics of a lean dominant lean six sigma include the text mining key words “waste”, “value”, and “kaizen.” The research also found that these lean dominant lean six sigma articles ascertain lean as the dominant philosophy and six sigma as a subordinate tool used in achieving the lean objectives. The findings of the research as well extrapolation of the literature informed a recommended lean six sigma model. The recommended model is lean dominant and consists of two subordinate methods – six sigma and statistical process control. The three synergistic approaches not only each serve in their own way to manifest process improvements, they also all contribute to organizational learning which is considered a chief contributor to competitive advantage.

      SELVADURAI, JOHN (Cunningham Memorial Library, Terre Haute, Indiana State University., 2017-12)
      Internet of Things (IoT) is a fast-growing technological trend, which is expected to revolutionize the world by changing the way we do things. IoT is a concept that encourages all the electronic devices to connect to the internet and interact with each other. By connecting all these devices to the internet, new markets can be created, productivity can be improved, operating costs can be reduced and many other benefits can be obtained. In IoT architecture, often sensors and aggregators collect data and send to a cloud server for analyzing via the traditional cloud-server model. This client-server architecture is not adequate to fulfill the growing requirements of IoT applications because this model is subjected to cloud latency. This research proposed a distributed computing model called Distributed Shared Optimization (DSO) to eliminate the delay caused by cloud latency. DSO is based on swarm intelligence where algorithms are built by modeling the behaviors of biological agents such as bees, ants, and birds. Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET) is used as the platform to build distributed computing. The infrastructure-less and leader-less features of MANET make it the ideal candidate to build IoT with swarm intelligence. To test the theory, this research also built a simulation program and conducted multiple simulations on both DSO and client-server models. The simulation data was analyzed by descriptive statistics and One-Way ANOVA. This research found that there is a significant difference in computing time between DSO and client-server models. Further, Multiple-Regression technique was conducted on DSO simulation data to identify the effect sensors and data had towards DSO computing time.
    • Diversity and Inclusion in The Information Technology Industry: Relating Perceptions and Expectations to Demographic Dimensions

      Wikina, Suanu Bliss
      The American society, especially the workplace, is becoming increasingly diverse in terms of race/ethnicity, culture, national origin, sexual orientation, familial status, age, religion, disability, and educational attainment (where there are people from different backgrounds and cultures the potential for suspicion and prejudices occur). This study examines diversity and inclusion in the information technology sector and assesses whether differences in group members perceptions and expectations are influenced by gender, race/ethnicity, position, and educational status. This study adopts a descriptive, quantitative approach utilizing a survey in the form of a questionnaire constructed using the Web-based survey software SurveyMonkey. This researcher designed a 12-item instrument administered to information technology (IT) professionals who are members of a national IT association. Statistical analyses, including descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, and t-tests were used to answer the research questions. It was found that perceptions and expectations of diversity and inclusion initiatives within the IT industry do not differ significantly by race/ethnicity, gender, education, and position. Details of the results, limitations, recommendations for future research, and applications for practice in organizations by human resources development professionals and technology managers are discussed.

      Robertson, Randolph B. (Cunningham Memorial library, Terre Haute,Indiana State University, 2017-12)
      This study investigates the impact of concurrent design on the cost growth and schedule growth of US Department of Defense Major Defense Acquisition Systems (MDAPs). It is motivated by the question of whether employment of concurrent design in the development of a major weapon system will produce better results in terms of cost and schedule than traditional serial development methods. Selected Acquisition Reports were used to determine the cost and schedule growth of MDAPs as well as the degree of concurrency employed. Two simple linear regression analyses were used to determine the degree to which cost growth and schedule growth vary with concurrency. The results were somewhat surprising in that for major weapon systems the utilization of concurrency as it was implemented in the programs under study was shown to have no effect on cost performance, and that performance to development schedule, one of the purported benefits of concurrency, was actually shown to deteriorate with increases in concurrency. These results, while not an indictment of the concept of concurrency, indicate that better practices and methods are needed in the implementation of concurrency in major weapon systems. The findings are instructive to stakeholders in the weapons acquisition process in their consideration of whether and how to employ concurrent design strategies in their planning of new weapons acquisition programs.
    • Effectiveness of Information Technology Infrastructure Library Process Implementations by Information Technology Departments within United States Organizations

      Persinger, Jon F.
      This research study examined whether the overall effectiveness of the Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL) could be predicted by measuring multiple independent variables. The primary variables studied included the number of ITIL process modules adopted and the overall ITIL ―maturity level. An online survey was used to collect data from participating volunteers within the United States, and then analyzed to reveal any significant findings. The research showed a statistically significant positive relationship between overall maturity level and effectiveness, however the ability to predict effectiveness based upon the number of process modules adopted was inconclusive. Additionally, differences in module adoption from either the Service Support or Service Delivery process blocks were considered. The results suggested that process module adoption from the Service Support block has a somewhat stronger relationship to overall effectiveness than adoption from the Service Delivery block, though this finding should be viewed cautiously. Sample size and survey instrument limitations restricted the interpretation of the results.

      Arias, Scott (Indiana State University, 2014-12)
      Under the guidance of the United States Army Corps of Engineering Manual 385 (EM 385), the federal government has taken a stringent stance on construction safety. Using the mandated Occupational Safety and Health regulations and the 29 Code of Federal Regulation as a safety foundation, the EM 385 requires project-specific planning, continuous oversight and direct control of all safety activities. These mandates, required of every Department of Defense entity, focus on safety management not found within other federal agencies, in an attempt to reduce the number and severity of mishaps. This study looks for causation between the use of the EM 385 and the number and the severity of mishaps using three multiple regression analysis. The research population studied included construction contractors who performed work within various federal government agencies. The data was compiled using 2008 data that was merged using the federal construction spending data with mishap rates obtained from the OSHA Data Initiative (ODI). The explanatory variables considered in this research were EM 385 use, contractor size, project size, construction sector, pricing structure, solicitation procedure, OSHA region, disadvantaged business status and type of federal set-aside. The three dependent variables included the total case rate (TCR), the days away, restricted, and transferred (DART) rate, and the days away from work (DAFWII) rate. Analysis of this data revealed that there were no conclusive results showing a causal relationship between the EM 385 and a reduction in the number and severity of mishaps.
    • An Environmental Value Engineering (EVE) Analysis of the Environmental Impacts of Component Production for Traditional Wood-Framed and Structural-Insulated Panel Wall Systems

      Miller, Richard F. (Indiana State University, 2013-12)
      The building industry is a continually changing process, and for many years the traditional wall-framing approach has been used for residential and small commercial projects. In recent years, the introduction of new processes, procedures, and manufactured components have made an impact on the construction process and project. With the advent of these new technologies, come problems concerning the accounting for and determination of their environmental impact through analysis. In order to mitigate these problems and substantiate the environmental impact of manufactured components, it is necessary to implement a strategy, through analysis, that accounts for manufactured components and their impact to the life cycle of a built environment alternative. The purpose of this study was to investigate the material and component production phase using a traditional analysis methodology to determine the environmental impact and assess the influence these inputs and phases have on an Environmental value engineering (EVE) analysis. The study utilized the EVE analysis methodology to compare a traditional wood-framed system and those of a manufactured product, structural insulated panel systems (SIPs), in order to elucidate the component production phase, compare input impacts, identify the least environmental intrusive alternative wall system, and quantify a gap that existed in the EVE methodology. The statistical techniques used for this study were; comparative analysis, descriptive statistics, input source frequencies and impact data analysis of known and assumed values. The research findings indicate that the accounting of the component production phase for structural insulated panels increased the accuracy of the EVE analysis by 4.1% and that the separation of the manufacturing phases; material production, design, and component production incur a 11.2% more accurate accounting when compared with assumed or combined phases. The impact analysis results indicated that the material production phase imposed the highest influence for both alternative wall systems with inputs of 80% for traditional wood-framed systems and 84% for structural insulated panels. Input source results revealed that equipment, facilities, and materials have the highest impact for each wall system while the land and services (labor) were the lowest based on each wall alternative requirements. The results revealed that the manufactured system, structural insulated panel system, has the least environmental impact on the built environment. The study reinforced the need for developing strategies to incorporate the component production phase to more accurately portray the environmental impact in analysis.
    • Feasibility Study of Residential Grid-Connected Solar Photovoltaic Systems in the State of Indiana

      Al-Odeh, Mahmoud
      This study aims to measure the financial viability of installing and using a residential grid-connected PV system in the State of Indiana while predicting its performance in eighteen geographical locations within the state over the system’s expected lifetime. The null hypothesis of the study is that installing a PV system for a single family residence in the State of Indiana will not pay for itself within 25 years. Using a systematic approach consisting of six steps, data regarding the use of renewable energy in the State of Indiana was collected from the website of the US Department of Energy to perform feasibility analysis of the installation and use of a standard-sized residential PV system. The researcher was not able to reject the null hypothesis that installing a PV system for a single family residence in the State of Indiana will not pay for itself within 25 years. This study found that the standard PV system does not produce a positive project balance and does not pay for itself within 25 years (the life time of the system) assuming the average cost of a system. The government incentive programs are not enough to offset the cost of installing the system against the cost of the electricity that would not be purchased from the utility company. It can be concluded that the cost of solar PV is higher than the market valuation of the power it produces; thus, solar PV did not compete on the cost basis with the traditional competitive energy sources. Reducing the capital cost will make the standard PV system economically viable in Indiana. The study found that the capital cost for the system should be reduced by 15% - 56%.

      Bell, Christopher (Indiana State University, 2015-05)
      This study sought to determine if and to what extent strategy integration was related to the financial indicators profit margin ratio and inventory turnover for publically traded manufacturing organizations in Oklahoma. Current strategy theory states that the more thoroughly an organization adopts a given strategy the greater the effect will be on these financial indicators. Hence the need to more fully understand the extent and rates at which strategy integration effects these indicators. This study looked at perceived strategy integration scores for publically traded Oklahoma manufacturing organizations taken from June to August 2014 and financial indicators from 2012 and 2013. The perceived strategy integration scores were obtained via survey while the financial indicators were calculated using Section 10-K filings from the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (US SEC or SEC). Reliable financial information is not publically available for many private organizations, so, they were excluded from the study. Summary analysis of the data indicated that strategies were not in use in equal proportions with Niche Differentiation being most popular by far. Market focus appeared to be an indicator of inventory turnover standard deviation with Broad focus and Combination strategy groups having lower standard deviation. While the product focus appeared to indicate profit margin ratio range with Low Cost strategies having lower profit margins. After performing additional analysis it was found that performance enhancing technologies and other complicating factors may have had a larger impact than previously believed. A correlation was unable to be established for most strategies. For the Niche Low Cost Strategy a relationship was found where profit margins decreased 1.634% for each 1 point increase in perceived strategy integration score. It was also found that the Broad Differentiation Strategy it was found that inventory turns increased 0.7006 turns for every 1 point increase in perceived strategy integration score. No other strategies were found to have correlation coefficients that were statistically different from the null hypothesis. However, anecdotal evidence was found in support of several other of Porter’s theories.
    • Identifying Innovative Work Behaviors: An Inquiry Using Critical Incident Technique

      Peffers, Samuel N.
      Innovation is a driving force in economic activity and often considered essential for organizational health and growth; therefore, a better understanding of the employee behaviors that supervisors most frequently associate with employee innovativeness, innovative work behaviors, has the potential to be very beneficial. Although much has been written about it, most previous work has focused on behavior categories or dimensions without seeking to observe or understand how innovative work behavior is manifested in the workplace. Critical incident technique is a well-established and extensively applied method of inquiry for determining effective work role behaviors, but it has not previously been applied well to the study of innovative work behavior. This study applied critical incident technique to collect first hand behavior observations in the places where innovative work behavior occurs. A better understanding of the discrete behaviors associated with workplace innovation can assist Human Resources Development practitioners and educators in administering innovation focused training and development initiatives. The research presented in this dissertation indicates that what supervisors within organizations with a stated innovation orientation perceive as effective innovative work behavior can be summarized as four primary behaviors: generating ideas, recognizing problems or opportunities, acquiring ideas from sources external to the employee’s immediate work organization, and promoting ideas to others within the work organization.