• An Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Corporate Communication During Large-Scale Information Technology Changes

      Drum, Dawna M.
      The success rate of information technology implementations remains low, despite decades of scholarly research and popular advice. Whether success is defined by spending within the budget, on-time completion, functionality of the final implementation, or satisfaction of the users, few projects are deemed to be complete and resounding successes. One possible reason is inadequate communication during the change process, and many studies have examined aspects of change communication such as media choice, message content, and timing of the messages. What has been missing, however, is an assessment of these items‟ effectiveness across hierarchical levels within an organization undergoing an important technology change. Most previous studies have focused on the perceptions and actions of managers, even though it is the non-managerial employees who determine the ultimate success of the implementation in daily use. The intent of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness of organization-wide change communication at all hierarchical levels to determine differences in perceptions as well as differences in actual effectiveness, through the use of established quantitative tools and qualitative methods. Employing a modified case study approach, two organizations (a mid-sized public university and a food processing organization) were studied during the implementation of a major IT change. It was hypothesized that the perceived effectiveness of media, content and timing that had been used when communicating about change would have an effect on the actual effectiveness of communication, as measured by several questions specific to each organization‟s current project. Results revealed that perceived effectiveness of media was the only factor that had a significant effect on the actual effectiveness of communication. Contributions of this study include formalizing a mechanism for evaluating employee preferences for communication and the actual effectiveness of change communication, as well as providing potential insights into ways to improve communication practices during large-scale IT implementations.
    • An Examination of the Relationship between Transformational Leadership Tendencies and Safety Outcomes in Selected Manufacturing Settings

      Boroughf, Barbara J.
      Each year about 6 to 8 percent of the U.S. workforce sustains a work related injury of which 3 to 4 percent of the injured population ends up losing time from work due to the severity of the injury (National Safety Council [NSC], 2011). According to the NSC Injury Facts (2011), every 147 minutes in the United States, a worker will be fatally injured, and every six seconds a worker will sustain an injury that is serious enough to require medical treatment. There is a wide variability in safety performance among organizations. Studies have found there is a relationship between transformational leadership and an organization’s safety climate and safety culture (Barling, Loughlin, & Kelloway, 2002; Kelloway, Mullen, & Francis, 2006). Safety climate and leadership studies have centered around cultural aspects of safety rather than examining leadership styles in relation to safety outcomes as determined by Incidence Rates, DART Rates, Severity Rates, and leadership style (Barling et al., 2002; Kelloway et al., 2006). The overall purpose of this study was to investigate the role of managing a manufacturing organization and the impact of the leadership style on the safety of employees. The purpose was to examine a specific leadership style and its relationship with safety outcomes as measured by Incidence Rate and Frequency Rate within a manufacturing organization. Further, the study was to determine if there was an association between a plant manager’s transformational leadership tendencies and the safety outcomes of the associated organization as measured by Incident Rate and Frequency Rate.Manufacturing plants from U.S. automotive manufacturing organizations were asked to participate in the study and the focus was on the plant managers from each facility. Direct-report managers from U.S. facilities were asked to complete the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire Rater Form (5X-Short) (MLQ) for the plant manager to whom they directly reported. The researcher used an email campaign to administer the questionnaire. Safety performance data for each facility was obtained from the 2010 OSHA Occupational Injury and Illness Log Form 300. Hours worked, to calculate Incidence and Frequency Rate, were also collected from each facility. Data were analyzed to determine if there was a statistically significant association between leadership behaviors and safety performance. Findings and suggestions for further research are discussed.
    • An Experiment to Assess the Utilization of Adaptive Control Technology on a Cnc Lathe to Reduce Energy Consumption During Machining: A Step Towards Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing

      Bartles, Dean L.
      Global warming is a well-documented concern. If left unabated, many scientists believe that global warming could potentially have devastating impacts to life on earth. Current research points to greenhouse gas emissions caused by the burning of fossil fuels to produce electricity as one of the primary causes of global warming. The more electricity produced and consumed the more greenhouse gas emissions are released to the atmosphere. Industry is one of the most significant consumers of electricity. Within industry, manufacturing accounts for a significant majority of all energy consumed with machine tools being one of the largest consumers. Machine tool builders need to develop ways for machine tools to use less energy in producing the same amount of product. The literature contains suggestions on how a manufacturer can approach reducing the amount of energy consumed by machine tools in manufacturing. However, there is paucity in the literature related to how “adaptive control” might be employed to reduce the amount of energy consumed by machine tools in manufacturing. This study examined the possibility of employing “adaptive control” to minimize the amount of energy consumed by machine tools during machining.
    • An Experimental Study on Reducing the Formation of Dross when Cutting 1018 HR Steel Using a CNC Plasma Cutter

      DeVore, Michael E
      Many manufacturers who cut metal use plasma arc cutting as part of their manufacturing process. Plasma cutters use electricity and pressurized gas to produce a temperature of up to 50,000 ºF at the cutting tip. These plasma cutters can rapidly cut through metals as much as 12 inches thick. The use of computer numerical controlled (CNC) plasma cutters allow manufacturers to rapidly cut even very intricate and detailed flat parts. This process is a tremendous improvement over traditional torch cutting, saw cutting, or other machining processes for producing near net shapes. It is faster and less expensive than most of the alternative processes available. There are several processing and quality factors that must be addressed when using a plasma cutter. The most common problem with plasma cutting is the formation of dross (resolidified metal) on the cut edge. The formation of dross on plasma-cut parts creates several problems in the manufacturing process. By carefully controlling the operating parameters, the formation of dross on the work piece can be minimized, which greatly increases the quality of the part and the efficiency of the production process. Efficient operation of a CNC plasma cutter to minimize the formation of dross requires controlling several variables in the process. These variables include: material type and thickness, arc current (amperage), cutting speed, cutting-gas pressure, cutting tip size, and the gap between the cutting tip and the work piece. Experience with plasma arc cutting and research on the subject reveals that the variables that most affect the formation of dross are arc current, cutting speed, material thickness, and nozzle size. A study involving these four variables will be performed to determine the optimum setup for the CNC plasma cutter to minimize the formation of dross.
    • An Investigation of the Awareness of Recycling Services at Student Family Housing Units

      Aba, Eli Kofi
      This research investigated the awareness of recycling programs at student family housing units at Indiana State University. The purpose of this research was to find out the awareness of recycling in these areas. It allowed the researcher to examine the recycling awareness among other variables such as willingness to take part in pickup and willingness to take part in drop-off, among students at these areas. The researcher employed IRB (Institutional Review Board) approved survey to survey students who resided in four units, and who were willing to participate in the study. An introduction of the researcher, his background and objectives of the study, along with contact information of the researcher, the committee chair, and the IRB was given to each participant The researcher used systematic sampling to sample the population to get the 240 sample size. Based on a coin toss, every odd apartment number from the apartment numbers of the family housing units was selected for the one-month survey. The data was coded into value labels and recorded in SPSS for a statistical analysis. Bar charts, chi-square, and cross-tabulations were used for the analysis of the data at 0.05 significance levels. Descriptively, 59 % family housing residents were not aware of recycling program. However, 88 % of them believed that recycling would help them dispose of their trash. 78 % of them were willing to take part in pickup, while 70 % would also do so in drop-off. About 45 % were confident that the recycling center would recycle the materials they sorted for recycling,while 22 % recorded inconvenience as the reason for not taking part in both pickup and drop-off programs. About 34 % wanted ISU authorities to promote pickup recycling in order to make recycling appealing or convenient to them. All the null hypotheses were retained except there were statistically significant differences between the awareness of recycling center, awareness of recycling program, willingness to take part in pickup, willingness to take part in drop-off counts and the two categories of nationality of students, and the awareness of recycling center and gender counts.
    • An Investigative Study of Contract Administration Practices of General Contractors on Federal and State DOT Projects.

      Okere, George Okechukwu
      Department of transportation (DOT) projects in the U.S. are plagued by issues resulting from poor contract administration performance. Literature reveals that there are unanswered questions related to contract administration practices and performance. Some of the most pronounced issues include construction disputes and litigation, failure rate of contractors, contractor misconduct and false claims, and the ability to staff projects properly. This study investigated the relationship between contract administration practices and contract administration performance of general contractors on federal and state DOT projects in the U.S. The overall research question addressed in this study was: "Is there a relationship between contract administration practices and contract administration performance of general contractors on federal and state DOT projects in the U.S.?" Data for this study was obtained from 20 state DOTs, and comprised of 86 samples. Based on the research question, the study’s hypotheses were derived from the literature, and a quantitative correlational research design method was used to investigate the relationship between the dependent variable (contract administration performance) and the independent variables (management attitude towards contract risks, contract provisions for mitigating contract risks, stability of scope definition, contract administration infrastructure, resource allocation strategy, and competency of contract administrators). The first key finding was that a significant correlation existed between contract administration performance and resource allocation strategy. The second key finding from the study was that the average cycle time from discovery to execution of change order was two (2) months, and this can be used as the baseline for evaluating performance level. The third key finding from the study was that on average the practices in the questionnaire were applicable to more than 84 percent of the respondents, which confirms that the practices do apply to most state DOTs, and can be streamlined by each state DOT for performance evaluation. The study’s findings showed that there was no significant positive correlation between contract administration performance and management attitude towards contract risks, contract provisions for mitigating contract risks, stability of scope definition, contract administration infrastructure, and competency of contract administrators. A predictive model was not developed because an investigation using regression analysis revealed that the collected data were not suitable for development of a predictive model. The collected data for this study shows patterns that support only one of the six hypothesized relationships and further study was recommended. Using power analysis, the sample size for this study was calculated to be 100 samples; however, only 66 of 86 collected samples met the requirements for use in inferential statistical analysis. It is expected that with a larger sample size, the variant scenarios and patterns will become evident, and a statistical analysis could confirm the relationships and a predictive model could be developed.
    • Attitudes of Northwest OHIO UAW Locals regarding Lifelong Learning, Use of Online Strategies, and Union-Led Learning

      Heiser, David P.
      United States workers are facing a workplace in which globalization, outsourcing, accelerating technology innovation, and changing demographics demands changes in the way they keep their job skills current. As a primary representative of workers‘ interests in the workplace, unions want their members to acquire and improve the skills, knowledge, and qualifications that enhance their employability and increase autonomy and self esteem. The problem was to identify the attitudes of two Northwest Ohio UAW locals regarding participation in lifelong learning, and utilization of online learning strategies within a union environment. The study was a quantitative descriptive study that utilized cross sectional survey research design. The data collection instrument for this study consisted of a 24-item survey that was posted online as a web survey and also distributed in hard copy format to two UAW locals in Ohio. The population included a wide range of workers who were diverse in terms of race, gender, levels of education and skills. A sample of n = 74 responded to questions designed to investigate attitudes of union members towards lifelong learning, union-led learning, and online learning. Independent variables were age and education level, and dependent variables consisted of responses to survey questions. A chi-square statistical test was performed to determine if there were any associations between responses and the independent variables. No statistical significance was found, but there was a positive response over the range of ages and education level demonstrating support for lifelong learning, union-led learning and online learning.
    • Chinese College Students’gender Self-Esteem and Transprejudice

      Chen, Bing
      The aim of this study was to examine transprejudice of college students from mainland China. Moreover, this study allowed us to determine if gender self-esteem, which may contribute to transprejudice in Western countries or individualistic societies, is also a significant contributor to transprejudice in mainland China, or a collectivistic society. We explored possible gender differences in transprejudice, and possible differences in prejudice towards transwomen and transmen. Additionally, we used Social Identity Theory to examine the possible relationship between gender self-esteem and transprejudice. Hypotheses were as follows: 1) heterosexual men would endorse more transprejudice than heterosexual women; 2) heterosexual men and women would report more prejudice against transwomen than transmen; and 3) heterosexual men who endorse higher levels of gender self-esteem would endorse more transprejudice, whereas heterosexual women’s transprejudice would not be related to their gender self-esteem. The final sample consisted of 148 college students from mainland China. Participants completed the Chinese versions of the Genderism and Transphobia Scale, the Collective Self-Esteem Scale, the Social Desirability-17 Scale, and the demographic questionnaire. The results demonstrated that men reported more transprejudice than women. Moreover, women reported more violence towards, teasing of, and discomfort with transwomen than transmen. Men also reported more teasing of and discomfort with transwomen than transmen, but men’s violence rating did not discriminate significantly between transwomen and transmen. Furthermore, gender self-esteem was not a predictor of transprejudice for men or for women. Because so far no research on transprejudice has been conducted on samples from mainland China, this study may contribute to the literature of transprejudice in China and to the cross-cultural research on transprejudice. This study may also contribute to the awareness of what factors can affect Chinese people’s prejudice and violence against transpeople, which in turn can lead to more effective interventions to decrease transprejudice in mainland China.
    • Comparing the Perceived Relevance of Informal and Formal Learning in Skill Acquisition in a Leadership Development Program

      Smith, William Kirk
      Leadership development is at or near the top in importance to senior executives within organizations. In the criteria for the Malcolm Baldridge National Quality Award, leadership has the second highest weighting, behind only business results but ahead of customer focus, measurement, analysis, knowledge management, workforce focus, process management, and strategic planning. Corporations in the United States spend an estimated $20-30 billion per year in leadership training and there is a question of whether the learning that takes place outside the classroom, informal learning, is more relevant than formal learning. Learning within organizations is vital to success. It is the lifeblood that grows and sustains human capital. Many methods for the measurement and evaluation of the impact of formal learning and performance improvement programs in organizations have been introduced in the past decade but measuring and evaluating the value of informal learning that filters through patterns of relationships in organizational networks has been elusive. Very few studies have attempted to address the effects of informal and formal learning in management or leadership training. The objective of this study was to compare the perceived relevance of informal learning and formal learning in acquiring leadership skills in a leadership development program. This study attempted to compare the perceived relevance of informal learning versus formal learning in skill acquisition in a specific leadership development program. This was done using data from McKesson Corporation‘s McKesson Center for Learning Lead the Way program. This study provides insights into the perceived relative importance and relevance of informal and formal learning. Using paired-samples t-tests, the study analyzed the perceived relevance and importance in a leadership development program.
    • DEVELOPMENT OF A QUALITY MANAGEMENT ASSESSMENT TOOL TO EVALUATE SOFTWARE USING SOFTWARE QUALITY MANAGEMENT BEST PRACTICES

      Erukulapati, Kishore (Cunningham Memorial library, Terre Haute,Indiana State University, 2017-12)
      Organizations are constantly in search of competitive advantages in today’s complex global marketplace through improvement of quality, better affordability, and quicker delivery of products and services. This is significantly true for software as a product and service. With other things being equal, the quality of software will impact consumers, organizations, and nations. The quality and efficiency of the process utilized to create and deploy software can result in cost and schedule overruns, cancelled projects, loss of revenue, loss of market share, and loss of consumer confidence. Hence, it behooves us to constantly explore quality management strategies to deliver high quality software quickly at an affordable price. This research identifies software quality management best practices derived from scholarly literature using bibliometric techniques in conjunction with literature review, synthesizes these best practices into an assessment tool for industrial practitioners, refines the assessment tool based on academic expert review, further refines the assessment tool based on a pilot test with industry experts, and undertakes industry expert validation. Key elements of this software quality assessment tool include issues dealing with people, organizational environment, process, and technology best practices. Additionally, weights were assigned to issues of people, organizational environment, process, and technology best practices based on their relative importance, to calculate an overall weighted score for organizations to evaluate where they stand with respect to their peers in pursuing the business of producing quality software. This research study indicates that people best practices carry 40% of overall weight, organizational best v practices carry 30% of overall weight, process best practices carry 15% of overall weight, and technology best practices carry 15% of overall weight. The assessment tool that is developed will be valuable to organizations that seek to take advantage of rapid innovations in pursuing higher software quality. These organizations can use the assessment tool for implementing best practices based on the latest cutting edge management strategies that can lead to improved software quality and other competitive advantages in the global marketplace. This research contributed to the current academic literature in software quality by presenting a quality assessment tool based on software quality management best practices, contributed to the body of knowledge on software quality management, and expanded the knowledgebase on quality management practices. This research also contributed to current professional practice by incorporating software quality management best practices into a quality management assessment tool to evaluate software.
    • DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING IN INTERNET OF THINGS (IoT) USING MOBILE AD HOC NETWORK (MANET): A SWARM INTELLIGENCE BASED APPROACH

      SELVADURAI, JOHN (Cunningham Memorial Library, Terre Haute, Indiana State University., 2017-12)
      Internet of Things (IoT) is a fast-growing technological trend, which is expected to revolutionize the world by changing the way we do things. IoT is a concept that encourages all the electronic devices to connect to the internet and interact with each other. By connecting all these devices to the internet, new markets can be created, productivity can be improved, operating costs can be reduced and many other benefits can be obtained. In IoT architecture, often sensors and aggregators collect data and send to a cloud server for analyzing via the traditional cloud-server model. This client-server architecture is not adequate to fulfill the growing requirements of IoT applications because this model is subjected to cloud latency. This research proposed a distributed computing model called Distributed Shared Optimization (DSO) to eliminate the delay caused by cloud latency. DSO is based on swarm intelligence where algorithms are built by modeling the behaviors of biological agents such as bees, ants, and birds. Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET) is used as the platform to build distributed computing. The infrastructure-less and leader-less features of MANET make it the ideal candidate to build IoT with swarm intelligence. To test the theory, this research also built a simulation program and conducted multiple simulations on both DSO and client-server models. The simulation data was analyzed by descriptive statistics and One-Way ANOVA. This research found that there is a significant difference in computing time between DSO and client-server models. Further, Multiple-Regression technique was conducted on DSO simulation data to identify the effect sensors and data had towards DSO computing time.
    • Diversity and Inclusion in The Information Technology Industry: Relating Perceptions and Expectations to Demographic Dimensions

      Wikina, Suanu Bliss
      The American society, especially the workplace, is becoming increasingly diverse in terms of race/ethnicity, culture, national origin, sexual orientation, familial status, age, religion, disability, and educational attainment (where there are people from different backgrounds and cultures the potential for suspicion and prejudices occur). This study examines diversity and inclusion in the information technology sector and assesses whether differences in group members perceptions and expectations are influenced by gender, race/ethnicity, position, and educational status. This study adopts a descriptive, quantitative approach utilizing a survey in the form of a questionnaire constructed using the Web-based survey software SurveyMonkey. This researcher designed a 12-item instrument administered to information technology (IT) professionals who are members of a national IT association. Statistical analyses, including descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, and t-tests were used to answer the research questions. It was found that perceptions and expectations of diversity and inclusion initiatives within the IT industry do not differ significantly by race/ethnicity, gender, education, and position. Details of the results, limitations, recommendations for future research, and applications for practice in organizations by human resources development professionals and technology managers are discussed.
    • THE EFFECTIVENESS OF CONCURRENT DESIGN ON THE COST AND SCHEDULE PERFORMANCE OF DEFENSE WEAPONS SYSTEM ACQUISITIONS

      Robertson, Randolph B. (Cunningham Memorial library, Terre Haute,Indiana State University, 2017-12)
      This study investigates the impact of concurrent design on the cost growth and schedule growth of US Department of Defense Major Defense Acquisition Systems (MDAPs). It is motivated by the question of whether employment of concurrent design in the development of a major weapon system will produce better results in terms of cost and schedule than traditional serial development methods. Selected Acquisition Reports were used to determine the cost and schedule growth of MDAPs as well as the degree of concurrency employed. Two simple linear regression analyses were used to determine the degree to which cost growth and schedule growth vary with concurrency. The results were somewhat surprising in that for major weapon systems the utilization of concurrency as it was implemented in the programs under study was shown to have no effect on cost performance, and that performance to development schedule, one of the purported benefits of concurrency, was actually shown to deteriorate with increases in concurrency. These results, while not an indictment of the concept of concurrency, indicate that better practices and methods are needed in the implementation of concurrency in major weapon systems. The findings are instructive to stakeholders in the weapons acquisition process in their consideration of whether and how to employ concurrent design strategies in their planning of new weapons acquisition programs.
    • Effectiveness of Information Technology Infrastructure Library Process Implementations by Information Technology Departments within United States Organizations

      Persinger, Jon F.
      This research study examined whether the overall effectiveness of the Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL) could be predicted by measuring multiple independent variables. The primary variables studied included the number of ITIL process modules adopted and the overall ITIL ―maturity level. An online survey was used to collect data from participating volunteers within the United States, and then analyzed to reveal any significant findings. The research showed a statistically significant positive relationship between overall maturity level and effectiveness, however the ability to predict effectiveness based upon the number of process modules adopted was inconclusive. Additionally, differences in module adoption from either the Service Support or Service Delivery process blocks were considered. The results suggested that process module adoption from the Service Support block has a somewhat stronger relationship to overall effectiveness than adoption from the Service Delivery block, though this finding should be viewed cautiously. Sample size and survey instrument limitations restricted the interpretation of the results.
    • Feasibility Study of Residential Grid-Connected Solar Photovoltaic Systems in the State of Indiana

      Al-Odeh, Mahmoud
      This study aims to measure the financial viability of installing and using a residential grid-connected PV system in the State of Indiana while predicting its performance in eighteen geographical locations within the state over the system’s expected lifetime. The null hypothesis of the study is that installing a PV system for a single family residence in the State of Indiana will not pay for itself within 25 years. Using a systematic approach consisting of six steps, data regarding the use of renewable energy in the State of Indiana was collected from the website of the US Department of Energy to perform feasibility analysis of the installation and use of a standard-sized residential PV system. The researcher was not able to reject the null hypothesis that installing a PV system for a single family residence in the State of Indiana will not pay for itself within 25 years. This study found that the standard PV system does not produce a positive project balance and does not pay for itself within 25 years (the life time of the system) assuming the average cost of a system. The government incentive programs are not enough to offset the cost of installing the system against the cost of the electricity that would not be purchased from the utility company. It can be concluded that the cost of solar PV is higher than the market valuation of the power it produces; thus, solar PV did not compete on the cost basis with the traditional competitive energy sources. Reducing the capital cost will make the standard PV system economically viable in Indiana. The study found that the capital cost for the system should be reduced by 15% - 56%.
    • Identifying Innovative Work Behaviors: An Inquiry Using Critical Incident Technique

      Peffers, Samuel N.
      Innovation is a driving force in economic activity and often considered essential for organizational health and growth; therefore, a better understanding of the employee behaviors that supervisors most frequently associate with employee innovativeness, innovative work behaviors, has the potential to be very beneficial. Although much has been written about it, most previous work has focused on behavior categories or dimensions without seeking to observe or understand how innovative work behavior is manifested in the workplace. Critical incident technique is a well-established and extensively applied method of inquiry for determining effective work role behaviors, but it has not previously been applied well to the study of innovative work behavior. This study applied critical incident technique to collect first hand behavior observations in the places where innovative work behavior occurs. A better understanding of the discrete behaviors associated with workplace innovation can assist Human Resources Development practitioners and educators in administering innovation focused training and development initiatives. The research presented in this dissertation indicates that what supervisors within organizations with a stated innovation orientation perceive as effective innovative work behavior can be summarized as four primary behaviors: generating ideas, recognizing problems or opportunities, acquiring ideas from sources external to the employee’s immediate work organization, and promoting ideas to others within the work organization.
    • Impact of ISO 9001 Certification on United States Firms’ Financial Performance

      Aba, Eli Kofi
      One of the greatest demands in our global economy that have compelled firms to invest increasingly in resources for the enhancement of their management practices is organizational competitiveness. Standards have played an increasingly important role in economic and market globalization. Studies on the financial impact of ISO 9001 on firms are still inadequate to make definitive conclusions on the financial impact of ISO 9001 on firms. Furthermore, there is no clear position on the financial benefits of ISO 9001 standard in literature. Therefore, the researcher investigated the impact of ISO 9001 certification on United States firms’ financial performance for a period of five years including one-year prior to certification, year of certification, and three fiscal years after certification. A sample of 397 firms that had received ISO 9001 certification from 1991 to 2002 was examined. Certified-firm and non-certified-firm operating performances were examined over the same period based on the ratio of pre-tax operating income to total assets (EBITA/TA). Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to test for significant differences in operating performance between the firms. There was significant improvement performance from prior year to year of certification. The certified firms performed better in the five-year period than the non-certified and the matched-control firms.
    • Incorporating Lean Non-Value Added Variants into a Method of Determining Stakeholder Salience for First-Line Manager Decision Making

      Bader, Bruce H. (Cunningham Memorial library, Terre Haute,Indiana State University, 2017-12)
      This research brings together two streams of thought for first-line manager decisionmaking. The first is the quality system model, in particular, Lean operations. The second is Stakeholder Theory. Both streams have been identified as ways to improve value of the organization. Previous studies disagree regarding whether Lean and Stakeholder theory can work together. The potential problem of having a poor balance of Stakeholders and Lean waste is that exclusive focus on one may result in less awareness of the other, in which case value can be lost by the organization. This research investigates if both Lean waste and Stakeholder salience share a common language in the literature using data mining. This research surveys organizations that perceive themselves as Lean and have multiple diverse Stakeholders to determine whether Lean wastes and Stakeholder salience (priority) are considered the decision-making process. A Z-test compares proportions of Lean waste considered to proportions of Stakeholder salience. An ANOVA is done to see if organization type, position of a person within the organization, organization size, geographic location, or lean management maturity has an effect on the priority assigned to Stakeholder salience or Lean waste variants when making decisions. The final phase of this research is a proposed decision-making instrument that will weigh Stakeholder salience and Lean waste variants on an equitable level for First-line Managers’ decision-making. The major findings of this research are that Lean waste variants and Stakeholder salience are considered in decision-making but that Stakeholder salience is more important. This is iv independent of various factors. Stakeholder mapping using salience values adjusted for Lean waste provides a visually enhanced balanced approach allowing the decision-makers to know the impact of both, facilitating more precise input to their decision-making process. More precision in the decision-making process can lead to results that create improved value for the organization.
    • KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS OF PART-TIME EMPLOYEES TEACHING ONLINE

      Alexander, Mark L. (Cunningham Memorial library, Terre Haute,Indiana State University, 2017-12)
      Online learning has caused a seismic shift in higher education since its rise beginning at the turn of the century. A portion of that impact has been on the ascent of the part-time employee teaching online. Adjunct instructors account for the overwhelming majority of the faculty providing education to these online learners. Because an instructor’s performance impacts students’ learning and their resulting end of course evaluation has such a bearing upon that person’s employment, it is imperative to identify key performance indicators (KPIs) of employees teaching online. The problem addressed by this study was to determine the factors that affected a part-time online employee’s performance rating by their students within a higher education setting. More specifically, this study sought to identify key performance indicators for those teaching online part-time. Correlations and regression were conducted on institutional data covering 1295 fully online courses that occurred in 2016 at a regionally-accredited, private university. Potential key performance indicators studied were faculty threads posted per week, faculty employment longevity, faculty load, average course GPA, and class size. Three of those variables were statistically significant (p < 0.001) in individual correlations to an adjunct’s End of Course Survey score. Four of those factors were statistically significant (p < 0.001) in predicting students’ satisfaction of a part-time employee teaching online. The key performance indicators of part-time employees teaching online include faculty threads posted per week, faculty load, average course GPA, and class size. Implications and ideas for future research were discussed. iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS An undertaking such as this has one person as its author but many people that contribute to such a culminating project. Thank you to my Advisor and Chair, Dr. Cindy Crowder, for her encouragement, guidance, and status check-ins. Thanks also to my committee members, Dr. David Beach and Dr. Li-Shiang Tsay, for their time, review, and feedback throughout this process. My family has been gracious, encouraging, and supportive throughout this entire process. Louann, your love and support is epitomized in your willingness to read this document and cheer me on through the defense. Thank you for encouraging my pursuit of certifications and degrees throughout our marriage. You make me a better person each and every day. Thanks to Emily, Abigail, Ian, and Isaiah for supporting me through this journey, for extending your support, and for forgiving me for being grumpy near deadlines. I am so blessed to be your father. You all inspire me! Thanks to my parents, in-laws, extended family members, small group members, friends, and colleagues at work for your support and belief in me. You are each such a blessing. I must give a shout-out to all of the locations that fueled my need for public solitude: The Refinery Business Center, Ott Hall 150-B and the Student Center at Indiana Wesleyan University, and Culver’s Restaurant #404. Thank you for tolerating me! Most importantly, thanks to my Lord and Savior, Jesus Christ. To God be the Glory, great things He has done!