• Website Compliance with Ethical Guidelines by Psychologists and Professional Counselors

      Yazvac III, Joseph (2009-08-26)
      There is currently very little research investigating the ethical practice of e-therapy, and none that distinguishes between types of therapists in terms of their compliance with ethical codes pertaining to e-therapy. The American Psychological Association does not have ethical standards specific to the provision of e-therapy but the American Counseling Association does. The purpose of this study was to assess differences in ethical compliance for e-therapy websites sponsored by psychologists and e-therapy websites sponsored by professional counselors. Specific ethics codes for the practice of e-therapy of the American Counseling Association were used to generate an assessment instrument, which served as the measure of ethical compliance for both groups. E-therapy websites primarily sponsored by psychologists or professional counselors were located by predetermined search terms through the Google search engine and then evaluated for compliance. A MANOVA was then conducted to analyze differences between the two groups on compliance with sections A.12.a., A.12.g., and A.12.h. of the American Counseling Association Ethics Code, as well as an aggregate total of all three. Professional counselors were found to be significantly more compliant than psychologists with section A.12.h. and the aggregate total of all sections. However, compliance rates for both groups were generally low, and implications are discussed.
    • An Investigation of the Reliability and Validity of the Caperton Forgiveness Styles Inventory

      Caperton, Duane (2009-08-26)
      This research was an investigation into the process of forgiveness. The analysis of qualitative interviews with nearly 100 participants suggested four different approaches, or styles, of forgiving and non-forgiving. The Intrapersonal style describes people who forgive other people by focusing on their own thoughts, feelings, and actions. The Interpersonal style describes people who forgive other people by focusing on the thoughts, feelings, and actions of the offending persons. The Easy Going style describes the people who never forgive anyone because they rarely or never feel offended and consequently rarely or never feel the need to forgive others. The Grudge Holder style describes people who rarely or never forgive anyone because they generally prefer to hold on to the offense for various reasons. The 26 item Pilot CFSI inventory was investigated for reliability and for convergent and divergent validity in a sample composed of 131 undergraduate and graduate students. Cronbachs’ alphas of the scales showed the Pilot Caperton Forgiveness Style Inventory (CFSI) inventory to be internally consistent. Multiple regressions of CFSI scale results with IPIP Five Factor Model of Personality inventories, Fear-of-Intimacy relationship anxiety inventories, and demographic information demonstrated appropriate divergent validity for the scales. These results along with a varimax rotation factor analysis led to an 18 item Revised CFSI and a three item Humility scale which clearly mediated the forgiving process in some as yet to be determined way and was wholly unrelated to the non- iv forgiving styles. The Intrapersonal forgivers tended to score high on Openness and somewhat higher on Agreeableness and Conscientiousness. They also scored low on fear of intimate relationships. Individuals who reported being “very active in religion” were the only group which showed a preference for the Intrapersonal style. The Interpersonal forgivers tended to score high on Neuroticism, Extroversion, and Conscientiousness, and they also tended to score low on fear of intimate relationships. The Easy Going non-forgivers scored low on Neuroticism, but scored high on fear of intimate relationships. Males were more likely to score high on Easy Going than any other demographic group. The Grudge Holders tended to score high on Neuroticism and low on Agreeableness, and they were high on fear of intimate relationships. The Caperton Forgiveness Style Inventory is a valid and reliable assessment tool of styles of forgiveness and is appropriate for both clinical and research uses.
    • A Program Evaluation: Therapeutic Playgroup for Preschool-Aged Children with Mental Health Needs

      Harden, Denise M. (2010-05-11)
      The understanding of preschool children has been explored in the fields of developmental psychology and early childhood education. The field of school psychology has also increased interest in the assessment of the social and emotional functioning of preschool children (Martin, 1986). Currently, there are changes in national education policy and societal pressures for systematic, professional assessment and intervention with younger children (Executive Office of the President, 1990). In addition, focus has been placed on the incorporation of evidence-based practices into assessment and treatment (Tolan & Dodge, 2005). Mental health services, in particular, aim to address the social and emotional needs of children and families through assessment, effective intervention, and collaboration/consultation. Currently, research in preschool programs specifies the use of a developmental model to meet children’s social-emotional needs, physical well-being, motor development, language and literacy development, cognition and general knowledge, and approach to learning (National Institute for Early Education Research, 2006). This study extends the literature on effective and comprehensive mental health programs for a preschool aged population by conducting a program evaluation on the effectiveness of a therapeutic playgroup model for providing mental health services to preschool aged children who exhibit social-emotional and behavioral problems due to family stress, abuse, neglect, and possible mental disorders of children and their caregivers. This study utilizes a mixed method design which incorporates data from caregivers, playgroup teachers, child records, and participantobservers. Findings indicate the effectiveness of the Therapeutic Playgroup Program in meeting the behavioral needs of preschool children, as well as overall program goals and objectives. Teacher efficacy was directly linked to effective and efficient behavior and practices in providing mental health services to young children with challenging behaviors.
    • Increasing the Accuracy of the Military's Post-Deployment Mental Health Screening Strategies

      Fass, Daniel (2010-07-20)
      The author investigated the prevalence rates of mental health problems reported by college students and compared them with previously existing data on active duty, reserve, and National Guard Operation Iraqi Freedom veterans. Participants completed the mental health portion of the Post-Deployment Health Re-Assessment and an additional questionnaire in which the effect of a drug use screen was explored. Subjects were also asked about their intentions to seek mental health or substance abuse treatment and how anonymity affected their treatment seeking and reporting accuracy. Results indicate similar and at times higher rates of mental health problems in the sample of college students and perhaps highlight the problems associated with post-deployment mental health screening, including stigma associated with reporting and seeking mental health treatment. These results signal an underestimation of the mental health concerns of military personnel and highlight the need for anonymous post-deployment screening procedures as well as more anonymous treatment options.
    • An Exploratory Study of the Career Aspirations and Self-Perceptions of University Honors Program Students

      Gresham, Pamela Malone (2010-07-20)
      This study examined the career aspirations and self-perceptions of University Honors Program students at Indiana State University. The current trend in education, especially gifted and talented education, focuses on science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). How has this impacted the gifted and talented population when they become young adults ready to pursue college and careers? Are the interests and skills of University Honors Program students aligned with the majors they have chosen? What are their interests and skills? The research was conducted on the campus of Indiana State University. This is a public higher education campus whose University Honors Program has about 500 members. The sample consisted of 20 University Honors Students. Each participant was asked to complete the Self-Directed Search Assessment Booklet: A Guide to Educational and Career Planning (4th ed.). This instrument, created by Holland, is used to assist in career planning. A three letter code resulted from the Self-Directed Search (4th ed.) (Psychological Assessment Resources [PAR], 2004). The results of the study revealed a variety of majors, although STEM majors were the most prevalent. One identical match between the three letter career aspiration codes and the codes developed from the survey. However, three participants’ codes included the same three letters in different combinations and eleven participants had an acceptable match of two of the three letters. Five students had only one common occupational letter. Multipotentiality and Millennial characteristics were examined. The University Honors Program sample had strong Investigative and Social scores.
    • Perceptions of Faculty Caring: Comparison of Distance and Traditional Graduate Nursing Students

      Hall, Lea R. (2010-07-20)
      The concept of caring has played a vital role in nursing education. Role modeling has been identified as the primary way to teach caring and has been investigated extensively. As caring has evolved, so has the ways in which we educate nurses. Countless institutions now offer distance education programs in nursing in an effort to address the nurse and nurse educator shortage. It is unclear, however, from the nursing education literature if the modeling of caring can be transferred to students in a distance learning environment. This study investigated the impact of learning environment, program satisfaction, and persistence on graduate nursing students’ perceptions of faculty caring measured by the Organizational Climate for Caring Questionnaire. The 162 participants were recruited from 76 different accredited institutions throughout five states. Preliminary review of the data revealed no variability in persistence among the sample as all students were planning to persist or were graduating. Therefore a two-way analysis of variance was conducted and found no significant interaction between learning environment and student satisfaction and no significant main effect for learning environment. Satisfied students, however, did perceive their faculty as more caring than unsatisfied students. Results from this study indicate that as students feel cared for by their faculty, they are more satisfied with their programs of study, which may lead to better outcomes and increased student retention rates. Furthermore, no differences were found among the three learning environments indicating that role modeling of caring can occur in the distance environment as in the traditional face-to-face environment. Nurse educators need to be aware of both caring and non-caring behaviors they portray regardless of learning environment, and the impact they have on student satisfaction and student persistence.
    • The Correlation between Academic Achievements, Self-Esteem and Motivation of Female Seventh Grade Students: A Mixed Methods Approach

      Henman, Karen (2010-07-20)
      During the early grades, female students generally display enthusiasm for learning science. As these same students go though school, however, their level of motivation changes. Once female students reach high school, many lack the confidence to take chemistry and physics. Then, in college they lack the background necessary to major in chemistry, physics, and engineering. This study used quantitative data to investigate the correlation between female students' motivation, self-esteem, and standards-based state science achievement tests combined with a qualitative survey of student’s perceptions of parents’ attitudes toward science. The Children’s Science Motivation Inventory (CAIMI) determined students’ levels of motivation toward science. The Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory (CSEI) ascertained female students’ overall self-esteem. The ISTEP+ exam given in the 6th grade measured the students’ academic achievement in science. Trained examiners who interviewed students comprised the qualitative component of the study. Each examiner elaborated on selected questions from the CSEI and CAIMI to determine the students’ perceptions of parental attitudes toward science. A multiple regression was used to determine the correlation between self-esteem, motivation, and achievement in science. The correlation was strongest between motivation. Interviews revealed parents and teachers had the most influence on students' perception of science. In understanding the correlation between female students’ motivation, achievement, and self-esteem, schools will gain further knowledge into how students relate to the academic field of science and can thus promote females' participation in more science courses in high school. This then will provide females the necessary background knowledge to pursue a greater number of science majors in college.
    • The Relationship of Depression with Intrinsic and Extrinsic Components of Religiosity in The Older Adult Female

      Nuval, Jacqueline Anne (2010-07-20)
      The purpose of this doctoral research was to determine whether religious activity and general health would predict depression in older adult women living alone in the community who are widowed, divorced, separated, or never married. Variables considered included intrinsic and extrinsic components of religiosity, level of depression, anxiety and panic attacks, general health, and a group of behaviors classified as Religious Attitudes and Behaviors (RAB), which considered importance of religion, religious participation, regularity of religious observance, and religious organization/social support. Components of extrinsic religiosity and intrinsic religiosity were measured by Intrinsic/Extrinsic – Revised (I/E-R). Levels of depression were measured by the Center for Epidemiological Studies in Depression (CES-D). A demographic questionnaire measured the other variables. Of the 118 participants, 82 fit the research criteria, which was that they were over 65 years old, unmarried, living independently and without roommates, not working, and having had no hospitalization within the past two years. A simultaneous regression of this sample resulted in self-perception of health being the only predictor of depression.
    • Science Museums, Centers and Professional Development: Teachers Self Reflection on Improving Their Practice

      Ogbomo, Queen O. (2010-07-20)
      The purpose of this qualitative case study research was to ascertain the significance of the professional development programs workshops organized by a science museum and a science center in two Midwestern cities. The research investigated the effect the workshops had on the instructional practice of the participating elementary science teachers. More specifically, this study was guided by the following research question: How do the professional development programs at museums help teachers change the way they teach and consider science in their classroom? The core of this study consists of case studies of six elementary school teachers who were identified as a result of their participation in the museum and science center workshops and an instructor from the museum and another instructor from the science center. Teachers‟ selfefficacy regarding the teaching of science was sought through a Likert-style survey and triangulated with classroom observations and interviews of individual teachers. The findings of this study revealed two overarching themes: one, that the workshops were beneficial and two, that it did not improve instructional practice. The following are the factors identified as reasons for the workshops being beneficial: 1) the opportunity to build their content knowledge, 2) opportunity to experience and discuss the materials: 3) opportunity to collaborate with colleagues: 4) workshop materials and resources are linked to state goals: and 5) that they promote teacher confidence. The teachers who thought the workshops did not improve their instructional practice gave the following reasons: 1) they already had a strong background in science: 2) there was no follow-up activity: 3) the loss of a full day of teaching: and 4) the time constraint to implement what was learned. Though this study utilized a small sample of teachers, those involved in this study felt they acquired knowledge that would be either beneficial to them or to their students and they particularly enjoyed the inquiry-based activities that were conducted in either the museum or the science center workshops.
    • Language Learning Strategies of English as a Foreign Language University in Korea

      Yang, Mihwa (2010-07-20)
      The purpose of this research was twofold. The first was to investigate which English learning strategies are frequently used by EFL Korean university students, and the second was to discover the differences in the use of English learning strategies by self-assessed language proficiency and gender. This study investigated the strategy usage of 288 Korean university students through administering a demographic questionnaire and Oxford’s (1990) SILL. Independent t-tests, a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), post-hoc Scheffé tests, and chi-square tests were performed at the .05 level of significance to answer research questions. The findings indicated that Korean university students used a medium range of strategies. Compensation strategies were used most frequently whereas memory strategies were used least frequently among Korean university learners. Language proficiency levels had significant effects on the overall strategy use, the six categories of strategy, and individual strategy use items. The present study also found that gender did not affect the overall strategy usage of EFL Korean university learners, the six categories of strategy, and individual strategy use. In sum, this research provides English teachers and curriculum planners with validated information on strategies currently used by EFL Korean university learners. The findings allow English teachers and curriculum planners to understand which overall strategies are used by EFL Korean learners.
    • Educators' Opinions Towards the Factors that increase Educational Television Programs and Channels' Effectiveness: A Survey on a sample of Teachers and Inspectors in the schools of Kuwait

      AlShammari, Fahad Z. (2010-07-22)
      The study aimed to explore the educators' opinions to increasing the effectiveness of educational television channels and programs to make them a positive influence on academic achievements. In addition, part of the objective was to investigate if the factors' priority arrangements are related to the sample educators' teaching experience, gender, and level of education. The study sample was 410 educators in the State of Kuwait, 175 males and 235 females. Of the sample, 233 have bachelors' degree and 177 hold master's and Ph.D. degrees. The researcher created a survey that measures the educator's attitudes towards educational television programs and the factors that increase the effectiveness of educational television channels. The seven factors were educational qualification, media qualification, financial factor, time factor, relation to the curriculum, curriculum overlap factor and presentation method. The result pointed out that all factors were of great importance from the educators point view, where the highest factor of importance was relation to the curriculum factor, then educational qualification, and media qualification. The results showed that the years of experience of educators were not significant. The result results of the study pointed out that educators with bachelor's degree felt the educational qualification factor and curriculum overlap factor in the educational television program has a big impact, more so than their peers who have master's or Ph.D. degrees. Also, the results showed that male educators gave more importance to the financial factor than female educators. The study concluded with other educational applications and recommendations on the research subject.
    • The Attitude of Middle Eastern Faculty toward the use of Distance Education in the Middle Eastern State Universities: A Comparative Study between the Middle Eastern Faculty and USA Faculty

      AlTameemy, Farooq A. (2010-07-27)
      Although distance education is offered in many academic institutions, specifically universities, in most of the developed countries, utilizing it as a part of the educational system in the Middle East is still in the development stage and not at the same stage as Western and European countries. Of the institutions in the Middle East that have started utilizing distance education, many face difficulties, an example of which is that these distance programs are not accredited by the educational system in the country. In turn, this leads to other problems for graduates of these distance programs, such as inability to find a job or inability to go for a higher education degree.As the faculty members of the universities in the Middle East represent a strong and an effective part of the education stake holders in the Middle East, this study investigates their attitudes toward the use of distance education in Middle Eastern universities. A comparison between the attitudes of the faculty members in the Middle East and faculty members in the United States was conducted.The study involved 139 faculty members from the Middle East, who live and work in Yemen, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, and Bahrain; and 126 participants from the United States, who work at various universities. To investigate their attitudes toward the use of distance education, a web-based survey was created in two versions, Arabic and English, and a link to it was sent out to participants via email.The study results showed negative attitudes of Middle Eastern faculty members in the use of technology, culture and social, economic, location, policies, educational, academic achievement and availability of distance education tools factors. When compared to the faculty members in the USA, Middle Eastern faculty members showed more negative attitudes toward the use of distance education.
    • A Descriptive Study of a Building-Based Team Problem-Solving Process

      Brewer, Alexander B. (2010-09-21)
      The purpose of this study was to empirically evaluate Building-Based Teams for General Education Intervention or BBT for GEI. BBT for GEI is a team problem-solving process designed to assist schools in conducting research-based interventions in the general education setting. Problem-solving teams are part of general education and provide support to students with academic or behavioral concerns by creating individualized interventions that teachers can use in the classroom. Historically, problem-solving teams’ two primary goals were to reduce referrals to special education and improve student performance on academic or behavioral concerns. This study examined the effectiveness of BBT for GEI by analyzing BBT for GEI teams’ alignment with the best practice indicators of intervention design and by evaluating how BBT for GEI teams’ practices predict student outcome. The analysis was done by reviewing permanent products of team GEI practices submitted by elementary school problem-solving teams trained in the BBT for GEI process by the Blumberg Center for Interdisciplinary Studies in Special Education. The teams’ permanent products were rated on 13 quality indicators of intervention design using a Likert type scale of 1-5 on adherence and presence of the indicator. The higher the rating on the scale, the greater the alignment with the identified best practices for that indicator. The quality indicators include the following: (a) behavioral definition, (b) baseline data, (c) problem validation, (d) problem analysis, (e) goal setting, (f) delivery specifics, (g) empiricallysupported content variables, (h) measurement strategy, (i) decision-making plan, (j) progress monitoring, (k) formative evaluation, (l) treatment integrity, and (m) summative evaluation. The average indicator ratings ranged from a low of 1.44 to a high of 3.64. This range suggests that the teams implemented some of the best practice indicators to a high degree, while other indicators were either not implemented to a high degree or not addressed. BBT for GEI teams implemented the Problem Analysis and Plan Development components with the highest fidelity while implementing the Plan Implementation and Plan Evaluation components with the lowest fidelity. When analyzing the themes and commonalities, it became apparent that many teams did not conduct more than their initial meeting in order to implement and monitor a plan. In addition to the 13 indicator ratings, two student outcome ratings were also assigned to teams’ permanent products, Goal Attainment Scaling (GAS) and Student Measured Performance (SMP). The average rating for GAS was 2.92. The average for SMP was 1.93. Two multiple regression analyses were conducted to determine the effect the 13 quality indicators have on GAS and SMP. The linear combination of the quality indicators of intervention design ratings was significantly related to both GAS and SMP. Individually, Intervention Plan Development and Problem Analysis were significant predictors of GAS. Four indicators were significant predictors of SMP, Problem Validation, Goal Setting, Intervention Plan Development, and Formative Evaluation.
    • Career Decisions: Goodness-Of-Fit and Attrition of Teachers in Alternative Schools

      Coulter, Deidre S. (2010-09-21)
      Teachers are the most important element in the education system (Stronge, 2002). However, studies of teachers in certain sectors are lacking. The paucity of research on teachers who work in the alternative school environment was a driving force behind this study, which is a case study of the characteristics of alternative schools, perceptions of teacher training, attrition, and goodness-of-fit. Interviews with teachers, administrators, and support staff in an alternative school were used to investigate interactions between teachers and students and between colleagues. Classroom observations of the teachers were used to help explore the classroom climate. Emergent themes such as communication, administrative support, and a holistic view of the student population are explored using the filter of symbolic interaction theory in order to describe the characteristics of effective alternative school teachers, administrators, and staff. Symbolic interaction theory uses the internal shorthand that individuals develop to identify how their actions reflect their thoughts and feelings about the setting in which they find themselves. Implications for future research on the teacher-environment fit in alternative schools are discussed.
    • Examining Validity Characteristics of the MMPI-2 PSY-5 Psychoticism Scale

      Covarrubias, Enrique G. (2010-09-21)
      The purpose of this study is to firmly establish the facet scales of the Personality Psychopathology Five (PSY-5) Psychoticism scale of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Second Edition (MMPI-2). Arnau, Handel, and Archer (2005) recently developed facet scales for the MMPI-2 PSY-5 scales using principal component analyses. The results of this study and the original published study were compared to determine if similar facet scales are found for the MMPI-2 PSY-5 Psychoticism scale. Participants were drawn from three different samples: the MMPI-2 normative sample, an inpatient sample from a mid-Atlantic region, and a college sample from a Midwestern university. Item-level principal component analyses and factor analyses were utilized to determine which scales yield better clinical utility. Although the results show some consistency in the MMPI-2 PSY-5 Psychoticism facet scales between the current and original study, differences were noted which indicate that the psychometric properties of the facet scales have yet to be empirically established. Clinical and research implications for the facet scales are discussed.
    • School Climate, Teacher Satisfaction, and Receptivity to Change

      Daar, Sherri Eaton-Bin (2010-09-22)
      The purpose of this study was to explore what school climate factors influence teacher job satisfaction and receptivity to change. A survey based upon current literature was developed to assess teacher perceptions of the factors which may influence job satisfaction and receptivity to change. A regression analysis was conducted to determine impact of the nine school climate factors on teacher job satisfaction. A second regression was conducted using the nine school climate domains and satisfaction to evaluate which factors had an impact on teacher receptivity to change. Study findings indicated that (a) study participants report there to be two factors which influence job satisfaction in an educational environment: administration and instructional management, (b) participants’ also reported there to be three factors which influence receptivity to change: administration, student academic orientation and student activities.
    • Border Pedagogy and the Acculturation of Korean Students in U.S. Institutions of High Education

      Green, Randy (2010-09-22)
      This study aimed at identifying learning and teaching strategies that can promote the process of acculturation for Korean students in institutions of higher education in the United States. In particular, the study attempted to pinpoint ways in which these students and their instructors can become aware of and resist educational tendencies and approaches that promote hegemony and devalue cultural perspectives and experiences as well as construct meaning within the context of a worldview that is influenced by both Korean and U.S. cultures. It was hoped that the identification of these skills and strategies would aid both students and instructors in developing the ability to become successful border crossers, as defined by Giroux‟s (2005) border pedagogy, as well as culturally enlightened citizens of the global community. The study was qualitative in nature and consisted of a series of interviews with six South Korean students (three undergraduate and three graduate) enrolled in a mid-sized institution of higher education in the U.S. Midwest, six U.S. faculty members at the same university who had had Korean students in their courses, and four faculty members from Korea who were teaching at the university. A review of the literature included an examination of Positivism and its role in U.S. education, border pedagogy, particularly as it relates to international education and the process of acculturation, processes of cross-cultural adaptation, studies that have been conducted about South Korean students at U.S. institutions of higher education, historical influences on Korean higher education, and teaching and learning strategies common in South Korean universities. The study was able to identify several teaching and learning strategies that were interpreted as encouraging the process of acculturation and enabling students to cross borders. These strategies appeared to be supportive of the empowerment of and dialogue between students and teachers and strove to incorporate the cultural perspectives of both parties into the teaching and learning process. The study also identified a number of practices and perceptions that appeared to promote the assimilation of these students. In particular, there was little evidence that suggested the participants had reflected on or resisted influences and educational tendencies which could possibly promote the process of hegemony. The development of strategies that combat this tendency and facilitate a demystification of the educational process is recommended.
    • An Activity Theory Exploratory of the Differential Impact on Students' and Professors' Experiences in How Laptops are Used for Instruction

      Niyikora, Jean Pierre (2010-09-22)
      This exploratory study examined the differential impact of a laptop initiative in two general education classrooms during the winter term session of the 2009-2010 academic year at Midwest institution of higher learning. Beyond observing these two classrooms, a total of 12 student volunteers and two instructors were selected from the laptop using and non-laptop using classrooms for focus group interviews. In total, the researcher conducted 22 classroom observations per each class. Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) was used as a tool to analyze different tensions that occurred within or between different components of the laptop activity for both classrooms. The researcher also collected evidence to explain the justification for using laptops in the classroom, the benefits, disadvantages, and the reason behind expressed reluctance to applying laptops in instruction. Findings from qualitative data revealed that students from the laptop using class appeared more enthusiastic about having a laptop for classroom activities than students in the non-laptop using classroom. The factors which contributed to such success were the instructor‟s motivation, the integration of the interactive software (DyKnow), tablets, and a well-organized pedagogy. The finding for this investigation have implications for educators, instructors, researchers, policymakers, and are intended to assist institutions of higher education especially those passionate to integrate laptop in learning.
    • The Impact of Material Factors on Female Juvenile Delinquency Trends

      Price, Anne Marie (2010-09-22)
      This study examined the difference between female juvenile delinquents and nondelinquents in relationship to a combination of maternal factors (negative maternal behaviors, occupational stress, perceived social support, and maternal parenting stress). Participants were 128 biological mothers of daughters between the ages of 12 and 18 who were either mothers of clients or were clients themselves of a Midwest community health center in one of several clinics in Martinsville, Mooresville, Bedford, Bloomington, and Spencer, Indiana. Participants completed six questionnaires, including: the Demographics Questionnaire, the Maternal Behavior Index, the Adolescent Behavior Survey, the Occupational Crisis Survey, the Duke Social Support Inventory, and the Maternal Parenting Measure of Stress. A discriminate function analysis was conducted to determine if the maternal factors of negative maternal behaviors, occupational stress, perceived social support, and maternal parenting stress could be used to predict membership in the following groups for female adolescents: delinquents and nondelinquents. Results indicated that mothers who reported more negative behaviors, perceived less social support, and felt more parenting stress were more apt to have daughters who engaged in delinquent acts.
    • Barriers to Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Intervention Implementation in the Public School Setting

      2010-09-23
      The present study examined the impact of potential barriers on commonly recommended school-based interventions for children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The interventions included were the Daily Behavioral Report Card, token reinforcement, response cost, instructional style changes, and classroom environment changes. The potential barriers studied were the time teachers spent on an intervention, the level of parent support, the level of child difficulty, the acceptability of an intervention, the perceived fairness of an intervention, and the level of administrative support. The study also examined the potential relationship between teachers‟ stress levels and the number of barriers they perceive to these interventions. Previous research has looked at the barriers to intervention implementation in the home setting, but there has been a gap in the research that addresses problems that may hinder teachers in implementing commonly recommended interventions. The present study examined responses from 62 teachers that were recruited from one Midwestern state and one Southern state. Data was collected through an online survey that was sent out to teachers‟ public domain email and was analyzed using Repeated Measure ANOVAs and Pearson Correlations. There were significant differences across interventions on each potential barrier. Teacher stress was also positively correlated with the number of barriers they perceived. Additionally, the level of teacher stress positively correlated with the barriers of time, level of child difficulty, perceived fairness of an intervention, and the level of administrative support.