Wiggins, Keya (2011-07-20)
      The “N-word” has been a pop-culture topic of interest which has fueled many heated discussions within the African American community. Given the history of the word nigger in America, the use of the word nigga among some African Americans may cause confusion among those who do not understand the phenomenon of African Americans‟ perceptions of the “N-word.” The present research was conducted to explore the phenomenon of African Americans‟ perceptions of both the words nigger and nigga in the context of racial identity attitudes. A primarily qualitative embedded mixed method model was utilized to gather information about feelings of group membership and African Americans‟ perceptions of the words nigger and nigga. The Cross Racial Identity Scale (CRIS) was used to identify participant‟s racial identity attitudes, and all of the participants in this study strongly agreed with attitudes associated with internalized identities. A qualitative analysis resulted in three themes including: (a) nigger is a universally negative and unacceptable term, (b) nigga is acceptable when used by African Americans, and (c) the public use of nigga is inappropriate. An overall profile interpretation of each identity type resulted in the finding that several of the attitudes associated with Cross‟s Nigrescence Theory, specifically assimilation, racial self hatred, anti-White, Afrocentric, and multiculturalist inclusive, were reflected in the qualitative themes. Implications for theory, research, and practice are addressed.
    • The impact of racial identity on self-esteem and academic achievement among African American adolescent female students

      Griddine, Ke'Shana Y.
      Utilizing a critical race theory perspective, I investigated how racial identity relates to self- esteem and academic achievement. The sample consisted of 100 African American female adolescents (age 13-17) who lived mostly in the Western regions of the United States. The Multidimensional Inventory of Black Identity-Teen and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale were administered to assess racial identity profiles and levels of self-esteem. Grade point averages were collected via self-report as a means of capturing academic achievement. The data were analyzed using cluster analysis with a follow-up MANOVA. The cluster analysis using the combination of hierarchical and non- hierarchical methods resulted in a viable three-cluster solution.The first cluster represented girls who held high humanist and low public regard beliefs (n =29). The second cluster group represented girls who scored higher on the centrality subscale and the nationalist sub-dimension (n = 31). The third cluster consisted of girls who have high levels of public regard and low nationalist beliefs (n = 29). The MANOVA revealed no significant relationship between the participants’ racial identity clusters and grade point average and their levels of self-esteem. The results of this study provide further understanding and evidence of multidimensionality in racial identity among female African American teenage students.