• Self-efficacy and health value among undergraduates following a lifetime fitness course.

      Brown, Heather M (2012-04-20)
      The question of whether perceived self-efficacy for exercise and health value,respectively,varied as a function of gender and exercise stage of change was the focus of this study.An archival data set was used.Participants were 190 college students who completed a demographic questionnaire,the Exercise Stage of Change Questionnaire,the Rokeach Values Survey,and the Self-Efficacy for Exercise questionnaire before and after completing a lifetime fitness course.Two 2-factor analyses of covariance were conducted for each dependent varible,self-efficacy and health-value.Gender and exercise stage of change were the independent variables.Exercise stage of change was divided into four subcategories:contemplation,preparation,action nand maintenance.A pretest on each dependent variable served as the covariate.Results of the analysis indicated that health valuse scores were significantly different as a function of exercise stage of change.A significant main effect was found between health value and exercise stage of change.A sigificant main effect was found between health value and exercise stage of change.A Bryant Paulson procedure was performed to determine which of the four stages of change for exercise differed on health value scores.The analysis revealed that participants in the contemplation and preparation exercise stages of change ranked health value significantly lower than participants in the action and maintenance exercise stages of change.Implications for theory and pratice and recommendations for future research are discussed.
    • Teacher Self-Efficacy Beliefs Related to Chronic Disruptive Behavior

      Jones, Kalinda R. (2011-09-20)
      In the current study, elementary teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs regarding working with students displaying chronic disruptive behavior (CDB) were explored. CDB was defined as persistent observable actions that have a negative impact on academic or social functioning. To address the infrequently researched construct of self-efficacy beliefs specific to teaching students exhibiting CDB, a modified version of the Teachers’ Sense of Efficacy Scale (short form) was used. Factor analysis results indicated the three self-efficacy factors of instructional strategies self-efficacy, classroom management self-efficacy, and student engagement self-efficacy. No significant relationships were found between each of the three types of teacher self-efficacy beliefs and the combination of the demographic variables of education level, years of teaching experience, and gender. No significant difference was found in self-efficacy beliefs among the teaching focus areas of general education, special education, and specialty education. Potential relationships were explored with each type of teacher self-efficacy beliefs and teachers’ current and past experience working with students displaying CDB, past training and desire for future professional development related to working with students with CDB, and perceived support when working with students displaying CDB. Past training and perceived support were significantly related to both instructional self-efficacy beliefs and student engagement self-efficacy beliefs. Previous experience, past training, and perceived support were significantly related to classroom management self-efficacy beliefs. Implications for research and practice regarding teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs when working with students displaying chronic disruptive behavior are discussed.
    • The Impact of Acculturation on Self-Reported Measures of Self-Efficacy with International Counseling Students

      Leggett, Jonathan (2011-03-16)
      The purpose of this study was to investigate how acculturation strategies relate to self-reported ratings of self-efficacy for international counseling students. Acculturation strategy usage may provide an important insight into the self-efficacy estimates of international students. Forty-three participants were recruited via e-mail from counseling programs within the United States. Participants were briefly instructed regarding the online completion of a demographic questionnaire, the Abbreviated Multidimensional Acculturation Scale ([AMAS-ZABB] Zea, Asner-Self, Birman, & Buki, 2003), and the Counseling Self-Estimate Inventory ([COSE] Larson et al., 1992). Thirty-four participants completed the AMAS-ZABB and thirty-one participants completed the COSE. Findings revealed the most common acculturation style to be the integrated style, and significant relationships existed between international students‟ Orientation to Host culture and self-efficacy scores. Time in the United States was significantly related to international students‟ Orientation to Host culture.
    • THE IMPACT OF TRAINING ON MUSIC THERAPISTS’ SONGWRITING KNOWLEDGE, SELF-EFFICACY, AND BEHAVIOR

      Richardson, Tracy G. (2011-07-20)
      Songwriting has been used as an effective intervention for persons with a wide range of therapeutic needs. However, a literature search revealed that songwriting is underrepresented in the music therapy research literature, indicating that music therapists may perceive they do not have the abilities to effectively use songwriting interventions in therapy sessions. The purposes of this study were: (a) to investigate the impact of a songwriting training session on the songwriting knowledge, self-efficacy, and behavior of music therapists; (b) to evaluate the songwriting training program; and (c) to explore the impact of the training on perceived barriers and clinical practice. Participants were 32 board-certified music therapists who chose to attend a songwriting training session between November 2009 and April 2010. The 32 participants completed a pre-test, attended a five-hour songwriting training session, and completed a post-test. However, only 17 of the 32 persisted through all phases of the study by submitting the follow-up test six weeks after the training. Results showed a statistically significant increase in songwriting knowledge, self-efficacy, and behavior from pre-test to follow-up. Additionally, change in knowledge was found to predict change in self-efficacy from pre-test to post-test but not from pre-test to follow-up. Participants reported being highly satisfied with the training. Thematic analysis of open-ended questions confirmed the quantitative results, with participants indicating a positive impact of songwriting training on perceived barriers and clinical practice. Implications for clinical practice and recommendations for future research are discussed.