• Disaster preparedness in the american academy:A study of institutional context factors for compliance with the national incident management system.

      Wilder, Paul Joseph (2012-05-21)
      Recent major disaster events at colleges and universities around the nation have demonstrated that change is needed in the way that higher education institutions (HEIs) approach disaster preparation. The comforting notion that HEIs are immune to natural and manmade hazards has been shattered by events such as the Virginia Tech massacre and Hurricane Katrina’s assault on Mississippi’s coastal campuses. Reports of many other institutional responses to a variety of disaster incidents demonstrate that these two major disasters are not isolated events on the campuses of the American academy. This study developed a snapshot view of disaster preparation in American HEIs, using National Incident Management System (NIMS) compliance as a proxy for disaster preparedness. This quantitative, retrospective study, with a non-experimental design, used a scientific approach that employed both archival and survey data from a stratified random sample of 108 HEIs that were categorized based on organization and governance, as well as institutional sector, to establish a benchmark measurement of disaster preparation in the various types of institutions. Further, the study examined institutional context factors to investigate the degree of NIMS compliance in place at American HEIs, including organization and governance, previous disaster experience, institutional size, legal representation on the planning and response team, institutional sector, and composite economic losses by state, to see if any of these factors was statistically associated with NIMS compliance. Results indicate that two of the study variables were statistically significant; institutional size and institutional sector. These findings expose that smaller institutions are lagging behind in disaster preparedness. Additionally, the outcomes reveal that private institutions are facing difficulty keeping pace with their public counterparts in disaster preparation.
    • Does the training of school board members make a difference?

      Halik, James M (2012-05-21)
      The purpose of this study was to determine the perceptions of public school superintendents and school board presidents in the United States relative to the orientation and ongoing training that is believed to be necessary for newly elected or selected and experienced board members. At the national, state, and local levels, public education is under a great deal of scrutiny. Public education throughout America is undergoing a significant overhaul unlike any time in the past. Boards of school trustees and superintendents are under the microscope with regard to performance and accountability. There is a lack of extensive research regarding the education, orientation, and training of newly elected or selected and experienced school board members and the perception of how that training might change the members’ effectiveness to influence positively the direction of the school corporation of which they serve. In most states, school board members are not required to have orientation or ongoing training with regard to their role and responsibilities prior to being elected or selected to their seat on the board. In conducting this study, the following questions were addressed and analyzed by a comparison of responses submitted by public school superintendents and school board presidents from coast to coast. 1. Are orientation and ongoing training for school board members important? 2. Do orientation and ongoing training for school board members make a difference? Public school superintendents and school board presidents were randomly selected from throughout the United States from small, medium, and large size school districts. The sample size was 250 public school superintendents and 250 school board presidents from five regions of the country identified by the National School Boards Association as the Northeast, Southern, Central, Western, and Pacific regions. A very high percentage (nearly 90%) of the school board presidents and superintendents reported that board members did attend programs, seminars, or workshops during their first year of service. There is a significant difference between what school board presidents believe and what superintendents believe regarding required or mandated training prior to newly elected or selected board members beginning their role as a member of the board. The majority (80%) of the school board presidents and superintendents in the country reported that board members should be required or mandated to attend programs, seminars, or workshops during their first year of service. On average, only 55% of school board presidents and superintendents in the country believe in-service programs, training seminars, and workshops should be required or mandated for experienced board members after their first year of service on the board.
    • Effects of gender-role orientation on responses of counselors-in-training

      Urschel, Joanne.K (2012-04-09)
      This study investigated the effects of gender-role orientation of clients and counselors-in-training, and sex of clients on response consistencies of counselors-in-training. One hundred and twelve master’s level counselor’s-in-training from twelve universities served as participants. Each participant viewed six videotaped vignettes of clients; each representing one of six gender-role orientations. At the conclusion of each vignette the participants were asked to write a response to the question, “What would you say next to the client?” Responses were categorized into consistency scores reflecting gender-role orientation of clients and counselors-in-training, and sex of clients. As hypothesized, gender-role orientations of clients and client’s sex had no effect on the responses of counselor’s-in-training. However, it was found that the gender-role orientations of counselors-in-training did affect their response consistencies. Post hoc analyses support these conclusions. Implications and recommendations are discussed.
    • Examining Validity Characteristics of the MMPI-2 PSY-5 Psychoticism Scale

      Covarrubias, Enrique G. (2010-09-21)
      The purpose of this study is to firmly establish the facet scales of the Personality Psychopathology Five (PSY-5) Psychoticism scale of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Second Edition (MMPI-2). Arnau, Handel, and Archer (2005) recently developed facet scales for the MMPI-2 PSY-5 scales using principal component analyses. The results of this study and the original published study were compared to determine if similar facet scales are found for the MMPI-2 PSY-5 Psychoticism scale. Participants were drawn from three different samples: the MMPI-2 normative sample, an inpatient sample from a mid-Atlantic region, and a college sample from a Midwestern university. Item-level principal component analyses and factor analyses were utilized to determine which scales yield better clinical utility. Although the results show some consistency in the MMPI-2 PSY-5 Psychoticism facet scales between the current and original study, differences were noted which indicate that the psychometric properties of the facet scales have yet to be empirically established. Clinical and research implications for the facet scales are discussed.
    • Examining Variables Related to Help-seeking and Victimization Differences after Coercive Intercourse

      Faulkner, Ginger (2011-06-17)
      The issue of sexual violence against women has been an area of interest to psychological researchers because of its importance and prevalence in America. A problem that has been attracting more attention recently is sexual coercion against women, especially on college campuses. Researchers have consistently found that over half of college women have been victim to coercive sexual encounters (Struckman-Johnson, Struckman-Johnson, & Anderson, 2003) making this a serious problem in need of greater understanding. Researchers have also found that sexual coercion can cause a variety of problems, yet victims typically do not seek help after these experiences (Fisher, Daigle, Cullen, & Turner, 2003; Siegel, Golding, Stein, Burnam, & Sorenson, 1990). Thus, understanding factors that can encourage sexual coercion victims to seek help is important. Additionally, researchers have reported inconsistent results regarding differences between women who have and have not experienced sexual coercion (Bernard, Bernard, & Bernard, 1985; Faulkner, Kolts, & Hicks, 2008). A clearer understanding of victimization differences would allow for greater insight into sexual coercion. The first purpose of this study was to explore if sexual assertiveness (SA), sexual self-esteem (SSE), and rape myth acceptance (RMA) predicted help-seeking behaviors in college women who had experienced coercive intercourse. A stepwise multiple regression analysis was utilized to determine whether the variables SA, SSE, and RMA predicted a significant proportion of the variance in help-seeking behaviors after a coercive experience. The second aspect of this study was to examine whether the variables of SA, SSE, and RMA differed between women who have and have not experienced coercive intercourse. This was determined through a multiple analysis of variance (MANOVA). Results indicated no significant relationship between SA, SSE, and RMA and help-seeking behaviors. However, significant differences were found between victims and non-victims of coercive intercourse on SA and SSE.
    • Factors Influencing Family Medicine Residents’ Screening for Intimate Partner Violence

      Bruder, Melissa (2014-03-18)
      Intimate partner violence among adolescents is a serious and widespread problem. It is apparent that victims of intimate partner violence experience physical and psychological consequences. These adverse health effects can result in adolescents seeking care from healthcare professionals. However, intimate partner violence victims do not always receive the care and response they need. Because adolescents are reporting that not all healthcare professionals are screening for intimate partner violence, one must come to understand the factors that are hindering this occurrence. Although previous research has provided a foundation for understanding factors that influence intimate partner violence screening, researchers have not specifically examined factors related to family medicine residents’ screening adolescent patients. The present study examined responses from 118 family medicine residents across the United States. Data were collected through an online survey and were analyzed using a multiple regression, a repeated measures ANOVA, and a one-way ANOVA. The multiple regression analysis revealed that together, year in residency, previous identification of victims of intimate partner violence, and self-efficacy significantly predicted intimate partner violence screening among adolescent patients. The repeated measures ANOVA had a statistically significant interaction effect for patient’s gender and presenting medical concern on screening adolescent patients for intimate partner violence. The one-way ANOVA revealed that the frequency of family medicine residents’ screening adolescent patients for intimate partner violence did not significantly differ among the regional locations of residency programs in the United States.
    • Geochemistry of benthic foraminifera as an enviornmental indicator:a study from multiple hydrographic regimes.

      Basak, Chandranath (2012-04-20)
      The geochemistry(stable isotopes and trace elements) of living(stained)calcareous benthic foraminifera was compared with ambient bottom water stable isotope values to provide modern analog conditions and calibrations for enviornmental and paleoenvironmental assessments.Stable isotope values of live(stained)benthic foraminifera were investigated from push core and multicorer samples from the North Pacific(on the Aleutian margin,water depth 1988m)and the South Australian Bight(water depth 2476m and 1634m).Living benthic foraminifera specimens collected from contaminated sites in the Venice Lagoon were analysed for trace elements.Both the isotopic and the trace element study involved interpretation of modern live foraminiferal chemical reponses to different enviornments.The isotope analyses of living foraminifera from the North Pacific and the South Australian Bight provide calibration information for the evaluation of bottom water temperature and circulation of ancient oceans based on fossil foraminiferal geochemistry.Trace elements concentrations of Venice Lagoon foraminifera were used to assess the possibility of using foraminiferal geochemistry as a pollution indicator.Consistent with previous studies,shallow infaunal benthic foraminifera from the Aleutian and Australian argins were depleted in δ13 C with respect to bottom water dissolved inorganic carbon(DIC),and the deep infaunal foraminifera showed greater difference in values between foraminiferal carbon isotope values and DIC.The deep infaunal,Globobulimina pacifica,had δ18 O values that were in equilibrium with oxygen isotopic values at equilibrium calcite(δ18 Occ).Based on a few specimens that were divided in half,there was only minor isotopic heterogeneity in the test composition of benthic foraminifera genus Globobulimina.Differential foraminiferal uptake of Zn as indicated in initial laser ablation analyses showed marked differences between contaminated and less polluted sites in the Venice Lagoon.Higher incorporation of zinc in foraminiferal calcite from the more contaminated site was possibly the result of greater bioavailability of zinc in this environment.Differences also exist between the uptake of other trace metals such as Al,Mg and Mn by different foraminiferal genera.Differences in metal sequestration by benthic foraminifera suggest that the trace metal geochemistry of some foraminiferal taxa may be useful as a pollution indicator.
    • Hear My Voice: An Examination of the Views of Parents Who Are Raising Children of African American Descent

      Phelps, Chavez Maurice (2012-01-13)
      Researchers have demonstrated that children who attend early childhood education programs benefit academically and socially (National Institute for Early Education Research, 2003). However, other researchers have shown that African American students may still lag behind their counterparts when they enter school (National Center for Education Statistics ([NCES], 2004). To explain this phenomenon, scholars and practitioners have relied on deficit theories, such as Ruby Payne’s (2005) culture of poverty theory or John Ogbu’s (1992) oppositional culture identity theory, which shift the blame solely on the child or their parents. However, there are other researchers who have stressed the importance of examining the impact of racism and classism on African American children’s academic success. The purpose of this study is to provide a voice to parents of children who are of African American descent. Specifically, I examined parents’ perspectives on early academic success and various factors that impact their children’s success using Bronfenbrenner’s (1979) ecological systems theory and Spencer’s (1995) phenomenological variant of ecological systems theory (PVEST) as frameworks. To develop an understanding of early academic success from the perspective of parents, qualitative methodology was chosen, specifically grounded theory. Fourteen families who lived in a Midwest city or town, particularly mothers and their children, participated in this study. Data resources included two interviews, journals, and academic and social skills screeners. The data were analyzed based on parents’ degree status and marital status as well as grade, gender, and disability status of their child.Results show that parents define early academic success as acquiring the following: literacy, numeracy, and social skills. The participants stressed the importance of parents and teacher characteristics as important to their children’s early academic success. Furthermore, these parents believed that family factors such as a structured and consistent family routine are relevant to academic achievement. In terms of neighborhood factors, parents believed that a quiet and peaceful neighborhood as well as a neighborhood that valued and foster academic achievement as a community is crucial. Participants stressed the importance that their children should participate in various activities such as sports and music and dance classes. Their children should possess such values as respect and compassion, which are necessary to be successful. Additionally, the participants discussed their various teaching strategies and the importance of spending time with their children. Finally, the participants discussed the conversations they have with their children regarding race and how their children’s school and teachers embrace their children’s heritage.
    • Increasing the Accuracy of the Military's Post-Deployment Mental Health Screening Strategies

      Fass, Daniel (2010-07-20)
      The author investigated the prevalence rates of mental health problems reported by college students and compared them with previously existing data on active duty, reserve, and National Guard Operation Iraqi Freedom veterans. Participants completed the mental health portion of the Post-Deployment Health Re-Assessment and an additional questionnaire in which the effect of a drug use screen was explored. Subjects were also asked about their intentions to seek mental health or substance abuse treatment and how anonymity affected their treatment seeking and reporting accuracy. Results indicate similar and at times higher rates of mental health problems in the sample of college students and perhaps highlight the problems associated with post-deployment mental health screening, including stigma associated with reporting and seeking mental health treatment. These results signal an underestimation of the mental health concerns of military personnel and highlight the need for anonymous post-deployment screening procedures as well as more anonymous treatment options.
    • Prevalence of cardiac abnormalities in male and female college athletes when exposed to physiological and thermal stressors.

      Tucker, Matthew A (2012-05-21)
      To my advisor, Dr. Kingsley. Your constant support and guidance is something that I cannot thank you enough for. It has truly given me a passion to continue in this line of research and without your ongoing encouragement, I would not have made it this far. Thank you. To my committee, Dr. Finch, Dr. Kuhlman, and Dr. Yeargin. Your seemingly endless stream of advice and feedback has been invaluable, and has led me to a body of work that I can be proud of. I can‟t thank you all enough. To my parents. Thank you for providing me the opportunity to be here in the first place. It is your continued and unwavering support that has allowed me to accomplish my goals while being so far from home. I will be forever grateful. To my brother, Gaven. Thank you for being there for me whenever I needed someone to talk to, in spite of having to cope with everything you and Rhonda have been through the last year. You‟ve been an inspiration. Kia kaha. To Ashley. Thank you for putting up with me through this whole process. How you deal with my constant over analyzing is beyond me, but nevertheless, I couldn‟t have done this without you by my side. To my fellow students who helped me along the way. I can‟t thank you guys enough for helping me get to this point, even if it was only by doing something seemingly small. Every little bit of help I received was invaluable, and I thank you all for giving up your time to help out one of your own.
    • Problem-solving:Individual factors predictive of resistance to functional fixedness and effects of einstellung.

      Erikson, James W (2012-05-21)
      The purpose of this research was to replicate and expand two experimental procedures that have been fundamental to the understanding of problem solving and rigidity: functional fixedness and effects of Einstellung. Functional fixedness can be described as an instance in which negative transfer occurs and there is perceptual “blindness” to the versatility of an object. Einstellung is the tendency to utilize a more complicated and habitually primed procedure at the expense of simpler methods. Results were analyzed to identify individuals resistant to these natural effects and to determine the non-clinical personality factors as assessed by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI, Myers, McCaulley, Quenk, & Hammer, 1998) that contribute to rigidity and fixation. A majority of participants (60%) responded in the same manner to the cognitive fixation problems (either susceptible or resistant to both functional fixedness and effects of Einstellung), indicating a salient connection between the cognitive mechanisms activated by these two phenomena. A significant relationship was discovered between susceptibility to cognitive fixation and the Thinking/Feeling dimension on the MBTI.
    • Public school superintendent philosophies and their tenure.

      Garner, John (2012-05-21)
      Postmodernism is a philosophical description that encompasses philosophy, the arts, a period of history, and many other aspects of today’s existence. This dissertation examines the extent to which Indiana public school superintendents use postmodern philosophy as opposed to modern philosophy to inform their practice. This was accomplished by examining eight leadership concepts through the application of questions with decisions related to either modernism or postmodernism. The study described by this dissertation used a quantitative research method assembling data and determining the correlation of operant philosophy by a superintendent with their tenure.
    • Relationship between sources of support and mother-infant bonding.

      Schwing, Stephanie (2012-04-16)
      Adult women who had become new mothers within the last year completed a brief demographic questionnaire the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support,and the Post Partum Bonding Questionnaire.Mother's perceived levels of (a)significant others,(b)family,and(c)friend support were examined in relation to their perceptions of (d)general impaired bonding,(e)rejection and anger, and (f)anxiety about care of their infants.The hypothesis that all three sources of perceived social support would negatively relate to problems in the bonding relationship was supported.However,the hypothesis that significant other support would be the most significant predictor for the bonding relationship was not supported.Only familial support uniquely related to the bonding relationship.
    • School Climate, Teacher Satisfaction, and Receptivity to Change

      Daar, Sherri Eaton-Bin (2010-09-22)
      The purpose of this study was to explore what school climate factors influence teacher job satisfaction and receptivity to change. A survey based upon current literature was developed to assess teacher perceptions of the factors which may influence job satisfaction and receptivity to change. A regression analysis was conducted to determine impact of the nine school climate factors on teacher job satisfaction. A second regression was conducted using the nine school climate domains and satisfaction to evaluate which factors had an impact on teacher receptivity to change. Study findings indicated that (a) study participants report there to be two factors which influence job satisfaction in an educational environment: administration and instructional management, (b) participants’ also reported there to be three factors which influence receptivity to change: administration, student academic orientation and student activities.
    • Self-efficacy and health value among undergraduates following a lifetime fitness course.

      Brown, Heather M (2012-04-20)
      The question of whether perceived self-efficacy for exercise and health value,respectively,varied as a function of gender and exercise stage of change was the focus of this study.An archival data set was used.Participants were 190 college students who completed a demographic questionnaire,the Exercise Stage of Change Questionnaire,the Rokeach Values Survey,and the Self-Efficacy for Exercise questionnaire before and after completing a lifetime fitness course.Two 2-factor analyses of covariance were conducted for each dependent varible,self-efficacy and health-value.Gender and exercise stage of change were the independent variables.Exercise stage of change was divided into four subcategories:contemplation,preparation,action nand maintenance.A pretest on each dependent variable served as the covariate.Results of the analysis indicated that health valuse scores were significantly different as a function of exercise stage of change.A significant main effect was found between health value and exercise stage of change.A sigificant main effect was found between health value and exercise stage of change.A Bryant Paulson procedure was performed to determine which of the four stages of change for exercise differed on health value scores.The analysis revealed that participants in the contemplation and preparation exercise stages of change ranked health value significantly lower than participants in the action and maintenance exercise stages of change.Implications for theory and pratice and recommendations for future research are discussed.