• Relationship between sources of support and mother-infant bonding.

      Schwing, Stephanie (2012-04-16)
      Adult women who had become new mothers within the last year completed a brief demographic questionnaire the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support,and the Post Partum Bonding Questionnaire.Mother's perceived levels of (a)significant others,(b)family,and(c)friend support were examined in relation to their perceptions of (d)general impaired bonding,(e)rejection and anger, and (f)anxiety about care of their infants.The hypothesis that all three sources of perceived social support would negatively relate to problems in the bonding relationship was supported.However,the hypothesis that significant other support would be the most significant predictor for the bonding relationship was not supported.Only familial support uniquely related to the bonding relationship.
    • School Climate, Teacher Satisfaction, and Receptivity to Change

      Daar, Sherri Eaton-Bin (2010-09-22)
      The purpose of this study was to explore what school climate factors influence teacher job satisfaction and receptivity to change. A survey based upon current literature was developed to assess teacher perceptions of the factors which may influence job satisfaction and receptivity to change. A regression analysis was conducted to determine impact of the nine school climate factors on teacher job satisfaction. A second regression was conducted using the nine school climate domains and satisfaction to evaluate which factors had an impact on teacher receptivity to change. Study findings indicated that (a) study participants report there to be two factors which influence job satisfaction in an educational environment: administration and instructional management, (b) participants’ also reported there to be three factors which influence receptivity to change: administration, student academic orientation and student activities.
    • Self-efficacy and health value among undergraduates following a lifetime fitness course.

      Brown, Heather M (2012-04-20)
      The question of whether perceived self-efficacy for exercise and health value,respectively,varied as a function of gender and exercise stage of change was the focus of this study.An archival data set was used.Participants were 190 college students who completed a demographic questionnaire,the Exercise Stage of Change Questionnaire,the Rokeach Values Survey,and the Self-Efficacy for Exercise questionnaire before and after completing a lifetime fitness course.Two 2-factor analyses of covariance were conducted for each dependent varible,self-efficacy and health-value.Gender and exercise stage of change were the independent variables.Exercise stage of change was divided into four subcategories:contemplation,preparation,action nand maintenance.A pretest on each dependent variable served as the covariate.Results of the analysis indicated that health valuse scores were significantly different as a function of exercise stage of change.A significant main effect was found between health value and exercise stage of change.A sigificant main effect was found between health value and exercise stage of change.A Bryant Paulson procedure was performed to determine which of the four stages of change for exercise differed on health value scores.The analysis revealed that participants in the contemplation and preparation exercise stages of change ranked health value significantly lower than participants in the action and maintenance exercise stages of change.Implications for theory and pratice and recommendations for future research are discussed.
    • Stressors among first-generation college students:A retrospective inquiry

      Latus, Maryann Therese (2012-05-16)
      A multiple case study qualitative approach was used to examine the stressors among first-generation college students.The students were in their senior year at a medium-sized Midwestern public university.The researcher conducted two focus groups and a total of 10 in-depth interviews with first-generation college students.Several themes emerged from the data that was collected.The overarching themes that served as the primary framework for this study were stressors related to family,friends and the university.One of the major themes,how the participants coped with their particular stressors,is discussed in detail.The differences that were found between this group of first-generation college students and those researched in psst studies are noted.
    • Teacher Bullies: A Factorial Analysis of Perceptions of Teachers’ Bullying Behaviors

      Davies, Sally Walter (2011-09-22)
      Bullying in schools is a global phenomenon that can infringe upon the rights of students to learn and grow in a secure and fostering environment. Most of the past and current research on school bullying focuses on peer bullying, but there is a gap in the understanding of types and characteristics of bullying behaviors. This study centered on a type of abusive behavior that has received very limited attention: teachers bullying students. For the purpose of this study, the definition of teacher bullying behavior is a repeated pattern of conduct used to punish, manipulate, or disparage a student, rooted in a power differential. Such behaviors may threaten, harm, humiliate, induce fear, or cause substantial emotional distress and go beyond a reasonable disciplinary procedure. The goal of this research was to uncover categories of teacher bullying behaviors. A factor analysis was conducted on data gathered through a questionnaire created for this study. The questionnaire contains descriptions of teacher behaviors, which participants described as bullying or not bullying, as well as measures of the severity of the behavior. The sample included graduates of public or non-public high schools who are 18 years or older. Over half of the sample (64%, N = 332) reported that a teacher had bullied them at least once. The final factor analysis consisted of a two-factor solution. The two factors that emerged were based on severity of behaviors. The first factor represented particularly severe bullying behaviors, while the second factor signified behaviors considered to be mild to moderate bullying by teachers. Interestingly, bystanding behaviors by teachers loaded on the first factor, which indicate these types of behaviors were considered to be severe bullying.
    • Teacher Self-Efficacy Beliefs Related to Chronic Disruptive Behavior

      Jones, Kalinda R. (2011-09-20)
      In the current study, elementary teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs regarding working with students displaying chronic disruptive behavior (CDB) were explored. CDB was defined as persistent observable actions that have a negative impact on academic or social functioning. To address the infrequently researched construct of self-efficacy beliefs specific to teaching students exhibiting CDB, a modified version of the Teachers’ Sense of Efficacy Scale (short form) was used. Factor analysis results indicated the three self-efficacy factors of instructional strategies self-efficacy, classroom management self-efficacy, and student engagement self-efficacy. No significant relationships were found between each of the three types of teacher self-efficacy beliefs and the combination of the demographic variables of education level, years of teaching experience, and gender. No significant difference was found in self-efficacy beliefs among the teaching focus areas of general education, special education, and specialty education. Potential relationships were explored with each type of teacher self-efficacy beliefs and teachers’ current and past experience working with students displaying CDB, past training and desire for future professional development related to working with students with CDB, and perceived support when working with students displaying CDB. Past training and perceived support were significantly related to both instructional self-efficacy beliefs and student engagement self-efficacy beliefs. Previous experience, past training, and perceived support were significantly related to classroom management self-efficacy beliefs. Implications for research and practice regarding teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs when working with students displaying chronic disruptive behavior are discussed.
    • The anxiety of learning disabled school children with remedial instruction

      Coronado V, Marco A (2012-05-16)
      The purpose of the present study was to investigate the anxiety levels of elementary school learning disabled(LD)students provided with atleast one semester of remedial instruction.It was hypothesized that there would be a significant difference in anxiety levels between LD and regular education(RE) students.The variables were anxiety,grade level,and gender for the LD and RE students.A sample of 90 students from 3rd,4th and 5th grades were divided into the LD and RE groups.Students in the LD group had been provided with remedial instruction ranging from one to seven semesters with an average of three semesters.The student's anxiety was self-reported on the RCMAS.The LD and RE sets of scores were analyzed using a 3-way analysis of variance with the level of significance set at p < .05.The results indicate that,compared to non-LD,the LD students displayed significantly higher levels of general anxiety,worry,oversensitivity,social concerns,and concentrations difficulties.LD females displayed significantly higher levels of general anxiety,worry,and oversensitivity than LD male students.In addition,LD 5th grade females showed significantly higher levels of anxiety than LD 3rd and 4th grade male and female students.Moreover,LD and RE lower grade students did lie significantly more than upper grade students.
    • The effect of multicultural counseling training on multicultural sensitivity of graduate students.

      Field, Lucy Fukasawa (2012-05-16)
      This study was designed to investigate the effect of five weeks(45 hours)of multicultural counseling training on the multicultural sensitivity of graduate level students.The treatment group(12 students) received five weeks of intensive training designed to increase their awareness of multicultural issues and personal biases and limitations.The control groups(13 students)did not receive multicultural training,but did receive experiential training,related to leadership roles,in small groups.The Cross-Cultural Adaptability Inventory(potential for cross-cultural effectiveness,Inventory of Cross-Cultural Sensitivity)(level of cross-cultural sensitivity and experience) and 10 selected difficult critical incidents (ability to perceive cross-cultural interactions from a more open point of view) were administered pre and post-test.The Multicultural Counseling Survey(knowledge of special therapy needs and general cultural information about Blacks,Native Americans,Asians-Americans,and Hispanics) was administered post-test only.Two-tailed t tests were used to determine whether differences between treatment and control group means were statistically significant at the .05 confidence level.No differences were found between the treatment and control groups on ability to perceive cross-cultural interactions from a more open point of view,in levels of cross-cultural sensitivity and experience,or potential for cross-cultural effectiveness.The treatment group was found to have more knowledge of special therapy needs and general cultural information about Blacks,Native Americans,Asian Americans and Hispanics.It was concluded that a longer period of training may be necessary for behavioral manifestations of attitude change to become apparent and that useful information focusing on ethnic/minority groups can be conveyed to trainees systematically and in a relatively short period of time.
    • The effect of password management procedures on the entropy of user selected passwords.

      Enamait, John D (2012-05-21)
      Maintaining the security of information contained within computer systems poses challenges for users and administrators. Attacks on information systems continue to rise. Specifically, attacks that target user authentication are increasingly popular. These attacks are based on the common perception that traditional alphanumeric passwords are weak and susceptible to attack. As a result of attacks targeting alphanumeric passwords, different authentication methods have been proposed. Nonetheless, traditional alphanumeric-based passwords remain the most common form of user authentication and are expected to remain so for the foreseeable future. This study provided empirical data to determine if the entropy of user-selected passwords was affected by the use of password management software. This research also provided data to determine if efforts to increase user-awareness of password strength affected the selection of passwords. The research results revealed that the use of a password management application resulted in an increase in average password entropy, but at a level that was not significant. The research results also indicated that the use of a password management application when coupled with electronic secondary information awareness efforts did result in a significant increase in average password entropy. The research results further illustrated that the use of a password management application when coupled with verbal secondary information awareness efforts also resulted in a significant increase in average password entropy. Finally, this investigation determined that the use of password management software together with electronic and verbal secondary information user-awareness efforts resulted in an increase in password entropy.
    • The Impact of Acculturation on Self-Reported Measures of Self-Efficacy with International Counseling Students

      Leggett, Jonathan (2011-03-16)
      The purpose of this study was to investigate how acculturation strategies relate to self-reported ratings of self-efficacy for international counseling students. Acculturation strategy usage may provide an important insight into the self-efficacy estimates of international students. Forty-three participants were recruited via e-mail from counseling programs within the United States. Participants were briefly instructed regarding the online completion of a demographic questionnaire, the Abbreviated Multidimensional Acculturation Scale ([AMAS-ZABB] Zea, Asner-Self, Birman, & Buki, 2003), and the Counseling Self-Estimate Inventory ([COSE] Larson et al., 1992). Thirty-four participants completed the AMAS-ZABB and thirty-one participants completed the COSE. Findings revealed the most common acculturation style to be the integrated style, and significant relationships existed between international students‟ Orientation to Host culture and self-efficacy scores. Time in the United States was significantly related to international students‟ Orientation to Host culture.
    • The impact of extracurricular activities on academic performance for rural secondary students in Indiana.

      Wilcox, Michael Lee (2012-05-21)
      The purpose of this study was two-fold in nature. First, this study sought to identify whether extracurricular participation for students in a rural, Grades 7-12 building created significant differences when examining academic performance, attendance, gender, lunch status, and student discipline compared to their non-participant peers. Secondly, this study examined the impact extracurricular participation, attendance, gender, lunch status, and discipline has on academic performance for rural students. These three factors were then compared to determine the overall rank-order of impact on academic performance. Based on this study, there was a significant difference between extracurricular participants and non-participants in language arts standardized testing performance. There was a significant difference between extracurricular participants and non-participants in mathematics standardized testing performance. There was a significant difference between extracurricular participants and non-participants on the number of days not in attendance. There was a significant difference between extracurricular participants and non-participants on the number of student discipline contacts. Extracurricular participation, attendance rate, and number of discipline contacts were significant predictors for language arts standardized assessment scores. Gender and lunch status were not significant predictors of language arts standardized testing performance. Extracurricular participation, attendance rate, and number of discipline contacts were significant predictors for mathematics standardized assessment scores. Gender and lunch status were not significant predictors of mathematics standardized testing performance.
    • The Impact of Material Factors on Female Juvenile Delinquency Trends

      Price, Anne Marie (2010-09-22)
      This study examined the difference between female juvenile delinquents and nondelinquents in relationship to a combination of maternal factors (negative maternal behaviors, occupational stress, perceived social support, and maternal parenting stress). Participants were 128 biological mothers of daughters between the ages of 12 and 18 who were either mothers of clients or were clients themselves of a Midwest community health center in one of several clinics in Martinsville, Mooresville, Bedford, Bloomington, and Spencer, Indiana. Participants completed six questionnaires, including: the Demographics Questionnaire, the Maternal Behavior Index, the Adolescent Behavior Survey, the Occupational Crisis Survey, the Duke Social Support Inventory, and the Maternal Parenting Measure of Stress. A discriminate function analysis was conducted to determine if the maternal factors of negative maternal behaviors, occupational stress, perceived social support, and maternal parenting stress could be used to predict membership in the following groups for female adolescents: delinquents and nondelinquents. Results indicated that mothers who reported more negative behaviors, perceived less social support, and felt more parenting stress were more apt to have daughters who engaged in delinquent acts.
    • THE IMPACT OF TRAINING ON MUSIC THERAPISTS’ SONGWRITING KNOWLEDGE, SELF-EFFICACY, AND BEHAVIOR

      Richardson, Tracy G. (2011-07-20)
      Songwriting has been used as an effective intervention for persons with a wide range of therapeutic needs. However, a literature search revealed that songwriting is underrepresented in the music therapy research literature, indicating that music therapists may perceive they do not have the abilities to effectively use songwriting interventions in therapy sessions. The purposes of this study were: (a) to investigate the impact of a songwriting training session on the songwriting knowledge, self-efficacy, and behavior of music therapists; (b) to evaluate the songwriting training program; and (c) to explore the impact of the training on perceived barriers and clinical practice. Participants were 32 board-certified music therapists who chose to attend a songwriting training session between November 2009 and April 2010. The 32 participants completed a pre-test, attended a five-hour songwriting training session, and completed a post-test. However, only 17 of the 32 persisted through all phases of the study by submitting the follow-up test six weeks after the training. Results showed a statistically significant increase in songwriting knowledge, self-efficacy, and behavior from pre-test to follow-up. Additionally, change in knowledge was found to predict change in self-efficacy from pre-test to post-test but not from pre-test to follow-up. Participants reported being highly satisfied with the training. Thematic analysis of open-ended questions confirmed the quantitative results, with participants indicating a positive impact of songwriting training on perceived barriers and clinical practice. Implications for clinical practice and recommendations for future research are discussed.
    • The perception of teachers toward the use of mobile technology as a tool to engage students in learning.

      Goad, Kathryn Dawn (2012-05-21)
      The purpose of this study was to gauge the perception of teachers on the use of mobile technology, specifically cell phones, as an instructional tool to engage students in learning. Cell phones are the most ubiquitous piece of technology in the world. Their multiple functions can put the most up-to-date information at the fingertips of the user. However, schools have been slow to embrace these devices out of fear and ignorance on how to use their capabilities. Research is limited on this subject; most coming from cell phone manufacturers and related service providers. The opportunity to explore this technology tool as an instructional aid and provide educators with data to support the use of the cell phone in the classroom was both timely and evoking. The study queried 500 public school teachers in the Midwest on their proficiency with technology, their perception of the importance in using technology, their opinions on using technology in the classroom, and their specific integration of cell phones in their lessons. Of the respondents, 28.5% had experience using cell phones in the classroom. This was in comparison to national statistics of 75% of students having daily access to a phone. A Mann-Whitney U test found no significant difference between STEM teachers and teachers of other disciplines in their perceptions of the importance of using technology in the classroom. However, when conducting a t-test with the same two groups of teachers there was a significant difference in their ability to design and access lessons using technology. STEM teachers rated themselves at a higher skill level than did the teachers of other disciplines.A Pearson correlation examined the relationship between teacher comfort level with technology and the teacher’s ability to design and access lessons using technology. A significant, positive relationship was found in that as the level of technology use increased the teacher ability to design and access lessons increased. With an r value of .742 this correlation was considered strong. The question posed was “Are levels of student engagement different based on the frequency of integration of technology?” Through the use of a one-way ANOVA there was no significant difference in student engagement based on the frequency of its use. A multiple regression was used to determine which of the nine proficiency indicators serve as predictors for student engagement. Two proficiencies, “using software productivity tools” and “locating learning opportunities needed to advance my technology skills” were both found to be significant negative predictors, and “proficiency of troubleshooting problems that occur when using technology” was a significant positive predictor of student engagement. Student engagement was discussed through the summary of experience responses of 44 teachers surveyed. These written responses provided depth to the study when investigating teacher perceptions of student engagement when cell phones are used as an instructional tool.