• Teacher Bullies: A Factorial Analysis of Perceptions of Teachers’ Bullying Behaviors

      Davies, Sally Walter (2011-09-22)
      Bullying in schools is a global phenomenon that can infringe upon the rights of students to learn and grow in a secure and fostering environment. Most of the past and current research on school bullying focuses on peer bullying, but there is a gap in the understanding of types and characteristics of bullying behaviors. This study centered on a type of abusive behavior that has received very limited attention: teachers bullying students. For the purpose of this study, the definition of teacher bullying behavior is a repeated pattern of conduct used to punish, manipulate, or disparage a student, rooted in a power differential. Such behaviors may threaten, harm, humiliate, induce fear, or cause substantial emotional distress and go beyond a reasonable disciplinary procedure. The goal of this research was to uncover categories of teacher bullying behaviors. A factor analysis was conducted on data gathered through a questionnaire created for this study. The questionnaire contains descriptions of teacher behaviors, which participants described as bullying or not bullying, as well as measures of the severity of the behavior. The sample included graduates of public or non-public high schools who are 18 years or older. Over half of the sample (64%, N = 332) reported that a teacher had bullied them at least once. The final factor analysis consisted of a two-factor solution. The two factors that emerged were based on severity of behaviors. The first factor represented particularly severe bullying behaviors, while the second factor signified behaviors considered to be mild to moderate bullying by teachers. Interestingly, bystanding behaviors by teachers loaded on the first factor, which indicate these types of behaviors were considered to be severe bullying.
    • Teacher Self-Efficacy Beliefs Related to Chronic Disruptive Behavior

      Jones, Kalinda R. (2011-09-20)
      In the current study, elementary teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs regarding working with students displaying chronic disruptive behavior (CDB) were explored. CDB was defined as persistent observable actions that have a negative impact on academic or social functioning. To address the infrequently researched construct of self-efficacy beliefs specific to teaching students exhibiting CDB, a modified version of the Teachers’ Sense of Efficacy Scale (short form) was used. Factor analysis results indicated the three self-efficacy factors of instructional strategies self-efficacy, classroom management self-efficacy, and student engagement self-efficacy. No significant relationships were found between each of the three types of teacher self-efficacy beliefs and the combination of the demographic variables of education level, years of teaching experience, and gender. No significant difference was found in self-efficacy beliefs among the teaching focus areas of general education, special education, and specialty education. Potential relationships were explored with each type of teacher self-efficacy beliefs and teachers’ current and past experience working with students displaying CDB, past training and desire for future professional development related to working with students with CDB, and perceived support when working with students displaying CDB. Past training and perceived support were significantly related to both instructional self-efficacy beliefs and student engagement self-efficacy beliefs. Previous experience, past training, and perceived support were significantly related to classroom management self-efficacy beliefs. Implications for research and practice regarding teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs when working with students displaying chronic disruptive behavior are discussed.
    • The anxiety of learning disabled school children with remedial instruction

      Coronado V, Marco A (2012-05-16)
      The purpose of the present study was to investigate the anxiety levels of elementary school learning disabled(LD)students provided with atleast one semester of remedial instruction.It was hypothesized that there would be a significant difference in anxiety levels between LD and regular education(RE) students.The variables were anxiety,grade level,and gender for the LD and RE students.A sample of 90 students from 3rd,4th and 5th grades were divided into the LD and RE groups.Students in the LD group had been provided with remedial instruction ranging from one to seven semesters with an average of three semesters.The student's anxiety was self-reported on the RCMAS.The LD and RE sets of scores were analyzed using a 3-way analysis of variance with the level of significance set at p < .05.The results indicate that,compared to non-LD,the LD students displayed significantly higher levels of general anxiety,worry,oversensitivity,social concerns,and concentrations difficulties.LD females displayed significantly higher levels of general anxiety,worry,and oversensitivity than LD male students.In addition,LD 5th grade females showed significantly higher levels of anxiety than LD 3rd and 4th grade male and female students.Moreover,LD and RE lower grade students did lie significantly more than upper grade students.
    • The effect of multicultural counseling training on multicultural sensitivity of graduate students.

      Field, Lucy Fukasawa (2012-05-16)
      This study was designed to investigate the effect of five weeks(45 hours)of multicultural counseling training on the multicultural sensitivity of graduate level students.The treatment group(12 students) received five weeks of intensive training designed to increase their awareness of multicultural issues and personal biases and limitations.The control groups(13 students)did not receive multicultural training,but did receive experiential training,related to leadership roles,in small groups.The Cross-Cultural Adaptability Inventory(potential for cross-cultural effectiveness,Inventory of Cross-Cultural Sensitivity)(level of cross-cultural sensitivity and experience) and 10 selected difficult critical incidents (ability to perceive cross-cultural interactions from a more open point of view) were administered pre and post-test.The Multicultural Counseling Survey(knowledge of special therapy needs and general cultural information about Blacks,Native Americans,Asians-Americans,and Hispanics) was administered post-test only.Two-tailed t tests were used to determine whether differences between treatment and control group means were statistically significant at the .05 confidence level.No differences were found between the treatment and control groups on ability to perceive cross-cultural interactions from a more open point of view,in levels of cross-cultural sensitivity and experience,or potential for cross-cultural effectiveness.The treatment group was found to have more knowledge of special therapy needs and general cultural information about Blacks,Native Americans,Asian Americans and Hispanics.It was concluded that a longer period of training may be necessary for behavioral manifestations of attitude change to become apparent and that useful information focusing on ethnic/minority groups can be conveyed to trainees systematically and in a relatively short period of time.
    • The effect of password management procedures on the entropy of user selected passwords.

      Enamait, John D (2012-05-21)
      Maintaining the security of information contained within computer systems poses challenges for users and administrators. Attacks on information systems continue to rise. Specifically, attacks that target user authentication are increasingly popular. These attacks are based on the common perception that traditional alphanumeric passwords are weak and susceptible to attack. As a result of attacks targeting alphanumeric passwords, different authentication methods have been proposed. Nonetheless, traditional alphanumeric-based passwords remain the most common form of user authentication and are expected to remain so for the foreseeable future. This study provided empirical data to determine if the entropy of user-selected passwords was affected by the use of password management software. This research also provided data to determine if efforts to increase user-awareness of password strength affected the selection of passwords. The research results revealed that the use of a password management application resulted in an increase in average password entropy, but at a level that was not significant. The research results also indicated that the use of a password management application when coupled with electronic secondary information awareness efforts did result in a significant increase in average password entropy. The research results further illustrated that the use of a password management application when coupled with verbal secondary information awareness efforts also resulted in a significant increase in average password entropy. Finally, this investigation determined that the use of password management software together with electronic and verbal secondary information user-awareness efforts resulted in an increase in password entropy.
    • The Impact of Acculturation on Self-Reported Measures of Self-Efficacy with International Counseling Students

      Leggett, Jonathan (2011-03-16)
      The purpose of this study was to investigate how acculturation strategies relate to self-reported ratings of self-efficacy for international counseling students. Acculturation strategy usage may provide an important insight into the self-efficacy estimates of international students. Forty-three participants were recruited via e-mail from counseling programs within the United States. Participants were briefly instructed regarding the online completion of a demographic questionnaire, the Abbreviated Multidimensional Acculturation Scale ([AMAS-ZABB] Zea, Asner-Self, Birman, & Buki, 2003), and the Counseling Self-Estimate Inventory ([COSE] Larson et al., 1992). Thirty-four participants completed the AMAS-ZABB and thirty-one participants completed the COSE. Findings revealed the most common acculturation style to be the integrated style, and significant relationships existed between international students‟ Orientation to Host culture and self-efficacy scores. Time in the United States was significantly related to international students‟ Orientation to Host culture.
    • The impact of extracurricular activities on academic performance for rural secondary students in Indiana.

      Wilcox, Michael Lee (2012-05-21)
      The purpose of this study was two-fold in nature. First, this study sought to identify whether extracurricular participation for students in a rural, Grades 7-12 building created significant differences when examining academic performance, attendance, gender, lunch status, and student discipline compared to their non-participant peers. Secondly, this study examined the impact extracurricular participation, attendance, gender, lunch status, and discipline has on academic performance for rural students. These three factors were then compared to determine the overall rank-order of impact on academic performance. Based on this study, there was a significant difference between extracurricular participants and non-participants in language arts standardized testing performance. There was a significant difference between extracurricular participants and non-participants in mathematics standardized testing performance. There was a significant difference between extracurricular participants and non-participants on the number of days not in attendance. There was a significant difference between extracurricular participants and non-participants on the number of student discipline contacts. Extracurricular participation, attendance rate, and number of discipline contacts were significant predictors for language arts standardized assessment scores. Gender and lunch status were not significant predictors of language arts standardized testing performance. Extracurricular participation, attendance rate, and number of discipline contacts were significant predictors for mathematics standardized assessment scores. Gender and lunch status were not significant predictors of mathematics standardized testing performance.
    • The Impact of Material Factors on Female Juvenile Delinquency Trends

      Price, Anne Marie (2010-09-22)
      This study examined the difference between female juvenile delinquents and nondelinquents in relationship to a combination of maternal factors (negative maternal behaviors, occupational stress, perceived social support, and maternal parenting stress). Participants were 128 biological mothers of daughters between the ages of 12 and 18 who were either mothers of clients or were clients themselves of a Midwest community health center in one of several clinics in Martinsville, Mooresville, Bedford, Bloomington, and Spencer, Indiana. Participants completed six questionnaires, including: the Demographics Questionnaire, the Maternal Behavior Index, the Adolescent Behavior Survey, the Occupational Crisis Survey, the Duke Social Support Inventory, and the Maternal Parenting Measure of Stress. A discriminate function analysis was conducted to determine if the maternal factors of negative maternal behaviors, occupational stress, perceived social support, and maternal parenting stress could be used to predict membership in the following groups for female adolescents: delinquents and nondelinquents. Results indicated that mothers who reported more negative behaviors, perceived less social support, and felt more parenting stress were more apt to have daughters who engaged in delinquent acts.
    • THE IMPACT OF TRAINING ON MUSIC THERAPISTS’ SONGWRITING KNOWLEDGE, SELF-EFFICACY, AND BEHAVIOR

      Richardson, Tracy G. (2011-07-20)
      Songwriting has been used as an effective intervention for persons with a wide range of therapeutic needs. However, a literature search revealed that songwriting is underrepresented in the music therapy research literature, indicating that music therapists may perceive they do not have the abilities to effectively use songwriting interventions in therapy sessions. The purposes of this study were: (a) to investigate the impact of a songwriting training session on the songwriting knowledge, self-efficacy, and behavior of music therapists; (b) to evaluate the songwriting training program; and (c) to explore the impact of the training on perceived barriers and clinical practice. Participants were 32 board-certified music therapists who chose to attend a songwriting training session between November 2009 and April 2010. The 32 participants completed a pre-test, attended a five-hour songwriting training session, and completed a post-test. However, only 17 of the 32 persisted through all phases of the study by submitting the follow-up test six weeks after the training. Results showed a statistically significant increase in songwriting knowledge, self-efficacy, and behavior from pre-test to follow-up. Additionally, change in knowledge was found to predict change in self-efficacy from pre-test to post-test but not from pre-test to follow-up. Participants reported being highly satisfied with the training. Thematic analysis of open-ended questions confirmed the quantitative results, with participants indicating a positive impact of songwriting training on perceived barriers and clinical practice. Implications for clinical practice and recommendations for future research are discussed.
    • The perception of teachers toward the use of mobile technology as a tool to engage students in learning.

      Goad, Kathryn Dawn (2012-05-21)
      The purpose of this study was to gauge the perception of teachers on the use of mobile technology, specifically cell phones, as an instructional tool to engage students in learning. Cell phones are the most ubiquitous piece of technology in the world. Their multiple functions can put the most up-to-date information at the fingertips of the user. However, schools have been slow to embrace these devices out of fear and ignorance on how to use their capabilities. Research is limited on this subject; most coming from cell phone manufacturers and related service providers. The opportunity to explore this technology tool as an instructional aid and provide educators with data to support the use of the cell phone in the classroom was both timely and evoking. The study queried 500 public school teachers in the Midwest on their proficiency with technology, their perception of the importance in using technology, their opinions on using technology in the classroom, and their specific integration of cell phones in their lessons. Of the respondents, 28.5% had experience using cell phones in the classroom. This was in comparison to national statistics of 75% of students having daily access to a phone. A Mann-Whitney U test found no significant difference between STEM teachers and teachers of other disciplines in their perceptions of the importance of using technology in the classroom. However, when conducting a t-test with the same two groups of teachers there was a significant difference in their ability to design and access lessons using technology. STEM teachers rated themselves at a higher skill level than did the teachers of other disciplines.A Pearson correlation examined the relationship between teacher comfort level with technology and the teacher’s ability to design and access lessons using technology. A significant, positive relationship was found in that as the level of technology use increased the teacher ability to design and access lessons increased. With an r value of .742 this correlation was considered strong. The question posed was “Are levels of student engagement different based on the frequency of integration of technology?” Through the use of a one-way ANOVA there was no significant difference in student engagement based on the frequency of its use. A multiple regression was used to determine which of the nine proficiency indicators serve as predictors for student engagement. Two proficiencies, “using software productivity tools” and “locating learning opportunities needed to advance my technology skills” were both found to be significant negative predictors, and “proficiency of troubleshooting problems that occur when using technology” was a significant positive predictor of student engagement. Student engagement was discussed through the summary of experience responses of 44 teachers surveyed. These written responses provided depth to the study when investigating teacher perceptions of student engagement when cell phones are used as an instructional tool.
    • The problem of extra-curricular activities in a modern high school

      Brill, Goldie Vivian (2013-04-23)
      Not available.
    • The Relationship of Depression with Intrinsic and Extrinsic Components of Religiosity in The Older Adult Female

      Nuval, Jacqueline Anne (2010-07-20)
      The purpose of this doctoral research was to determine whether religious activity and general health would predict depression in older adult women living alone in the community who are widowed, divorced, separated, or never married. Variables considered included intrinsic and extrinsic components of religiosity, level of depression, anxiety and panic attacks, general health, and a group of behaviors classified as Religious Attitudes and Behaviors (RAB), which considered importance of religion, religious participation, regularity of religious observance, and religious organization/social support. Components of extrinsic religiosity and intrinsic religiosity were measured by Intrinsic/Extrinsic – Revised (I/E-R). Levels of depression were measured by the Center for Epidemiological Studies in Depression (CES-D). A demographic questionnaire measured the other variables. Of the 118 participants, 82 fit the research criteria, which was that they were over 65 years old, unmarried, living independently and without roommates, not working, and having had no hospitalization within the past two years. A simultaneous regression of this sample resulted in self-perception of health being the only predictor of depression.
    • The relative effectiveness of two cognitive intervention approaches with attention deficit disordered children.

      Conner, E.June (2012-05-16)
      This study was designed to evaluate the differential treatment efficacy of traditional cognitive behavior modification(CBM),cognitive skill training(CST),and a tutorial control condition in modifying the cognitive style,academic achievement,and behavioral control of elementary-age attention deficit disordered(ADD)children.A review of the cognitive training literature suggested that,while traditional CBM programs are often effective in increasing performance on cognitive processing measures in the laboratory,little effect is noted in the natural environment.The CST condition attempted to promote increased transfer of skills by training an intermediate-level,academically relevant set of content/process skills emphasizing metacognitive awareness and control.Subjects included 33 children enrolled in grades one through six in area schools.Subjects were rigorously screened to meet the criterion of ADD.All subjects were tested on the ll variables under consideration immediately prior to treatment,immediately subsequent to intervention,and six months following treatment.Treatment for all three groups(CBM,N-13;CST,N-13;Control,N-7)was conducted over a seven-week period with a total training time for each group of approximately 42 hours.The statistical procedure used to analyze the data was a 3(groups)X3(repeated measures)analysis of variance.Separate ANOVAS were carried out on the eleven variables under consideration.The variables included cognitive processing variables of impulse control error(MFFT),impulse control latency(MFFT),and field articulation(CEFT).Academic achievement variables consisted of the five subtests and the total score of the PIAT.Behavioral control variables included self-control(SCRS)and hyperactivity(parent CRS).The statistical analysis revealed that there were essentially no significant interactions favoring the cognitive training methods.The only finding which was significant involved the reading comprehension variable,where there was a significant decrement in scores by the control group at posttesting.Based on the results of this study,it was concluded that neither the CBM nor the CST approach to cognitive training offers clear-cut advantages over more traditional methods at the present time.However,clinical evidence of the incremental value of the cognitive methods over the tutorial procedure led to recommendations for increasing the statistical power and utilizing more sensitive dependent measures in evaluating cognitive training efforts.
    • The Risk Factors of Alcohol Abuse Among College Athletes

      Jones, Jacob (2011-09-20)
      Self-concept theory was used as a theoretical basis to investigate the utility of social norms alcohol prevention programs designed for college athletes. The predictive relationship among alcohol use and athletic identity, competitiveness, drinking game participation, and level of sport participation was investigated. It was discovered that drinking game participation is a significant predictor of total weekly alcohol use above and beyond the other predictors. In addition, drinking game participation and organized recreational sport participation were significant predictors of total binge drinking episodes. While controlling for drinking game participation and competitiveness, no significant differences were found in the amount of alcohol consumed by the participants in different levels of sport participation (intramural, intercollegiate, organized recreational, other sport). It was demonstrated that individuals not currently participating in sports with an athletic identity in the same range as current athletes consumed alcohol at similar rates to current athletes, thus supporting athletic identity as an appropriate way of classifying athlete status. These results highlight the importance of drinking game participation in the alcohol use of college athletes and the validity of applying self-concept theory to social norms alcohol prevention programs.
    • Unemployment and Marital Quality in Single- and Two-Earner Marriages

      Bland, Andrew M. (2014-03-18)
      A need was recognized for a broad-based quantitative study on the impact of unemployment upon marital relationship quality in light of recent societal changes and the current economic climate. Recently, researchers have suggested that unemployment is less severe in partnerships that reflect progressive shifts in values and expectations within marital relationships. It was worth exploring whether this claim generalized across a broader sample of contemporary marriages, including those that uphold more traditional values. An ex post facto correlational design was used to assess how unemployment impacts marital quality in single breadwinner vs. dual-earner couples in the current economy. Participants were recruited nationwide to complete an online questionnaire consisting of a demographic questionnaire and two measures of marital quality, the Dyadic Adjustment Scale and the Revised Kansas Marital Satisfaction Scale. A canonical correlation analysis was utilized to assess the degree to which participants’ beliefs about marital roles, levels of education, duration of marriage, duration of unemployment, and frequency of unemployment affected marital quality when a spouse loses work. The canonical correlation model was not significant. The results of follow-up repeated measures ANOVAs suggested that most participants were under-satisfied with their marriages at present; however, faith in and commitment to the relationship (as evidenced by a high degree of satisfaction with how the relationship developed since it began) seemed to sustain marriages despite short-term obstacles. In addition, Pearson product moment correlations suggested that generational and socioeconomic differences may have impacted the model.
    • Using Growth Rate of Reading Fluency to Predict Performance on Statewide Achievement Tests

      Hinkle, Rachelle Whittaker (2011-09-20)
      Federal legislation has prescribed the increased use of statewide achievement tests as the culmination of a student’s knowledge and ability at the end of a grade level; however, schools need to be able to predict those who are at-risk of performing poorly on these high-stakes tests. Three studies served to identify a means of predicting statewide achievement test scores in either third or eighth grade based on CBM reading scores and rates of improvement at first, second, and third grades or third, fourth, and fifth grades using readily available statistical procedures. One-half of the third-grade data was used in Study 1, while the prediction equation generated in Study 1 was validated on the second half in Study 2. The results of Study 1 indicated that, of the sample of over 1,200 third-grade students who took the third-grade statewide achievement test, the second- and third-grade spring CBM reading scores explained the highest amount of variability in third-grade reading scores; however, reading rate of improvement was also significant. The prediction equation from Study 1 was cross-validated in Study 2 on over 1,200 third-grade students, which indicated that there was more than 95 percent concordance that those who were predicted to pass the third-grade statewide test did pass. However, when using the second-grade spring cut score of 90 words read correctly per minute, the accuracy of prediction was diminished. In Study 3, using nearly 250 eighth-grade students’ scores, reading fluency scores in third, fourth and fifth grades explained approximately 30 percent of statewide achievement test scores; however, rate of improvement was not significant in any of the grades.