• A study of the effects of fieldbus network inducted delays on control systems.

      Mianoo, Joseph (2012-05-21)
      Fieldbus networks are all-digital, two-way, multi-drop communication systems that are used to connect field devices such as sensors and actuators, and controllers. These fieldbus network systems are also called networked control systems (NCS). Although, there are different varieties of fieldbus networks such as Foundation Field Bus, DeviceNet, and Profibus available in the automation industries, Controller Area Network (CAN) is more widely accepted in automotive applications. The growing popularity of, and demand for, fieldbus networks can be attributed to several advantages they have, such as: reduction in capital costs, interoperability, and greater system functionality. However, as the complexity of modern fieldbus systems continue to increase, the concern on performance, reliability, and security also increases. To better reflect on this concern, the fieldbus based control systems should be extensively studied using simulations before implementing them in hardware. Network induced delays that may result from the bus arbitration schemes of the messages is an issue that needs investigation for these fieldbus networks. The impact of these delays on control system performance measures such as peak overshoot and settling time needs investigation. The purpose of this research was to study the causes of fieldbus network induced delays and their effects on control systems. The existence and causes for network induced delays were studied by other researchers. Previous delay analyses used analytical and stochastic methods to establish relationships for delays. This dissertation, however, uses statistical analysis methods to study the effect of various CAN parameters on network delays. The data for the statistical analysis was obtained from simulations. Though the literature indicates use of general purpose simulation tools such as OPNET, OMNeT++, and Network II, there exist simulation tools that are designed specifically to address a particular type of fieldbus such as CAN. The research in this dissertation uses such a tool called CANoe for simulating an automobile system. The impact of these delays on control system performance was studied by other research on Proportional Integral (PI) controllers. This dissertation extends these studies to Proportional Integral and Derivative (PID) controllers. In this dissertation, the causes of network delays and how these delays are affected by CAN parameters such as baud rate, bus load, and message length were investigated using CANoe simulations of an automobile system. The statistical techniques of descriptive statistics, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to analyze data obtained for this part of the study. The findings of the ANOVA analysis revealed that CAN parameters have effect on CAN message delays. The effect of fieldbus network induced delays on control system performance such as stability and step-response for different PI and PID controllers were studied using a DC motor model. The delays considered were sensor-to-controller delay and controller-to-actuator delay. MATLAB/Simulink tools were used to analyze the effects of these delays. From this study, it was observed that fieldbus network induced delays have an effect on control systems stability and performance as described by the system step response. The results of this performance evaluation will be useful to design PID controller gains, and to verify how sensitive the control loops are under various time delays.
    • Adoptive Parents’ Perceptions of Their Open Versus Closed Adoptions

      Nebol, Begum (2011-09-20)
      The author presents a research study on adoptive parents’ perceptions of their own open versus closed adoptions. The main research interest behind this study was to identify similarities and differences between open versus closed adoption methods. Thus, this paper offers description and exploratory analysis of the adoption literature as well as discussion of the findings of this research study.

      Wiggins, Keya (2011-07-20)
      The “N-word” has been a pop-culture topic of interest which has fueled many heated discussions within the African American community. Given the history of the word nigger in America, the use of the word nigga among some African Americans may cause confusion among those who do not understand the phenomenon of African Americans‟ perceptions of the “N-word.” The present research was conducted to explore the phenomenon of African Americans‟ perceptions of both the words nigger and nigga in the context of racial identity attitudes. A primarily qualitative embedded mixed method model was utilized to gather information about feelings of group membership and African Americans‟ perceptions of the words nigger and nigga. The Cross Racial Identity Scale (CRIS) was used to identify participant‟s racial identity attitudes, and all of the participants in this study strongly agreed with attitudes associated with internalized identities. A qualitative analysis resulted in three themes including: (a) nigger is a universally negative and unacceptable term, (b) nigga is acceptable when used by African Americans, and (c) the public use of nigga is inappropriate. An overall profile interpretation of each identity type resulted in the finding that several of the attitudes associated with Cross‟s Nigrescence Theory, specifically assimilation, racial self hatred, anti-White, Afrocentric, and multiculturalist inclusive, were reflected in the qualitative themes. Implications for theory, research, and practice are addressed.
    • An analysis of techniques involved in addition of two one-figure numbers

      Kreager, Robert Norman (2013-04-09)
      Not Available.
    • An Investigation of Predictors of Nclex-Rn Outcomes on the First-Attempt Among Standardized Tests

      Yeom, Yeijin (2012-10-22)
      Nursing shortage is one of the critical issues in the United States. In order to meet increased demands for qualified RNs and prevent negative effects on graduates, nursing programs, stakeholders, and society from graduates’ NCLEX-RN failure, it is important to support nursing students to succeed on the NCLEX-RN. By utilizing effective NCLEX-RN predictors, students at risk for NCLEX-RN failure can be identified, and early remediation can be provided to support them. This study was to investigate effective predictors of NCLEX-RN outcomes on the first-attempt among standardized tests (adult medical-surgical, fundamentals for nursing, pharmacology, maternal-newborn, nursing care of children, mental health, community health, and leadership and management) conducted throughout the nursing program. NCLEX-RN outcomes and individual adjusted scores on the standardized tests of 151 participants, who were composed of 118 graduates who passed the NCLEX-RN on the first-attempt and 33 graduates who failed the NCLEX-RN on the first-attempt, were analyzed by a t-test and logistic regression. The investigation found that there were significant statistical differences between the two groups with NCLEX-RN success and failure in the individual adjusted scores on the adult medical-surgical, pharmacology, maternal-newborn, mental-health, community health, and leadership and management standardized tests. Only in individual adjusted scores on the fundamental and nursing care of children standardized tests, there were no significant statistical differences between the two groups. In addition, the result of logistic regression indicated that the overall regression models were significant in predicting both NCLEX-RN success and failure. Adult medical-surgical, pharmacology, and community health standardized tests were central in the prediction of both NCLEX-RN success and failure; however, a much lower percentage of NCLEX-RN failure than success was classified. It can be concluded that the adult medical-surgical, pharmacology, and community health standardized tests were less effective to predict NCLEX-RN failure than NCLEX-RN success. It is recommended to use different standardized test products as variables, have a larger sample size of those who fail the NCLEX-RN, have a more diverse group of participants, and continue longitudinal and replicated studies for future studies.
    • An Investigation of the Reliability and Validity of the Caperton Forgiveness Styles Inventory

      Caperton, Duane (2009-08-26)
      This research was an investigation into the process of forgiveness. The analysis of qualitative interviews with nearly 100 participants suggested four different approaches, or styles, of forgiving and non-forgiving. The Intrapersonal style describes people who forgive other people by focusing on their own thoughts, feelings, and actions. The Interpersonal style describes people who forgive other people by focusing on the thoughts, feelings, and actions of the offending persons. The Easy Going style describes the people who never forgive anyone because they rarely or never feel offended and consequently rarely or never feel the need to forgive others. The Grudge Holder style describes people who rarely or never forgive anyone because they generally prefer to hold on to the offense for various reasons. The 26 item Pilot CFSI inventory was investigated for reliability and for convergent and divergent validity in a sample composed of 131 undergraduate and graduate students. Cronbachs’ alphas of the scales showed the Pilot Caperton Forgiveness Style Inventory (CFSI) inventory to be internally consistent. Multiple regressions of CFSI scale results with IPIP Five Factor Model of Personality inventories, Fear-of-Intimacy relationship anxiety inventories, and demographic information demonstrated appropriate divergent validity for the scales. These results along with a varimax rotation factor analysis led to an 18 item Revised CFSI and a three item Humility scale which clearly mediated the forgiving process in some as yet to be determined way and was wholly unrelated to the non- iv forgiving styles. The Intrapersonal forgivers tended to score high on Openness and somewhat higher on Agreeableness and Conscientiousness. They also scored low on fear of intimate relationships. Individuals who reported being “very active in religion” were the only group which showed a preference for the Intrapersonal style. The Interpersonal forgivers tended to score high on Neuroticism, Extroversion, and Conscientiousness, and they also tended to score low on fear of intimate relationships. The Easy Going non-forgivers scored low on Neuroticism, but scored high on fear of intimate relationships. Males were more likely to score high on Easy Going than any other demographic group. The Grudge Holders tended to score high on Neuroticism and low on Agreeableness, and they were high on fear of intimate relationships. The Caperton Forgiveness Style Inventory is a valid and reliable assessment tool of styles of forgiveness and is appropriate for both clinical and research uses.
    • An open framework for low-latency communications across the smart grid network

      Sturm, John Andrew (2012-05-21)
      The recent White House (2011) policy paper for the Smart Grid that was released on June 13, 2011, A Policy Framework for the 21st Century Grid: Enabling Our Secure Energy Future, defines four major problems to be solved and the one that is addressed in this dissertation is Securing the Grid. Securing the Grid is referred to as one of the four pillars to be built on an open technology framework. The problem of securing the grid is further defined that cybersecurity practices must provide the special, low-latency communications needed for real-time automation control (White House, 2011, p. 49). The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is tasked with development of the cybersecurity communication standards through establishment of the NIST Cybersecurity Working Group (CSWG). NIST CSWG further states that low-latency is critical for automation control on the Smart Grid (NISTIR-Vol.3, 2010). The research and experimental planning for the solution tested in this dissertation provide low-latency through a system of open protocols that include HMAC keys (Hashed Message Authentication Code) and cryptographic identification for real-time control across the Smart Grid. It is serendipitous that HMAC keys (Hashed Message Authentication Code) can be processed very fast so there is little delay/latency added to the overall file transfer process (Goutis et al, 2005). In addition the research results offer guidance on the additional latency of AES versus Blowfish encryption algorithms for file transfers.