• Teacher Bullies: A Factorial Analysis of Perceptions of Teachers’ Bullying Behaviors

      Davies, Sally Walter (2011-09-22)
      Bullying in schools is a global phenomenon that can infringe upon the rights of students to learn and grow in a secure and fostering environment. Most of the past and current research on school bullying focuses on peer bullying, but there is a gap in the understanding of types and characteristics of bullying behaviors. This study centered on a type of abusive behavior that has received very limited attention: teachers bullying students. For the purpose of this study, the definition of teacher bullying behavior is a repeated pattern of conduct used to punish, manipulate, or disparage a student, rooted in a power differential. Such behaviors may threaten, harm, humiliate, induce fear, or cause substantial emotional distress and go beyond a reasonable disciplinary procedure. The goal of this research was to uncover categories of teacher bullying behaviors. A factor analysis was conducted on data gathered through a questionnaire created for this study. The questionnaire contains descriptions of teacher behaviors, which participants described as bullying or not bullying, as well as measures of the severity of the behavior. The sample included graduates of public or non-public high schools who are 18 years or older. Over half of the sample (64%, N = 332) reported that a teacher had bullied them at least once. The final factor analysis consisted of a two-factor solution. The two factors that emerged were based on severity of behaviors. The first factor represented particularly severe bullying behaviors, while the second factor signified behaviors considered to be mild to moderate bullying by teachers. Interestingly, bystanding behaviors by teachers loaded on the first factor, which indicate these types of behaviors were considered to be severe bullying.
    • Assured Identity for The Cloud

      Daniels, Jeff (2011-09-22)
      It has been widely reported the largest security concerns with cloud computing design and implementation are centered on identity and access management. Pearson (2009) identifies open security challenges such as where processing takes place, auditability of transactions, and data sensitivity in distributed systems. Cloud computing builds on prior research in virtualization, distributed computing, utility computing, networking, and web services (Vouk, 2008). A recent study conducted by the Office of Homeland Security found that cyber security is a national problem (Homeland Security, 2009). The study recommended that ―managing identities‖ must be part of a comprehensive national cyber security strategy. The Department of Defense Cyber, Identity, and Information Assurance Strategic Plan calls for systems and security to be united. In this research project, an approach to enabling assured identity and access management controls specifically in cloud computing environments was evaluated. The research designed and implemented the Assured Identity Management Systems (AIMS) using the systems engineering process (SEP). The evaluation of use cases and sequence diagrams demonstrated the capability for identity assurance with lifecycle events in cloud computing environments. The dissertation study designed an extensible model including requirements, use cases, context diagrams, sequence diagrams, reusable components to further the adoption of cloud It has been widely reported the largest security concerns with cloud computing design and implementation are centered on identity and access management. Pearson (2009) identifies open security challenges such as where processing takes place, auditability of transactions, and data sensitivity in distributed systems. Cloud computing builds on prior research in virtualization, distributed computing, utility computing, networking, and web services (Vouk, 2008). A recent study conducted by the Office of Homeland Security found that cyber security is a national problem (Homeland Security, 2009). The study recommended that ―managing identities‖ must be part of a comprehensive national cyber security strategy. The Department of Defense Cyber, Identity, and Information Assurance Strategic Plan calls for systems and security to be united. In this research project, an approach to enabling assured identity and access management controls specifically in cloud computing environments was evaluated. The research designed and implemented the Assured Identity Management Systems (AIMS) using the systems engineering process (SEP). The evaluation of use cases and sequence diagrams demonstrated the capability for identity assurance with lifecycle events in cloud computing environments. The dissertation study designed an extensible model including requirements, use cases, context diagrams, sequence diagrams, reusable components to further the adoption of cloudIt has been widely reported the largest security concerns with cloud computing design and implementation are centered on identity and access management. Pearson (2009) identifies open security challenges such as where processing takes place, auditability of transactions, and data sensitivity in distributed systems. Cloud computing builds on prior research in virtualization, distributed computing, utility computing, networking, and web services (Vouk, 2008). A recent study conducted by the Office of Homeland Security found that cyber security is a national problem (Homeland Security, 2009). The study recommended that ―managing identities‖ must be part of a comprehensive national cyber security strategy. The Department of Defense Cyber, Identity, and Information Assurance Strategic Plan calls for systems and security to be united. In this research project, an approach to enabling assured identity and access management controls specifically in cloud computing environments was evaluated. The research designed and implemented the Assured Identity Management Systems (AIMS) using the systems engineering process (SEP). The evaluation of use cases and sequence diagrams demonstrated the capability for identity assurance with lifecycle events in cloud computing environments. The dissertation study designed an extensible model including requirements, use cases, context diagrams, sequence diagrams, reusable components to further the adoption of cloudIt has been widely reported the largest security concerns with cloud computing design and implementation are centered on identity and access management. Pearson (2009) identifies open security challenges such as where processing takes place, auditability of transactions, and data sensitivity in distributed systems. Cloud computing builds on prior research in virtualization, distributed computing, utility computing, networking, and web services (Vouk, 2008). A recent study conducted by the Office of Homeland Security found that cyber security is a national problem (Homeland Security, 2009). The study recommended that ―managing identities‖ must be part of a comprehensive national cyber security strategy. The Department of Defense Cyber, Identity, and Information Assurance Strategic Plan calls for systems and security to be united. In this research project, an approach to enabling assured identity and access management controls specifically in cloud computing environments was evaluated. The research designed and implemented the Assured Identity Management Systems (AIMS) using the systems engineering process (SEP). The evaluation of use cases and sequence diagrams demonstrated the capability for identity assurance with lifecycle events in cloud computing environments. The dissertation study designed an extensible model including requirements, use cases, context diagrams, sequence diagrams, reusable components to further the adoption of cloudIt has been widely reported the largest security concerns with cloud computing design and implementation are centered on identity and access management. Pearson (2009) identifies open security challenges such as where processing takes place, auditability of transactions, and data sensitivity in distributed systems. Cloud computing builds on prior research in virtualization, distributed computing, utility computing, networking, and web services (Vouk, 2008). A recent study conducted by the Office of Homeland Security found that cyber security is a national problem (Homeland Security, 2009). The study recommended that ―managing identities‖ must be part of a comprehensive national cyber security strategy. The Department of Defense Cyber, Identity, and Information Assurance Strategic Plan calls for systems and security to be united. In this research project, an approach to enabling assured identity and access management controls specifically in cloud computing environments was evaluated. The research designed and implemented the Assured Identity Management Systems (AIMS) using the systems engineering process (SEP). The evaluation of use cases and sequence diagrams demonstrated the capability for identity assurance with lifecycle events in cloud computing environments. The dissertation study designed an extensible model including requirements, use cases, context diagrams, sequence diagrams, reusable components to further the adoption of cloudcomputing, and a prototype built using interoperable cloud and virtualization technologies. The research supports the 2011 U.S. Federal Cloud Computing Strategy as well as the Standards Acceleration to Jumpstart Adoption of Cloud Computing (SAJACC) initiative. The dissertation research contributes to the body of knowledge in systems management, security, cloud computing and virtualization.
    • Hear My Voice: An Examination of the Views of Parents Who Are Raising Children of African American Descent

      Phelps, Chavez Maurice (2012-01-13)
      Researchers have demonstrated that children who attend early childhood education programs benefit academically and socially (National Institute for Early Education Research, 2003). However, other researchers have shown that African American students may still lag behind their counterparts when they enter school (National Center for Education Statistics ([NCES], 2004). To explain this phenomenon, scholars and practitioners have relied on deficit theories, such as Ruby Payne’s (2005) culture of poverty theory or John Ogbu’s (1992) oppositional culture identity theory, which shift the blame solely on the child or their parents. However, there are other researchers who have stressed the importance of examining the impact of racism and classism on African American children’s academic success. The purpose of this study is to provide a voice to parents of children who are of African American descent. Specifically, I examined parents’ perspectives on early academic success and various factors that impact their children’s success using Bronfenbrenner’s (1979) ecological systems theory and Spencer’s (1995) phenomenological variant of ecological systems theory (PVEST) as frameworks. To develop an understanding of early academic success from the perspective of parents, qualitative methodology was chosen, specifically grounded theory. Fourteen families who lived in a Midwest city or town, particularly mothers and their children, participated in this study. Data resources included two interviews, journals, and academic and social skills screeners. The data were analyzed based on parents’ degree status and marital status as well as grade, gender, and disability status of their child.Results show that parents define early academic success as acquiring the following: literacy, numeracy, and social skills. The participants stressed the importance of parents and teacher characteristics as important to their children’s early academic success. Furthermore, these parents believed that family factors such as a structured and consistent family routine are relevant to academic achievement. In terms of neighborhood factors, parents believed that a quiet and peaceful neighborhood as well as a neighborhood that valued and foster academic achievement as a community is crucial. Participants stressed the importance that their children should participate in various activities such as sports and music and dance classes. Their children should possess such values as respect and compassion, which are necessary to be successful. Additionally, the participants discussed their various teaching strategies and the importance of spending time with their children. Finally, the participants discussed the conversations they have with their children regarding race and how their children’s school and teachers embrace their children’s heritage.
    • Effects of gender-role orientation on responses of counselors-in-training

      Urschel, Joanne.K (2012-04-09)
      This study investigated the effects of gender-role orientation of clients and counselors-in-training, and sex of clients on response consistencies of counselors-in-training. One hundred and twelve master’s level counselor’s-in-training from twelve universities served as participants. Each participant viewed six videotaped vignettes of clients; each representing one of six gender-role orientations. At the conclusion of each vignette the participants were asked to write a response to the question, “What would you say next to the client?” Responses were categorized into consistency scores reflecting gender-role orientation of clients and counselors-in-training, and sex of clients. As hypothesized, gender-role orientations of clients and client’s sex had no effect on the responses of counselor’s-in-training. However, it was found that the gender-role orientations of counselors-in-training did affect their response consistencies. Post hoc analyses support these conclusions. Implications and recommendations are discussed.
    • Relationship between sources of support and mother-infant bonding.

      Schwing, Stephanie (2012-04-16)
      Adult women who had become new mothers within the last year completed a brief demographic questionnaire the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support,and the Post Partum Bonding Questionnaire.Mother's perceived levels of (a)significant others,(b)family,and(c)friend support were examined in relation to their perceptions of (d)general impaired bonding,(e)rejection and anger, and (f)anxiety about care of their infants.The hypothesis that all three sources of perceived social support would negatively relate to problems in the bonding relationship was supported.However,the hypothesis that significant other support would be the most significant predictor for the bonding relationship was not supported.Only familial support uniquely related to the bonding relationship.
    • Self-efficacy and health value among undergraduates following a lifetime fitness course.

      Brown, Heather M (2012-04-20)
      The question of whether perceived self-efficacy for exercise and health value,respectively,varied as a function of gender and exercise stage of change was the focus of this study.An archival data set was used.Participants were 190 college students who completed a demographic questionnaire,the Exercise Stage of Change Questionnaire,the Rokeach Values Survey,and the Self-Efficacy for Exercise questionnaire before and after completing a lifetime fitness course.Two 2-factor analyses of covariance were conducted for each dependent varible,self-efficacy and health-value.Gender and exercise stage of change were the independent variables.Exercise stage of change was divided into four subcategories:contemplation,preparation,action nand maintenance.A pretest on each dependent variable served as the covariate.Results of the analysis indicated that health valuse scores were significantly different as a function of exercise stage of change.A significant main effect was found between health value and exercise stage of change.A sigificant main effect was found between health value and exercise stage of change.A Bryant Paulson procedure was performed to determine which of the four stages of change for exercise differed on health value scores.The analysis revealed that participants in the contemplation and preparation exercise stages of change ranked health value significantly lower than participants in the action and maintenance exercise stages of change.Implications for theory and pratice and recommendations for future research are discussed.
    • A comparitive study of middle school and junior high school teacher attitudes toward transescent needs.

      Clemens, Janette M (2012-04-20)
      This study sought answers to the following three questions:(1)Is there any difference in the way middle school teachers and junior high school teachers view the developmental needs of the transescent? (2)Will intermediate teachers with six or more years of teaching experience reflect more positive attitudes toward transescent developmental needs than those with 5 or fewer years of teaching experience? and (3)Will the attitudes of elementary certified teachers reflect a greater degree of personal acceptance of transescent developmental needs than attitudes of secondary certified teachers? Methods and Procedures: The data were collected by means of a researcher-developed questionnaire administered to 207 middle school and junior high school Indiana teachers.The Likert-type instrument contained 34 items peratining to the social-emotional,physical,and intellectual needs of the transescent.For each depedent variable,mean scores and standard deviations were obtained for the two levels of each independent variable--school type,teaching experience,and certification level.Mean differences were computed and the statistical significance of each difference was assessed using an independent t test.The results were used in evaluating the twelve hypotheses of this study.A .05 significance level was used to accept or reject each hypothesis. Findings: The findings of this study indicate: 1.Middle school and junior high school teahcers do differ in their attitudes toward the social-emotional needs of the transescent. 2. Middle school and junior high school teachers do not differ significantly in their attitude toward the physical,intellectual and overall developmental needs of the transescent. 3)Teachers with 6 or more years of teaching experience do differ in their attitudes toward the physical needs of the transescent.4)Teachers with six or more years of teaching experience and one's with 5 or fewer years of teaching experience do not differ significantly in their attitudes toward the social-emotional,intellectual,and overall developmental needs of the transescent.5)Elementary certified teachers and secondary certified teachers do not differ significantly in their attitudes toward the social-emotional,physical,intellectual and overall developmental needs of the transescent.
    • Geochemistry of benthic foraminifera as an enviornmental indicator:a study from multiple hydrographic regimes.

      Basak, Chandranath (2012-04-20)
      The geochemistry(stable isotopes and trace elements) of living(stained)calcareous benthic foraminifera was compared with ambient bottom water stable isotope values to provide modern analog conditions and calibrations for enviornmental and paleoenvironmental assessments.Stable isotope values of live(stained)benthic foraminifera were investigated from push core and multicorer samples from the North Pacific(on the Aleutian margin,water depth 1988m)and the South Australian Bight(water depth 2476m and 1634m).Living benthic foraminifera specimens collected from contaminated sites in the Venice Lagoon were analysed for trace elements.Both the isotopic and the trace element study involved interpretation of modern live foraminiferal chemical reponses to different enviornments.The isotope analyses of living foraminifera from the North Pacific and the South Australian Bight provide calibration information for the evaluation of bottom water temperature and circulation of ancient oceans based on fossil foraminiferal geochemistry.Trace elements concentrations of Venice Lagoon foraminifera were used to assess the possibility of using foraminiferal geochemistry as a pollution indicator.Consistent with previous studies,shallow infaunal benthic foraminifera from the Aleutian and Australian argins were depleted in δ13 C with respect to bottom water dissolved inorganic carbon(DIC),and the deep infaunal foraminifera showed greater difference in values between foraminiferal carbon isotope values and DIC.The deep infaunal,Globobulimina pacifica,had δ18 O values that were in equilibrium with oxygen isotopic values at equilibrium calcite(δ18 Occ).Based on a few specimens that were divided in half,there was only minor isotopic heterogeneity in the test composition of benthic foraminifera genus Globobulimina.Differential foraminiferal uptake of Zn as indicated in initial laser ablation analyses showed marked differences between contaminated and less polluted sites in the Venice Lagoon.Higher incorporation of zinc in foraminiferal calcite from the more contaminated site was possibly the result of greater bioavailability of zinc in this environment.Differences also exist between the uptake of other trace metals such as Al,Mg and Mn by different foraminiferal genera.Differences in metal sequestration by benthic foraminifera suggest that the trace metal geochemistry of some foraminiferal taxa may be useful as a pollution indicator.
    • Cultural-competency training for school-based mental health service providers.

      Smith, Natasha Lian (2012-04-20)
      Literature on cultural competance has primarily developed in the fields of counseling psychology and counselor education.The field of school psychology has responded to the increased focus of cultural competency by providing recommended skills needed to provide psychological services in schools to diverse individuals and groups.Currently,research in effective cultural competency training has primarily focused on graduate training programs.This study extends the literature on cultural competency training by developing a training model that is appropriate for professionals who are already working in the field.This study first evaluated the impact of a needs assessment on the preparation of an 8-hour needs based training workshop.First,a needs assessment was conducted to identify areas to address in a training session for a southern,urban school district that serves predominately low-income,African American students.The training session was developed based on information obtained from the needs assessment using an Awareness-Knowledge-Skill developmental model of training and was then evaluated by the participants.A follow up assessment six weeks later was conducted.Results showed significant increases in ratings of cultural competency in the areas of awareness,knowledge and skills.Further qualitative analysis established the importance of conducting a needs assessment prior to designing a training program as well as providing oppurtunities for interaction as an important training tool.
    • Are there differences in moral and social character between high school athletes and non-athletes?

      Haworth, Robert (2012-04-20)
      The purpose of this study was to determine if high school team sports athletes,particularly basketball players,support social character over moral character as a result of the way character may be defined and fostered by coaches,parents,society and the media.The research questions guiding this study were as follows:1.Is there a significant difference in moral character,as measured by the RSBH Value Judgement Inventory,between high school basketball athletes and non-athletes? 2.Is there a significant difference in social character,as measured by RSBH Value Judgement Inventory,between high school basketball athletes and non-athletes? 3. Is there a significant difference in social character,as measured by RSBH Value Judgement Inventory,in moral character between high school male and female athletes? 4. Is there a significant difference,as measured by the RSBH Value Judgement Inventory,in social character between male and female athletes? 5.Is there a correlation between moral character scores and social character scores between athletes and non-athletes?This study examined how high school student athletes and non-athletes from the Patoka Lake Athletic Conference morally and social reason and make cognitive character decisions regarding sport.The Patoka Lake Athletic Conference(PLAC)consists of seven schools.The conference is comprised of approximately 700 students athletes.The largest of these seven high schools has an enrollment of 240.Over 90% of the student populations are Caucasians.These seven high school are located across five Souther Indiana counties.Of the 336 students selected to participate in the survey,227 students actally paricipated.The RSBH Value-Judgement Inventory was developed in 1998 by Dr Andrew Rudd to measure moral and social character.This inventory is comprised of two indices;the first index consists of ten sport scenarios that take place outside of competition and concern themselves with social character;the second index is comprised of ten sport's gamesmanship scenarios concerning themselves with moral character.Statistical data analysis included Independent Measures t Tests and Pearson correlation.Using an Independent Measures t Tests significant differences were found in moral and social character between athletes and non-athletes and between male athletes and female athletes.It was found that athletes supported the ideas of social character(teamwork,dedication and sacifice)over moral character(honesty,responsibility and justice).Non-athletes supported moral character over social character.The study also revealed that male athletes supported social character.The study also revealed that male athletes supported social character over moral character to a greater extent than their female athlete counterparts.A Pearson correlation revealed a positive correlation between social character index scores and moral character index scores.It is important to note that the greater the scores on the moral index the less likely one supports the ideas of justice and honesty.The greater the scores on the social index the more likely one supports the ideas of teamwork,sacrifice and dedication.Therefore,the relationship is such that if one supports the ideas of social character,they are less likely to also support the ideas of moral character and vice versa.
    • The effect of multicultural counseling training on multicultural sensitivity of graduate students.

      Field, Lucy Fukasawa (2012-05-16)
      This study was designed to investigate the effect of five weeks(45 hours)of multicultural counseling training on the multicultural sensitivity of graduate level students.The treatment group(12 students) received five weeks of intensive training designed to increase their awareness of multicultural issues and personal biases and limitations.The control groups(13 students)did not receive multicultural training,but did receive experiential training,related to leadership roles,in small groups.The Cross-Cultural Adaptability Inventory(potential for cross-cultural effectiveness,Inventory of Cross-Cultural Sensitivity)(level of cross-cultural sensitivity and experience) and 10 selected difficult critical incidents (ability to perceive cross-cultural interactions from a more open point of view) were administered pre and post-test.The Multicultural Counseling Survey(knowledge of special therapy needs and general cultural information about Blacks,Native Americans,Asians-Americans,and Hispanics) was administered post-test only.Two-tailed t tests were used to determine whether differences between treatment and control group means were statistically significant at the .05 confidence level.No differences were found between the treatment and control groups on ability to perceive cross-cultural interactions from a more open point of view,in levels of cross-cultural sensitivity and experience,or potential for cross-cultural effectiveness.The treatment group was found to have more knowledge of special therapy needs and general cultural information about Blacks,Native Americans,Asian Americans and Hispanics.It was concluded that a longer period of training may be necessary for behavioral manifestations of attitude change to become apparent and that useful information focusing on ethnic/minority groups can be conveyed to trainees systematically and in a relatively short period of time.
    • The relative effectiveness of two cognitive intervention approaches with attention deficit disordered children.

      Conner, E.June (2012-05-16)
      This study was designed to evaluate the differential treatment efficacy of traditional cognitive behavior modification(CBM),cognitive skill training(CST),and a tutorial control condition in modifying the cognitive style,academic achievement,and behavioral control of elementary-age attention deficit disordered(ADD)children.A review of the cognitive training literature suggested that,while traditional CBM programs are often effective in increasing performance on cognitive processing measures in the laboratory,little effect is noted in the natural environment.The CST condition attempted to promote increased transfer of skills by training an intermediate-level,academically relevant set of content/process skills emphasizing metacognitive awareness and control.Subjects included 33 children enrolled in grades one through six in area schools.Subjects were rigorously screened to meet the criterion of ADD.All subjects were tested on the ll variables under consideration immediately prior to treatment,immediately subsequent to intervention,and six months following treatment.Treatment for all three groups(CBM,N-13;CST,N-13;Control,N-7)was conducted over a seven-week period with a total training time for each group of approximately 42 hours.The statistical procedure used to analyze the data was a 3(groups)X3(repeated measures)analysis of variance.Separate ANOVAS were carried out on the eleven variables under consideration.The variables included cognitive processing variables of impulse control error(MFFT),impulse control latency(MFFT),and field articulation(CEFT).Academic achievement variables consisted of the five subtests and the total score of the PIAT.Behavioral control variables included self-control(SCRS)and hyperactivity(parent CRS).The statistical analysis revealed that there were essentially no significant interactions favoring the cognitive training methods.The only finding which was significant involved the reading comprehension variable,where there was a significant decrement in scores by the control group at posttesting.Based on the results of this study,it was concluded that neither the CBM nor the CST approach to cognitive training offers clear-cut advantages over more traditional methods at the present time.However,clinical evidence of the incremental value of the cognitive methods over the tutorial procedure led to recommendations for increasing the statistical power and utilizing more sensitive dependent measures in evaluating cognitive training efforts.
    • The anxiety of learning disabled school children with remedial instruction

      Coronado V, Marco A (2012-05-16)
      The purpose of the present study was to investigate the anxiety levels of elementary school learning disabled(LD)students provided with atleast one semester of remedial instruction.It was hypothesized that there would be a significant difference in anxiety levels between LD and regular education(RE) students.The variables were anxiety,grade level,and gender for the LD and RE students.A sample of 90 students from 3rd,4th and 5th grades were divided into the LD and RE groups.Students in the LD group had been provided with remedial instruction ranging from one to seven semesters with an average of three semesters.The student's anxiety was self-reported on the RCMAS.The LD and RE sets of scores were analyzed using a 3-way analysis of variance with the level of significance set at p < .05.The results indicate that,compared to non-LD,the LD students displayed significantly higher levels of general anxiety,worry,oversensitivity,social concerns,and concentrations difficulties.LD females displayed significantly higher levels of general anxiety,worry,and oversensitivity than LD male students.In addition,LD 5th grade females showed significantly higher levels of anxiety than LD 3rd and 4th grade male and female students.Moreover,LD and RE lower grade students did lie significantly more than upper grade students.
    • Stressors among first-generation college students:A retrospective inquiry

      Latus, Maryann Therese (2012-05-16)
      A multiple case study qualitative approach was used to examine the stressors among first-generation college students.The students were in their senior year at a medium-sized Midwestern public university.The researcher conducted two focus groups and a total of 10 in-depth interviews with first-generation college students.Several themes emerged from the data that was collected.The overarching themes that served as the primary framework for this study were stressors related to family,friends and the university.One of the major themes,how the participants coped with their particular stressors,is discussed in detail.The differences that were found between this group of first-generation college students and those researched in psst studies are noted.
    • Problem-solving:Individual factors predictive of resistance to functional fixedness and effects of einstellung.

      Erikson, James W (2012-05-21)
      The purpose of this research was to replicate and expand two experimental procedures that have been fundamental to the understanding of problem solving and rigidity: functional fixedness and effects of Einstellung. Functional fixedness can be described as an instance in which negative transfer occurs and there is perceptual “blindness” to the versatility of an object. Einstellung is the tendency to utilize a more complicated and habitually primed procedure at the expense of simpler methods. Results were analyzed to identify individuals resistant to these natural effects and to determine the non-clinical personality factors as assessed by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI, Myers, McCaulley, Quenk, & Hammer, 1998) that contribute to rigidity and fixation. A majority of participants (60%) responded in the same manner to the cognitive fixation problems (either susceptible or resistant to both functional fixedness and effects of Einstellung), indicating a salient connection between the cognitive mechanisms activated by these two phenomena. A significant relationship was discovered between susceptibility to cognitive fixation and the Thinking/Feeling dimension on the MBTI.
    • Does the training of school board members make a difference?

      Halik, James M (2012-05-21)
      The purpose of this study was to determine the perceptions of public school superintendents and school board presidents in the United States relative to the orientation and ongoing training that is believed to be necessary for newly elected or selected and experienced board members. At the national, state, and local levels, public education is under a great deal of scrutiny. Public education throughout America is undergoing a significant overhaul unlike any time in the past. Boards of school trustees and superintendents are under the microscope with regard to performance and accountability. There is a lack of extensive research regarding the education, orientation, and training of newly elected or selected and experienced school board members and the perception of how that training might change the members’ effectiveness to influence positively the direction of the school corporation of which they serve. In most states, school board members are not required to have orientation or ongoing training with regard to their role and responsibilities prior to being elected or selected to their seat on the board. In conducting this study, the following questions were addressed and analyzed by a comparison of responses submitted by public school superintendents and school board presidents from coast to coast. 1. Are orientation and ongoing training for school board members important? 2. Do orientation and ongoing training for school board members make a difference? Public school superintendents and school board presidents were randomly selected from throughout the United States from small, medium, and large size school districts. The sample size was 250 public school superintendents and 250 school board presidents from five regions of the country identified by the National School Boards Association as the Northeast, Southern, Central, Western, and Pacific regions. A very high percentage (nearly 90%) of the school board presidents and superintendents reported that board members did attend programs, seminars, or workshops during their first year of service. There is a significant difference between what school board presidents believe and what superintendents believe regarding required or mandated training prior to newly elected or selected board members beginning their role as a member of the board. The majority (80%) of the school board presidents and superintendents in the country reported that board members should be required or mandated to attend programs, seminars, or workshops during their first year of service. On average, only 55% of school board presidents and superintendents in the country believe in-service programs, training seminars, and workshops should be required or mandated for experienced board members after their first year of service on the board.
    • The effect of password management procedures on the entropy of user selected passwords.

      Enamait, John D (2012-05-21)
      Maintaining the security of information contained within computer systems poses challenges for users and administrators. Attacks on information systems continue to rise. Specifically, attacks that target user authentication are increasingly popular. These attacks are based on the common perception that traditional alphanumeric passwords are weak and susceptible to attack. As a result of attacks targeting alphanumeric passwords, different authentication methods have been proposed. Nonetheless, traditional alphanumeric-based passwords remain the most common form of user authentication and are expected to remain so for the foreseeable future. This study provided empirical data to determine if the entropy of user-selected passwords was affected by the use of password management software. This research also provided data to determine if efforts to increase user-awareness of password strength affected the selection of passwords. The research results revealed that the use of a password management application resulted in an increase in average password entropy, but at a level that was not significant. The research results also indicated that the use of a password management application when coupled with electronic secondary information awareness efforts did result in a significant increase in average password entropy. The research results further illustrated that the use of a password management application when coupled with verbal secondary information awareness efforts also resulted in a significant increase in average password entropy. Finally, this investigation determined that the use of password management software together with electronic and verbal secondary information user-awareness efforts resulted in an increase in password entropy.
    • Public school superintendent philosophies and their tenure.

      Garner, John (2012-05-21)
      Postmodernism is a philosophical description that encompasses philosophy, the arts, a period of history, and many other aspects of today’s existence. This dissertation examines the extent to which Indiana public school superintendents use postmodern philosophy as opposed to modern philosophy to inform their practice. This was accomplished by examining eight leadership concepts through the application of questions with decisions related to either modernism or postmodernism. The study described by this dissertation used a quantitative research method assembling data and determining the correlation of operant philosophy by a superintendent with their tenure.
    • An open framework for low-latency communications across the smart grid network

      Sturm, John Andrew (2012-05-21)
      The recent White House (2011) policy paper for the Smart Grid that was released on June 13, 2011, A Policy Framework for the 21st Century Grid: Enabling Our Secure Energy Future, defines four major problems to be solved and the one that is addressed in this dissertation is Securing the Grid. Securing the Grid is referred to as one of the four pillars to be built on an open technology framework. The problem of securing the grid is further defined that cybersecurity practices must provide the special, low-latency communications needed for real-time automation control (White House, 2011, p. 49). The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is tasked with development of the cybersecurity communication standards through establishment of the NIST Cybersecurity Working Group (CSWG). NIST CSWG further states that low-latency is critical for automation control on the Smart Grid (NISTIR-Vol.3, 2010). The research and experimental planning for the solution tested in this dissertation provide low-latency through a system of open protocols that include HMAC keys (Hashed Message Authentication Code) and cryptographic identification for real-time control across the Smart Grid. It is serendipitous that HMAC keys (Hashed Message Authentication Code) can be processed very fast so there is little delay/latency added to the overall file transfer process (Goutis et al, 2005). In addition the research results offer guidance on the additional latency of AES versus Blowfish encryption algorithms for file transfers.
    • A study of the effects of fieldbus network inducted delays on control systems.

      Mianoo, Joseph (2012-05-21)
      Fieldbus networks are all-digital, two-way, multi-drop communication systems that are used to connect field devices such as sensors and actuators, and controllers. These fieldbus network systems are also called networked control systems (NCS). Although, there are different varieties of fieldbus networks such as Foundation Field Bus, DeviceNet, and Profibus available in the automation industries, Controller Area Network (CAN) is more widely accepted in automotive applications. The growing popularity of, and demand for, fieldbus networks can be attributed to several advantages they have, such as: reduction in capital costs, interoperability, and greater system functionality. However, as the complexity of modern fieldbus systems continue to increase, the concern on performance, reliability, and security also increases. To better reflect on this concern, the fieldbus based control systems should be extensively studied using simulations before implementing them in hardware. Network induced delays that may result from the bus arbitration schemes of the messages is an issue that needs investigation for these fieldbus networks. The impact of these delays on control system performance measures such as peak overshoot and settling time needs investigation. The purpose of this research was to study the causes of fieldbus network induced delays and their effects on control systems. The existence and causes for network induced delays were studied by other researchers. Previous delay analyses used analytical and stochastic methods to establish relationships for delays. This dissertation, however, uses statistical analysis methods to study the effect of various CAN parameters on network delays. The data for the statistical analysis was obtained from simulations. Though the literature indicates use of general purpose simulation tools such as OPNET, OMNeT++, and Network II, there exist simulation tools that are designed specifically to address a particular type of fieldbus such as CAN. The research in this dissertation uses such a tool called CANoe for simulating an automobile system. The impact of these delays on control system performance was studied by other research on Proportional Integral (PI) controllers. This dissertation extends these studies to Proportional Integral and Derivative (PID) controllers. In this dissertation, the causes of network delays and how these delays are affected by CAN parameters such as baud rate, bus load, and message length were investigated using CANoe simulations of an automobile system. The statistical techniques of descriptive statistics, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to analyze data obtained for this part of the study. The findings of the ANOVA analysis revealed that CAN parameters have effect on CAN message delays. The effect of fieldbus network induced delays on control system performance such as stability and step-response for different PI and PID controllers were studied using a DC motor model. The delays considered were sensor-to-controller delay and controller-to-actuator delay. MATLAB/Simulink tools were used to analyze the effects of these delays. From this study, it was observed that fieldbus network induced delays have an effect on control systems stability and performance as described by the system step response. The results of this performance evaluation will be useful to design PID controller gains, and to verify how sensitive the control loops are under various time delays.