• Barriers to Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Intervention Implementation in the Public School Setting

      The present study examined the impact of potential barriers on commonly recommended school-based interventions for children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The interventions included were the Daily Behavioral Report Card, token reinforcement, response cost, instructional style changes, and classroom environment changes. The potential barriers studied were the time teachers spent on an intervention, the level of parent support, the level of child difficulty, the acceptability of an intervention, the perceived fairness of an intervention, and the level of administrative support. The study also examined the potential relationship between teachers‟ stress levels and the number of barriers they perceive to these interventions. Previous research has looked at the barriers to intervention implementation in the home setting, but there has been a gap in the research that addresses problems that may hinder teachers in implementing commonly recommended interventions. The present study examined responses from 62 teachers that were recruited from one Midwestern state and one Southern state. Data was collected through an online survey that was sent out to teachers‟ public domain email and was analyzed using Repeated Measure ANOVAs and Pearson Correlations. There were significant differences across interventions on each potential barrier. Teacher stress was also positively correlated with the number of barriers they perceived. Additionally, the level of teacher stress positively correlated with the barriers of time, level of child difficulty, perceived fairness of an intervention, and the level of administrative support.
    • Career Decisions: Goodness-Of-Fit and Attrition of Teachers in Alternative Schools

      Coulter, Deidre S. (2010-09-21)
      Teachers are the most important element in the education system (Stronge, 2002). However, studies of teachers in certain sectors are lacking. The paucity of research on teachers who work in the alternative school environment was a driving force behind this study, which is a case study of the characteristics of alternative schools, perceptions of teacher training, attrition, and goodness-of-fit. Interviews with teachers, administrators, and support staff in an alternative school were used to investigate interactions between teachers and students and between colleagues. Classroom observations of the teachers were used to help explore the classroom climate. Emergent themes such as communication, administrative support, and a holistic view of the student population are explored using the filter of symbolic interaction theory in order to describe the characteristics of effective alternative school teachers, administrators, and staff. Symbolic interaction theory uses the internal shorthand that individuals develop to identify how their actions reflect their thoughts and feelings about the setting in which they find themselves. Implications for future research on the teacher-environment fit in alternative schools are discussed.
    • Cultural-competency training for school-based mental health service providers.

      Smith, Natasha Lian (2012-04-20)
      Literature on cultural competance has primarily developed in the fields of counseling psychology and counselor education.The field of school psychology has responded to the increased focus of cultural competency by providing recommended skills needed to provide psychological services in schools to diverse individuals and groups.Currently,research in effective cultural competency training has primarily focused on graduate training programs.This study extends the literature on cultural competency training by developing a training model that is appropriate for professionals who are already working in the field.This study first evaluated the impact of a needs assessment on the preparation of an 8-hour needs based training workshop.First,a needs assessment was conducted to identify areas to address in a training session for a southern,urban school district that serves predominately low-income,African American students.The training session was developed based on information obtained from the needs assessment using an Awareness-Knowledge-Skill developmental model of training and was then evaluated by the participants.A follow up assessment six weeks later was conducted.Results showed significant increases in ratings of cultural competency in the areas of awareness,knowledge and skills.Further qualitative analysis established the importance of conducting a needs assessment prior to designing a training program as well as providing oppurtunities for interaction as an important training tool.
    • Disaster preparedness in the american academy:A study of institutional context factors for compliance with the national incident management system.

      Wilder, Paul Joseph (2012-05-21)
      Recent major disaster events at colleges and universities around the nation have demonstrated that change is needed in the way that higher education institutions (HEIs) approach disaster preparation. The comforting notion that HEIs are immune to natural and manmade hazards has been shattered by events such as the Virginia Tech massacre and Hurricane Katrina’s assault on Mississippi’s coastal campuses. Reports of many other institutional responses to a variety of disaster incidents demonstrate that these two major disasters are not isolated events on the campuses of the American academy. This study developed a snapshot view of disaster preparation in American HEIs, using National Incident Management System (NIMS) compliance as a proxy for disaster preparedness. This quantitative, retrospective study, with a non-experimental design, used a scientific approach that employed both archival and survey data from a stratified random sample of 108 HEIs that were categorized based on organization and governance, as well as institutional sector, to establish a benchmark measurement of disaster preparation in the various types of institutions. Further, the study examined institutional context factors to investigate the degree of NIMS compliance in place at American HEIs, including organization and governance, previous disaster experience, institutional size, legal representation on the planning and response team, institutional sector, and composite economic losses by state, to see if any of these factors was statistically associated with NIMS compliance. Results indicate that two of the study variables were statistically significant; institutional size and institutional sector. These findings expose that smaller institutions are lagging behind in disaster preparedness. Additionally, the outcomes reveal that private institutions are facing difficulty keeping pace with their public counterparts in disaster preparation.
    • Does the training of school board members make a difference?

      Halik, James M (2012-05-21)
      The purpose of this study was to determine the perceptions of public school superintendents and school board presidents in the United States relative to the orientation and ongoing training that is believed to be necessary for newly elected or selected and experienced board members. At the national, state, and local levels, public education is under a great deal of scrutiny. Public education throughout America is undergoing a significant overhaul unlike any time in the past. Boards of school trustees and superintendents are under the microscope with regard to performance and accountability. There is a lack of extensive research regarding the education, orientation, and training of newly elected or selected and experienced school board members and the perception of how that training might change the members’ effectiveness to influence positively the direction of the school corporation of which they serve. In most states, school board members are not required to have orientation or ongoing training with regard to their role and responsibilities prior to being elected or selected to their seat on the board. In conducting this study, the following questions were addressed and analyzed by a comparison of responses submitted by public school superintendents and school board presidents from coast to coast. 1. Are orientation and ongoing training for school board members important? 2. Do orientation and ongoing training for school board members make a difference? Public school superintendents and school board presidents were randomly selected from throughout the United States from small, medium, and large size school districts. The sample size was 250 public school superintendents and 250 school board presidents from five regions of the country identified by the National School Boards Association as the Northeast, Southern, Central, Western, and Pacific regions. A very high percentage (nearly 90%) of the school board presidents and superintendents reported that board members did attend programs, seminars, or workshops during their first year of service. There is a significant difference between what school board presidents believe and what superintendents believe regarding required or mandated training prior to newly elected or selected board members beginning their role as a member of the board. The majority (80%) of the school board presidents and superintendents in the country reported that board members should be required or mandated to attend programs, seminars, or workshops during their first year of service. On average, only 55% of school board presidents and superintendents in the country believe in-service programs, training seminars, and workshops should be required or mandated for experienced board members after their first year of service on the board.
    • Effects of gender-role orientation on responses of counselors-in-training

      Urschel, Joanne.K (2012-04-09)
      This study investigated the effects of gender-role orientation of clients and counselors-in-training, and sex of clients on response consistencies of counselors-in-training. One hundred and twelve master’s level counselor’s-in-training from twelve universities served as participants. Each participant viewed six videotaped vignettes of clients; each representing one of six gender-role orientations. At the conclusion of each vignette the participants were asked to write a response to the question, “What would you say next to the client?” Responses were categorized into consistency scores reflecting gender-role orientation of clients and counselors-in-training, and sex of clients. As hypothesized, gender-role orientations of clients and client’s sex had no effect on the responses of counselor’s-in-training. However, it was found that the gender-role orientations of counselors-in-training did affect their response consistencies. Post hoc analyses support these conclusions. Implications and recommendations are discussed.
    • Examining Validity Characteristics of the MMPI-2 PSY-5 Psychoticism Scale

      Covarrubias, Enrique G. (2010-09-21)
      The purpose of this study is to firmly establish the facet scales of the Personality Psychopathology Five (PSY-5) Psychoticism scale of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Second Edition (MMPI-2). Arnau, Handel, and Archer (2005) recently developed facet scales for the MMPI-2 PSY-5 scales using principal component analyses. The results of this study and the original published study were compared to determine if similar facet scales are found for the MMPI-2 PSY-5 Psychoticism scale. Participants were drawn from three different samples: the MMPI-2 normative sample, an inpatient sample from a mid-Atlantic region, and a college sample from a Midwestern university. Item-level principal component analyses and factor analyses were utilized to determine which scales yield better clinical utility. Although the results show some consistency in the MMPI-2 PSY-5 Psychoticism facet scales between the current and original study, differences were noted which indicate that the psychometric properties of the facet scales have yet to be empirically established. Clinical and research implications for the facet scales are discussed.
    • Examining Variables Related to Help-seeking and Victimization Differences after Coercive Intercourse

      Faulkner, Ginger (2011-06-17)
      The issue of sexual violence against women has been an area of interest to psychological researchers because of its importance and prevalence in America. A problem that has been attracting more attention recently is sexual coercion against women, especially on college campuses. Researchers have consistently found that over half of college women have been victim to coercive sexual encounters (Struckman-Johnson, Struckman-Johnson, & Anderson, 2003) making this a serious problem in need of greater understanding. Researchers have also found that sexual coercion can cause a variety of problems, yet victims typically do not seek help after these experiences (Fisher, Daigle, Cullen, & Turner, 2003; Siegel, Golding, Stein, Burnam, & Sorenson, 1990). Thus, understanding factors that can encourage sexual coercion victims to seek help is important. Additionally, researchers have reported inconsistent results regarding differences between women who have and have not experienced sexual coercion (Bernard, Bernard, & Bernard, 1985; Faulkner, Kolts, & Hicks, 2008). A clearer understanding of victimization differences would allow for greater insight into sexual coercion. The first purpose of this study was to explore if sexual assertiveness (SA), sexual self-esteem (SSE), and rape myth acceptance (RMA) predicted help-seeking behaviors in college women who had experienced coercive intercourse. A stepwise multiple regression analysis was utilized to determine whether the variables SA, SSE, and RMA predicted a significant proportion of the variance in help-seeking behaviors after a coercive experience. The second aspect of this study was to examine whether the variables of SA, SSE, and RMA differed between women who have and have not experienced coercive intercourse. This was determined through a multiple analysis of variance (MANOVA). Results indicated no significant relationship between SA, SSE, and RMA and help-seeking behaviors. However, significant differences were found between victims and non-victims of coercive intercourse on SA and SSE.
    • Factors Influencing Family Medicine Residents’ Screening for Intimate Partner Violence

      Bruder, Melissa (2014-03-18)
      Intimate partner violence among adolescents is a serious and widespread problem. It is apparent that victims of intimate partner violence experience physical and psychological consequences. These adverse health effects can result in adolescents seeking care from healthcare professionals. However, intimate partner violence victims do not always receive the care and response they need. Because adolescents are reporting that not all healthcare professionals are screening for intimate partner violence, one must come to understand the factors that are hindering this occurrence. Although previous research has provided a foundation for understanding factors that influence intimate partner violence screening, researchers have not specifically examined factors related to family medicine residents’ screening adolescent patients. The present study examined responses from 118 family medicine residents across the United States. Data were collected through an online survey and were analyzed using a multiple regression, a repeated measures ANOVA, and a one-way ANOVA. The multiple regression analysis revealed that together, year in residency, previous identification of victims of intimate partner violence, and self-efficacy significantly predicted intimate partner violence screening among adolescent patients. The repeated measures ANOVA had a statistically significant interaction effect for patient’s gender and presenting medical concern on screening adolescent patients for intimate partner violence. The one-way ANOVA revealed that the frequency of family medicine residents’ screening adolescent patients for intimate partner violence did not significantly differ among the regional locations of residency programs in the United States.
    • Geochemistry of benthic foraminifera as an enviornmental indicator:a study from multiple hydrographic regimes.

      Basak, Chandranath (2012-04-20)
      The geochemistry(stable isotopes and trace elements) of living(stained)calcareous benthic foraminifera was compared with ambient bottom water stable isotope values to provide modern analog conditions and calibrations for enviornmental and paleoenvironmental assessments.Stable isotope values of live(stained)benthic foraminifera were investigated from push core and multicorer samples from the North Pacific(on the Aleutian margin,water depth 1988m)and the South Australian Bight(water depth 2476m and 1634m).Living benthic foraminifera specimens collected from contaminated sites in the Venice Lagoon were analysed for trace elements.Both the isotopic and the trace element study involved interpretation of modern live foraminiferal chemical reponses to different enviornments.The isotope analyses of living foraminifera from the North Pacific and the South Australian Bight provide calibration information for the evaluation of bottom water temperature and circulation of ancient oceans based on fossil foraminiferal geochemistry.Trace elements concentrations of Venice Lagoon foraminifera were used to assess the possibility of using foraminiferal geochemistry as a pollution indicator.Consistent with previous studies,shallow infaunal benthic foraminifera from the Aleutian and Australian argins were depleted in δ13 C with respect to bottom water dissolved inorganic carbon(DIC),and the deep infaunal foraminifera showed greater difference in values between foraminiferal carbon isotope values and DIC.The deep infaunal,Globobulimina pacifica,had δ18 O values that were in equilibrium with oxygen isotopic values at equilibrium calcite(δ18 Occ).Based on a few specimens that were divided in half,there was only minor isotopic heterogeneity in the test composition of benthic foraminifera genus Globobulimina.Differential foraminiferal uptake of Zn as indicated in initial laser ablation analyses showed marked differences between contaminated and less polluted sites in the Venice Lagoon.Higher incorporation of zinc in foraminiferal calcite from the more contaminated site was possibly the result of greater bioavailability of zinc in this environment.Differences also exist between the uptake of other trace metals such as Al,Mg and Mn by different foraminiferal genera.Differences in metal sequestration by benthic foraminifera suggest that the trace metal geochemistry of some foraminiferal taxa may be useful as a pollution indicator.
    • Hear My Voice: An Examination of the Views of Parents Who Are Raising Children of African American Descent

      Phelps, Chavez Maurice (2012-01-13)
      Researchers have demonstrated that children who attend early childhood education programs benefit academically and socially (National Institute for Early Education Research, 2003). However, other researchers have shown that African American students may still lag behind their counterparts when they enter school (National Center for Education Statistics ([NCES], 2004). To explain this phenomenon, scholars and practitioners have relied on deficit theories, such as Ruby Payne’s (2005) culture of poverty theory or John Ogbu’s (1992) oppositional culture identity theory, which shift the blame solely on the child or their parents. However, there are other researchers who have stressed the importance of examining the impact of racism and classism on African American children’s academic success. The purpose of this study is to provide a voice to parents of children who are of African American descent. Specifically, I examined parents’ perspectives on early academic success and various factors that impact their children’s success using Bronfenbrenner’s (1979) ecological systems theory and Spencer’s (1995) phenomenological variant of ecological systems theory (PVEST) as frameworks. To develop an understanding of early academic success from the perspective of parents, qualitative methodology was chosen, specifically grounded theory. Fourteen families who lived in a Midwest city or town, particularly mothers and their children, participated in this study. Data resources included two interviews, journals, and academic and social skills screeners. The data were analyzed based on parents’ degree status and marital status as well as grade, gender, and disability status of their child.Results show that parents define early academic success as acquiring the following: literacy, numeracy, and social skills. The participants stressed the importance of parents and teacher characteristics as important to their children’s early academic success. Furthermore, these parents believed that family factors such as a structured and consistent family routine are relevant to academic achievement. In terms of neighborhood factors, parents believed that a quiet and peaceful neighborhood as well as a neighborhood that valued and foster academic achievement as a community is crucial. Participants stressed the importance that their children should participate in various activities such as sports and music and dance classes. Their children should possess such values as respect and compassion, which are necessary to be successful. Additionally, the participants discussed their various teaching strategies and the importance of spending time with their children. Finally, the participants discussed the conversations they have with their children regarding race and how their children’s school and teachers embrace their children’s heritage.

      Green, Mark S. (Indiana State University, 2014-08)
      Fragmentation in the field of psychology has persisted throughout its history (Slife, 2000). One example of this fragmentation is the gap between researchers and clinicians (Teachman, Drabick, Hershenberg, Vivian, & Wolfe 2012). Although many attempts have been made to bridge this gap, there is still no consensus regarding its resolution. This dissertation provides an explanation for the gap at the philosophical level and provides a method for communicating across potentially incommensurable philosophies, based on Gadamer’s (1960/1989) hermeneutic opus: Truth and Method.
    • Increasing the Accuracy of the Military's Post-Deployment Mental Health Screening Strategies

      Fass, Daniel (2010-07-20)
      The author investigated the prevalence rates of mental health problems reported by college students and compared them with previously existing data on active duty, reserve, and National Guard Operation Iraqi Freedom veterans. Participants completed the mental health portion of the Post-Deployment Health Re-Assessment and an additional questionnaire in which the effect of a drug use screen was explored. Subjects were also asked about their intentions to seek mental health or substance abuse treatment and how anonymity affected their treatment seeking and reporting accuracy. Results indicate similar and at times higher rates of mental health problems in the sample of college students and perhaps highlight the problems associated with post-deployment mental health screening, including stigma associated with reporting and seeking mental health treatment. These results signal an underestimation of the mental health concerns of military personnel and highlight the need for anonymous post-deployment screening procedures as well as more anonymous treatment options.

      Ko, Shin Ruu (Indiana State University, 2014-12)
      This study investigated the online experiences of 10 adolescents with Asperger's Disorder (AD). This study was exploratory in nature and employed a qualitative approach. Three research questions guided this study: (a) What are the positive and negative online experiences of youth with ASD?, (b) What are the perceptions of online interactions in comparison to offline interactions held by youth with ASD?, and (c) What experiences with social connectedness and cyberbullying do youth with ASD have as a result of Internet usage? Four themes and 14 subthemes emerged during the process of analyzing the data: (a) Benefits of Internet Usage (Social, Emotional, Educational, and Interests); (b) Bringing People Closer (Reducing the Miles in Between, Accessibility to People, and Easier Communication); (c) Negative Social Interactions (Negativity, Trolling, and Cyberbullying); (d) Combating Negative Social Interactions (Prevention, Avoid/Ignore/Leave, Support of Peers, Seek Help from Adults/Authority Figures). Results from this study suggest that youth with ASD generally have positive experiences on the Internet. These positive experiences translate into many benefits that impact the development of youth with ASD. When faced with social experiences online, participants demonstrated how perceptive and resourceful they can be in finding ways to solve their problems. These findings demonstrate the potential for youth with ASD to learn, grow, and overcome various ASD symptomologies through online interactions and activities.
    • Problem-solving:Individual factors predictive of resistance to functional fixedness and effects of einstellung.

      Erikson, James W (2012-05-21)
      The purpose of this research was to replicate and expand two experimental procedures that have been fundamental to the understanding of problem solving and rigidity: functional fixedness and effects of Einstellung. Functional fixedness can be described as an instance in which negative transfer occurs and there is perceptual “blindness” to the versatility of an object. Einstellung is the tendency to utilize a more complicated and habitually primed procedure at the expense of simpler methods. Results were analyzed to identify individuals resistant to these natural effects and to determine the non-clinical personality factors as assessed by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI, Myers, McCaulley, Quenk, & Hammer, 1998) that contribute to rigidity and fixation. A majority of participants (60%) responded in the same manner to the cognitive fixation problems (either susceptible or resistant to both functional fixedness and effects of Einstellung), indicating a salient connection between the cognitive mechanisms activated by these two phenomena. A significant relationship was discovered between susceptibility to cognitive fixation and the Thinking/Feeling dimension on the MBTI.
    • Public school superintendent philosophies and their tenure.

      Garner, John (2012-05-21)
      Postmodernism is a philosophical description that encompasses philosophy, the arts, a period of history, and many other aspects of today’s existence. This dissertation examines the extent to which Indiana public school superintendents use postmodern philosophy as opposed to modern philosophy to inform their practice. This was accomplished by examining eight leadership concepts through the application of questions with decisions related to either modernism or postmodernism. The study described by this dissertation used a quantitative research method assembling data and determining the correlation of operant philosophy by a superintendent with their tenure.

      Hodorek, Sylwia P. (Indiana State University, 2013-12)
      The experience of living with a chronic illness such as HIV/AIDS is complex. The longevity of people living with HIV/AIDS is increasing and changing the medical and mental health care provision for these individuals. A qualitative approach was used to explore the lived experiences of long-term survivors of HIV/AIDS along three factors: (a) uncertainties, (b) stigma, and (c) coping. The research was guided by the constructivist paradigm and biopsychosocial approach. The methodology utilized was the constructivist grounded theory approach, which emphasizes simultaneous data collection and analysis. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 participants who have been living with HIV/AIDS for a minimum of 10 years and who, at the time of the interview, were living in south Florida. The data were analyzed using open coding, focused coding, and theoretical coding. In addition, the constant comparative method was utilized throughout the data analysis process. The findings revealed that living as a long-term survivor of HIV/AIDS entails existing within an ongoing process of acceptance and living with this chronic illness. Such a process is often challenging and entails a constant reconstruction of goals, identity, and relationships. However, the process is facilitated by four interacting values of autonomy, belonging, resiliency, and hope that helped each person continue to accept and live with HIV/AIDS. Those who are able to continue to manage this process are able to live constructive, long lives with this chronic illness.