• A HERMENEUTIC EXPLORATION OF AND PROPOSED SOLUTION TO THE SCHISM BETWEEN RESEARCHERS AND CLINICIANS IN PSYCHOLOGY

      Green, Mark S. (Indiana State University, 2014-08)
      Fragmentation in the field of psychology has persisted throughout its history (Slife, 2000). One example of this fragmentation is the gap between researchers and clinicians (Teachman, Drabick, Hershenberg, Vivian, & Wolfe 2012). Although many attempts have been made to bridge this gap, there is still no consensus regarding its resolution. This dissertation provides an explanation for the gap at the philosophical level and provides a method for communicating across potentially incommensurable philosophies, based on Gadamer’s (1960/1989) hermeneutic opus: Truth and Method.
    • Increasing the Accuracy of the Military's Post-Deployment Mental Health Screening Strategies

      Fass, Daniel (2010-07-20)
      The author investigated the prevalence rates of mental health problems reported by college students and compared them with previously existing data on active duty, reserve, and National Guard Operation Iraqi Freedom veterans. Participants completed the mental health portion of the Post-Deployment Health Re-Assessment and an additional questionnaire in which the effect of a drug use screen was explored. Subjects were also asked about their intentions to seek mental health or substance abuse treatment and how anonymity affected their treatment seeking and reporting accuracy. Results indicate similar and at times higher rates of mental health problems in the sample of college students and perhaps highlight the problems associated with post-deployment mental health screening, including stigma associated with reporting and seeking mental health treatment. These results signal an underestimation of the mental health concerns of military personnel and highlight the need for anonymous post-deployment screening procedures as well as more anonymous treatment options.
    • ONLINE EXPERIENCES OF ADOLESCENTS WITH ASPERGER’S SYNDROME AND HIGH-FUNCTIONING AUTISM

      Ko, Shin Ruu (Indiana State University, 2014-12)
      This study investigated the online experiences of 10 adolescents with Asperger's Disorder (AD). This study was exploratory in nature and employed a qualitative approach. Three research questions guided this study: (a) What are the positive and negative online experiences of youth with ASD?, (b) What are the perceptions of online interactions in comparison to offline interactions held by youth with ASD?, and (c) What experiences with social connectedness and cyberbullying do youth with ASD have as a result of Internet usage? Four themes and 14 subthemes emerged during the process of analyzing the data: (a) Benefits of Internet Usage (Social, Emotional, Educational, and Interests); (b) Bringing People Closer (Reducing the Miles in Between, Accessibility to People, and Easier Communication); (c) Negative Social Interactions (Negativity, Trolling, and Cyberbullying); (d) Combating Negative Social Interactions (Prevention, Avoid/Ignore/Leave, Support of Peers, Seek Help from Adults/Authority Figures). Results from this study suggest that youth with ASD generally have positive experiences on the Internet. These positive experiences translate into many benefits that impact the development of youth with ASD. When faced with social experiences online, participants demonstrated how perceptive and resourceful they can be in finding ways to solve their problems. These findings demonstrate the potential for youth with ASD to learn, grow, and overcome various ASD symptomologies through online interactions and activities.
    • Problem-solving:Individual factors predictive of resistance to functional fixedness and effects of einstellung.

      Erikson, James W (2012-05-21)
      The purpose of this research was to replicate and expand two experimental procedures that have been fundamental to the understanding of problem solving and rigidity: functional fixedness and effects of Einstellung. Functional fixedness can be described as an instance in which negative transfer occurs and there is perceptual “blindness” to the versatility of an object. Einstellung is the tendency to utilize a more complicated and habitually primed procedure at the expense of simpler methods. Results were analyzed to identify individuals resistant to these natural effects and to determine the non-clinical personality factors as assessed by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI, Myers, McCaulley, Quenk, & Hammer, 1998) that contribute to rigidity and fixation. A majority of participants (60%) responded in the same manner to the cognitive fixation problems (either susceptible or resistant to both functional fixedness and effects of Einstellung), indicating a salient connection between the cognitive mechanisms activated by these two phenomena. A significant relationship was discovered between susceptibility to cognitive fixation and the Thinking/Feeling dimension on the MBTI.
    • Public school superintendent philosophies and their tenure.

      Garner, John (2012-05-21)
      Postmodernism is a philosophical description that encompasses philosophy, the arts, a period of history, and many other aspects of today’s existence. This dissertation examines the extent to which Indiana public school superintendents use postmodern philosophy as opposed to modern philosophy to inform their practice. This was accomplished by examining eight leadership concepts through the application of questions with decisions related to either modernism or postmodernism. The study described by this dissertation used a quantitative research method assembling data and determining the correlation of operant philosophy by a superintendent with their tenure.
    • A QUALITATIVE INQUIRY INTO THE EXPERIENCES OF PEOPLE LIVING WITH HIV/AIDS FOR AN EXTENDED PERIOD OF TIME

      Hodorek, Sylwia P. (Indiana State University, 2013-12)
      The experience of living with a chronic illness such as HIV/AIDS is complex. The longevity of people living with HIV/AIDS is increasing and changing the medical and mental health care provision for these individuals. A qualitative approach was used to explore the lived experiences of long-term survivors of HIV/AIDS along three factors: (a) uncertainties, (b) stigma, and (c) coping. The research was guided by the constructivist paradigm and biopsychosocial approach. The methodology utilized was the constructivist grounded theory approach, which emphasizes simultaneous data collection and analysis. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 participants who have been living with HIV/AIDS for a minimum of 10 years and who, at the time of the interview, were living in south Florida. The data were analyzed using open coding, focused coding, and theoretical coding. In addition, the constant comparative method was utilized throughout the data analysis process. The findings revealed that living as a long-term survivor of HIV/AIDS entails existing within an ongoing process of acceptance and living with this chronic illness. Such a process is often challenging and entails a constant reconstruction of goals, identity, and relationships. However, the process is facilitated by four interacting values of autonomy, belonging, resiliency, and hope that helped each person continue to accept and live with HIV/AIDS. Those who are able to continue to manage this process are able to live constructive, long lives with this chronic illness.
    • Relationship between sources of support and mother-infant bonding.

      Schwing, Stephanie (2012-04-16)
      Adult women who had become new mothers within the last year completed a brief demographic questionnaire the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support,and the Post Partum Bonding Questionnaire.Mother's perceived levels of (a)significant others,(b)family,and(c)friend support were examined in relation to their perceptions of (d)general impaired bonding,(e)rejection and anger, and (f)anxiety about care of their infants.The hypothesis that all three sources of perceived social support would negatively relate to problems in the bonding relationship was supported.However,the hypothesis that significant other support would be the most significant predictor for the bonding relationship was not supported.Only familial support uniquely related to the bonding relationship.
    • School Climate, Teacher Satisfaction, and Receptivity to Change

      Daar, Sherri Eaton-Bin (2010-09-22)
      The purpose of this study was to explore what school climate factors influence teacher job satisfaction and receptivity to change. A survey based upon current literature was developed to assess teacher perceptions of the factors which may influence job satisfaction and receptivity to change. A regression analysis was conducted to determine impact of the nine school climate factors on teacher job satisfaction. A second regression was conducted using the nine school climate domains and satisfaction to evaluate which factors had an impact on teacher receptivity to change. Study findings indicated that (a) study participants report there to be two factors which influence job satisfaction in an educational environment: administration and instructional management, (b) participants’ also reported there to be three factors which influence receptivity to change: administration, student academic orientation and student activities.
    • Self-efficacy and health value among undergraduates following a lifetime fitness course.

      Brown, Heather M (2012-04-20)
      The question of whether perceived self-efficacy for exercise and health value,respectively,varied as a function of gender and exercise stage of change was the focus of this study.An archival data set was used.Participants were 190 college students who completed a demographic questionnaire,the Exercise Stage of Change Questionnaire,the Rokeach Values Survey,and the Self-Efficacy for Exercise questionnaire before and after completing a lifetime fitness course.Two 2-factor analyses of covariance were conducted for each dependent varible,self-efficacy and health-value.Gender and exercise stage of change were the independent variables.Exercise stage of change was divided into four subcategories:contemplation,preparation,action nand maintenance.A pretest on each dependent variable served as the covariate.Results of the analysis indicated that health valuse scores were significantly different as a function of exercise stage of change.A significant main effect was found between health value and exercise stage of change.A sigificant main effect was found between health value and exercise stage of change.A Bryant Paulson procedure was performed to determine which of the four stages of change for exercise differed on health value scores.The analysis revealed that participants in the contemplation and preparation exercise stages of change ranked health value significantly lower than participants in the action and maintenance exercise stages of change.Implications for theory and pratice and recommendations for future research are discussed.
    • Stressors among first-generation college students:A retrospective inquiry

      Latus, Maryann Therese (2012-05-16)
      A multiple case study qualitative approach was used to examine the stressors among first-generation college students.The students were in their senior year at a medium-sized Midwestern public university.The researcher conducted two focus groups and a total of 10 in-depth interviews with first-generation college students.Several themes emerged from the data that was collected.The overarching themes that served as the primary framework for this study were stressors related to family,friends and the university.One of the major themes,how the participants coped with their particular stressors,is discussed in detail.The differences that were found between this group of first-generation college students and those researched in psst studies are noted.
    • Teacher Bullies: A Factorial Analysis of Perceptions of Teachers’ Bullying Behaviors

      Davies, Sally Walter (2011-09-22)
      Bullying in schools is a global phenomenon that can infringe upon the rights of students to learn and grow in a secure and fostering environment. Most of the past and current research on school bullying focuses on peer bullying, but there is a gap in the understanding of types and characteristics of bullying behaviors. This study centered on a type of abusive behavior that has received very limited attention: teachers bullying students. For the purpose of this study, the definition of teacher bullying behavior is a repeated pattern of conduct used to punish, manipulate, or disparage a student, rooted in a power differential. Such behaviors may threaten, harm, humiliate, induce fear, or cause substantial emotional distress and go beyond a reasonable disciplinary procedure. The goal of this research was to uncover categories of teacher bullying behaviors. A factor analysis was conducted on data gathered through a questionnaire created for this study. The questionnaire contains descriptions of teacher behaviors, which participants described as bullying or not bullying, as well as measures of the severity of the behavior. The sample included graduates of public or non-public high schools who are 18 years or older. Over half of the sample (64%, N = 332) reported that a teacher had bullied them at least once. The final factor analysis consisted of a two-factor solution. The two factors that emerged were based on severity of behaviors. The first factor represented particularly severe bullying behaviors, while the second factor signified behaviors considered to be mild to moderate bullying by teachers. Interestingly, bystanding behaviors by teachers loaded on the first factor, which indicate these types of behaviors were considered to be severe bullying.
    • Teacher Self-Efficacy Beliefs Related to Chronic Disruptive Behavior

      Jones, Kalinda R. (2011-09-20)
      In the current study, elementary teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs regarding working with students displaying chronic disruptive behavior (CDB) were explored. CDB was defined as persistent observable actions that have a negative impact on academic or social functioning. To address the infrequently researched construct of self-efficacy beliefs specific to teaching students exhibiting CDB, a modified version of the Teachers’ Sense of Efficacy Scale (short form) was used. Factor analysis results indicated the three self-efficacy factors of instructional strategies self-efficacy, classroom management self-efficacy, and student engagement self-efficacy. No significant relationships were found between each of the three types of teacher self-efficacy beliefs and the combination of the demographic variables of education level, years of teaching experience, and gender. No significant difference was found in self-efficacy beliefs among the teaching focus areas of general education, special education, and specialty education. Potential relationships were explored with each type of teacher self-efficacy beliefs and teachers’ current and past experience working with students displaying CDB, past training and desire for future professional development related to working with students with CDB, and perceived support when working with students displaying CDB. Past training and perceived support were significantly related to both instructional self-efficacy beliefs and student engagement self-efficacy beliefs. Previous experience, past training, and perceived support were significantly related to classroom management self-efficacy beliefs. Implications for research and practice regarding teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs when working with students displaying chronic disruptive behavior are discussed.
    • The anxiety of learning disabled school children with remedial instruction

      Coronado V, Marco A (2012-05-16)
      The purpose of the present study was to investigate the anxiety levels of elementary school learning disabled(LD)students provided with atleast one semester of remedial instruction.It was hypothesized that there would be a significant difference in anxiety levels between LD and regular education(RE) students.The variables were anxiety,grade level,and gender for the LD and RE students.A sample of 90 students from 3rd,4th and 5th grades were divided into the LD and RE groups.Students in the LD group had been provided with remedial instruction ranging from one to seven semesters with an average of three semesters.The student's anxiety was self-reported on the RCMAS.The LD and RE sets of scores were analyzed using a 3-way analysis of variance with the level of significance set at p < .05.The results indicate that,compared to non-LD,the LD students displayed significantly higher levels of general anxiety,worry,oversensitivity,social concerns,and concentrations difficulties.LD females displayed significantly higher levels of general anxiety,worry,and oversensitivity than LD male students.In addition,LD 5th grade females showed significantly higher levels of anxiety than LD 3rd and 4th grade male and female students.Moreover,LD and RE lower grade students did lie significantly more than upper grade students.
    • The effect of multicultural counseling training on multicultural sensitivity of graduate students.

      Field, Lucy Fukasawa (2012-05-16)
      This study was designed to investigate the effect of five weeks(45 hours)of multicultural counseling training on the multicultural sensitivity of graduate level students.The treatment group(12 students) received five weeks of intensive training designed to increase their awareness of multicultural issues and personal biases and limitations.The control groups(13 students)did not receive multicultural training,but did receive experiential training,related to leadership roles,in small groups.The Cross-Cultural Adaptability Inventory(potential for cross-cultural effectiveness,Inventory of Cross-Cultural Sensitivity)(level of cross-cultural sensitivity and experience) and 10 selected difficult critical incidents (ability to perceive cross-cultural interactions from a more open point of view) were administered pre and post-test.The Multicultural Counseling Survey(knowledge of special therapy needs and general cultural information about Blacks,Native Americans,Asians-Americans,and Hispanics) was administered post-test only.Two-tailed t tests were used to determine whether differences between treatment and control group means were statistically significant at the .05 confidence level.No differences were found between the treatment and control groups on ability to perceive cross-cultural interactions from a more open point of view,in levels of cross-cultural sensitivity and experience,or potential for cross-cultural effectiveness.The treatment group was found to have more knowledge of special therapy needs and general cultural information about Blacks,Native Americans,Asian Americans and Hispanics.It was concluded that a longer period of training may be necessary for behavioral manifestations of attitude change to become apparent and that useful information focusing on ethnic/minority groups can be conveyed to trainees systematically and in a relatively short period of time.