• The Impact of Material Factors on Female Juvenile Delinquency Trends

      Price, Anne Marie (2010-09-22)
      This study examined the difference between female juvenile delinquents and nondelinquents in relationship to a combination of maternal factors (negative maternal behaviors, occupational stress, perceived social support, and maternal parenting stress). Participants were 128 biological mothers of daughters between the ages of 12 and 18 who were either mothers of clients or were clients themselves of a Midwest community health center in one of several clinics in Martinsville, Mooresville, Bedford, Bloomington, and Spencer, Indiana. Participants completed six questionnaires, including: the Demographics Questionnaire, the Maternal Behavior Index, the Adolescent Behavior Survey, the Occupational Crisis Survey, the Duke Social Support Inventory, and the Maternal Parenting Measure of Stress. A discriminate function analysis was conducted to determine if the maternal factors of negative maternal behaviors, occupational stress, perceived social support, and maternal parenting stress could be used to predict membership in the following groups for female adolescents: delinquents and nondelinquents. Results indicated that mothers who reported more negative behaviors, perceived less social support, and felt more parenting stress were more apt to have daughters who engaged in delinquent acts.
    • THE IMPACT OF TRAINING ON MUSIC THERAPISTS’ SONGWRITING KNOWLEDGE, SELF-EFFICACY, AND BEHAVIOR

      Richardson, Tracy G. (2011-07-20)
      Songwriting has been used as an effective intervention for persons with a wide range of therapeutic needs. However, a literature search revealed that songwriting is underrepresented in the music therapy research literature, indicating that music therapists may perceive they do not have the abilities to effectively use songwriting interventions in therapy sessions. The purposes of this study were: (a) to investigate the impact of a songwriting training session on the songwriting knowledge, self-efficacy, and behavior of music therapists; (b) to evaluate the songwriting training program; and (c) to explore the impact of the training on perceived barriers and clinical practice. Participants were 32 board-certified music therapists who chose to attend a songwriting training session between November 2009 and April 2010. The 32 participants completed a pre-test, attended a five-hour songwriting training session, and completed a post-test. However, only 17 of the 32 persisted through all phases of the study by submitting the follow-up test six weeks after the training. Results showed a statistically significant increase in songwriting knowledge, self-efficacy, and behavior from pre-test to follow-up. Additionally, change in knowledge was found to predict change in self-efficacy from pre-test to post-test but not from pre-test to follow-up. Participants reported being highly satisfied with the training. Thematic analysis of open-ended questions confirmed the quantitative results, with participants indicating a positive impact of songwriting training on perceived barriers and clinical practice. Implications for clinical practice and recommendations for future research are discussed.
    • The perception of teachers toward the use of mobile technology as a tool to engage students in learning.

      Goad, Kathryn Dawn (2012-05-21)
      The purpose of this study was to gauge the perception of teachers on the use of mobile technology, specifically cell phones, as an instructional tool to engage students in learning. Cell phones are the most ubiquitous piece of technology in the world. Their multiple functions can put the most up-to-date information at the fingertips of the user. However, schools have been slow to embrace these devices out of fear and ignorance on how to use their capabilities. Research is limited on this subject; most coming from cell phone manufacturers and related service providers. The opportunity to explore this technology tool as an instructional aid and provide educators with data to support the use of the cell phone in the classroom was both timely and evoking. The study queried 500 public school teachers in the Midwest on their proficiency with technology, their perception of the importance in using technology, their opinions on using technology in the classroom, and their specific integration of cell phones in their lessons. Of the respondents, 28.5% had experience using cell phones in the classroom. This was in comparison to national statistics of 75% of students having daily access to a phone. A Mann-Whitney U test found no significant difference between STEM teachers and teachers of other disciplines in their perceptions of the importance of using technology in the classroom. However, when conducting a t-test with the same two groups of teachers there was a significant difference in their ability to design and access lessons using technology. STEM teachers rated themselves at a higher skill level than did the teachers of other disciplines.A Pearson correlation examined the relationship between teacher comfort level with technology and the teacher’s ability to design and access lessons using technology. A significant, positive relationship was found in that as the level of technology use increased the teacher ability to design and access lessons increased. With an r value of .742 this correlation was considered strong. The question posed was “Are levels of student engagement different based on the frequency of integration of technology?” Through the use of a one-way ANOVA there was no significant difference in student engagement based on the frequency of its use. A multiple regression was used to determine which of the nine proficiency indicators serve as predictors for student engagement. Two proficiencies, “using software productivity tools” and “locating learning opportunities needed to advance my technology skills” were both found to be significant negative predictors, and “proficiency of troubleshooting problems that occur when using technology” was a significant positive predictor of student engagement. Student engagement was discussed through the summary of experience responses of 44 teachers surveyed. These written responses provided depth to the study when investigating teacher perceptions of student engagement when cell phones are used as an instructional tool.
    • The problem of extra-curricular activities in a modern high school

      Brill, Goldie Vivian (2013-04-23)
      Not available.
    • The Relationship of Depression with Intrinsic and Extrinsic Components of Religiosity in The Older Adult Female

      Nuval, Jacqueline Anne (2010-07-20)
      The purpose of this doctoral research was to determine whether religious activity and general health would predict depression in older adult women living alone in the community who are widowed, divorced, separated, or never married. Variables considered included intrinsic and extrinsic components of religiosity, level of depression, anxiety and panic attacks, general health, and a group of behaviors classified as Religious Attitudes and Behaviors (RAB), which considered importance of religion, religious participation, regularity of religious observance, and religious organization/social support. Components of extrinsic religiosity and intrinsic religiosity were measured by Intrinsic/Extrinsic – Revised (I/E-R). Levels of depression were measured by the Center for Epidemiological Studies in Depression (CES-D). A demographic questionnaire measured the other variables. Of the 118 participants, 82 fit the research criteria, which was that they were over 65 years old, unmarried, living independently and without roommates, not working, and having had no hospitalization within the past two years. A simultaneous regression of this sample resulted in self-perception of health being the only predictor of depression.
    • The relative effectiveness of two cognitive intervention approaches with attention deficit disordered children.

      Conner, E.June (2012-05-16)
      This study was designed to evaluate the differential treatment efficacy of traditional cognitive behavior modification(CBM),cognitive skill training(CST),and a tutorial control condition in modifying the cognitive style,academic achievement,and behavioral control of elementary-age attention deficit disordered(ADD)children.A review of the cognitive training literature suggested that,while traditional CBM programs are often effective in increasing performance on cognitive processing measures in the laboratory,little effect is noted in the natural environment.The CST condition attempted to promote increased transfer of skills by training an intermediate-level,academically relevant set of content/process skills emphasizing metacognitive awareness and control.Subjects included 33 children enrolled in grades one through six in area schools.Subjects were rigorously screened to meet the criterion of ADD.All subjects were tested on the ll variables under consideration immediately prior to treatment,immediately subsequent to intervention,and six months following treatment.Treatment for all three groups(CBM,N-13;CST,N-13;Control,N-7)was conducted over a seven-week period with a total training time for each group of approximately 42 hours.The statistical procedure used to analyze the data was a 3(groups)X3(repeated measures)analysis of variance.Separate ANOVAS were carried out on the eleven variables under consideration.The variables included cognitive processing variables of impulse control error(MFFT),impulse control latency(MFFT),and field articulation(CEFT).Academic achievement variables consisted of the five subtests and the total score of the PIAT.Behavioral control variables included self-control(SCRS)and hyperactivity(parent CRS).The statistical analysis revealed that there were essentially no significant interactions favoring the cognitive training methods.The only finding which was significant involved the reading comprehension variable,where there was a significant decrement in scores by the control group at posttesting.Based on the results of this study,it was concluded that neither the CBM nor the CST approach to cognitive training offers clear-cut advantages over more traditional methods at the present time.However,clinical evidence of the incremental value of the cognitive methods over the tutorial procedure led to recommendations for increasing the statistical power and utilizing more sensitive dependent measures in evaluating cognitive training efforts.
    • The Risk Factors of Alcohol Abuse Among College Athletes

      Jones, Jacob (2011-09-20)
      Self-concept theory was used as a theoretical basis to investigate the utility of social norms alcohol prevention programs designed for college athletes. The predictive relationship among alcohol use and athletic identity, competitiveness, drinking game participation, and level of sport participation was investigated. It was discovered that drinking game participation is a significant predictor of total weekly alcohol use above and beyond the other predictors. In addition, drinking game participation and organized recreational sport participation were significant predictors of total binge drinking episodes. While controlling for drinking game participation and competitiveness, no significant differences were found in the amount of alcohol consumed by the participants in different levels of sport participation (intramural, intercollegiate, organized recreational, other sport). It was demonstrated that individuals not currently participating in sports with an athletic identity in the same range as current athletes consumed alcohol at similar rates to current athletes, thus supporting athletic identity as an appropriate way of classifying athlete status. These results highlight the importance of drinking game participation in the alcohol use of college athletes and the validity of applying self-concept theory to social norms alcohol prevention programs.
    • Unemployment and Marital Quality in Single- and Two-Earner Marriages

      Bland, Andrew M. (2014-03-18)
      A need was recognized for a broad-based quantitative study on the impact of unemployment upon marital relationship quality in light of recent societal changes and the current economic climate. Recently, researchers have suggested that unemployment is less severe in partnerships that reflect progressive shifts in values and expectations within marital relationships. It was worth exploring whether this claim generalized across a broader sample of contemporary marriages, including those that uphold more traditional values. An ex post facto correlational design was used to assess how unemployment impacts marital quality in single breadwinner vs. dual-earner couples in the current economy. Participants were recruited nationwide to complete an online questionnaire consisting of a demographic questionnaire and two measures of marital quality, the Dyadic Adjustment Scale and the Revised Kansas Marital Satisfaction Scale. A canonical correlation analysis was utilized to assess the degree to which participants’ beliefs about marital roles, levels of education, duration of marriage, duration of unemployment, and frequency of unemployment affected marital quality when a spouse loses work. The canonical correlation model was not significant. The results of follow-up repeated measures ANOVAs suggested that most participants were under-satisfied with their marriages at present; however, faith in and commitment to the relationship (as evidenced by a high degree of satisfaction with how the relationship developed since it began) seemed to sustain marriages despite short-term obstacles. In addition, Pearson product moment correlations suggested that generational and socioeconomic differences may have impacted the model.
    • Using Growth Rate of Reading Fluency to Predict Performance on Statewide Achievement Tests

      Hinkle, Rachelle Whittaker (2011-09-20)
      Federal legislation has prescribed the increased use of statewide achievement tests as the culmination of a student’s knowledge and ability at the end of a grade level; however, schools need to be able to predict those who are at-risk of performing poorly on these high-stakes tests. Three studies served to identify a means of predicting statewide achievement test scores in either third or eighth grade based on CBM reading scores and rates of improvement at first, second, and third grades or third, fourth, and fifth grades using readily available statistical procedures. One-half of the third-grade data was used in Study 1, while the prediction equation generated in Study 1 was validated on the second half in Study 2. The results of Study 1 indicated that, of the sample of over 1,200 third-grade students who took the third-grade statewide achievement test, the second- and third-grade spring CBM reading scores explained the highest amount of variability in third-grade reading scores; however, reading rate of improvement was also significant. The prediction equation from Study 1 was cross-validated in Study 2 on over 1,200 third-grade students, which indicated that there was more than 95 percent concordance that those who were predicted to pass the third-grade statewide test did pass. However, when using the second-grade spring cut score of 90 words read correctly per minute, the accuracy of prediction was diminished. In Study 3, using nearly 250 eighth-grade students’ scores, reading fluency scores in third, fourth and fifth grades explained approximately 30 percent of statewide achievement test scores; however, rate of improvement was not significant in any of the grades.
    • Walking on water:African American male freshmen mastering transition for the purpose of retention and persistence at a midwestern university

      Underwood, Oscar J Dowell (2012-05-21)
      The purpose of this study was to examine the postsecondary experiences of African American college men at a Midwestern university. This study explored their college transition and endeavored to understand their lived experiences. The intent of this study was also to understand the coping strategies that African American men employ to achieve and succeed in college. The goal of this study was to describe the higher-education experiences of eight Black men in order to ascertain what major and minor themes emerged that could contribute to the literature concerning African American male transition, retention, and persistence at postsecondary institutions. The data from the transcripts of the focus group interviews of eight African American college males revealed five major themes that emerged as influential factors in the college experiences of the majority of these Black males. The themes were (a) the impact of being perceived as leaders; (b) the influence of possessing a perception of being a burden of hope for significant others; (c) the impact of a decision to overcome personal habits that could threaten achievement and college success; (d) the influence of having success connections with family, mentors, and campus organizations, whether cultural or otherwise; and (e) the influence of possessing a no-failure option college success strategy. Implications for African American college men, college leadership, student affairs leadership, faculty, and campus groups and organizations were discussed, as well as recommendations for future research.
    • Website Compliance with Ethical Guidelines by Psychologists and Professional Counselors

      Yazvac III, Joseph (2009-08-26)
      There is currently very little research investigating the ethical practice of e-therapy, and none that distinguishes between types of therapists in terms of their compliance with ethical codes pertaining to e-therapy. The American Psychological Association does not have ethical standards specific to the provision of e-therapy but the American Counseling Association does. The purpose of this study was to assess differences in ethical compliance for e-therapy websites sponsored by psychologists and e-therapy websites sponsored by professional counselors. Specific ethics codes for the practice of e-therapy of the American Counseling Association were used to generate an assessment instrument, which served as the measure of ethical compliance for both groups. E-therapy websites primarily sponsored by psychologists or professional counselors were located by predetermined search terms through the Google search engine and then evaluated for compliance. A MANOVA was then conducted to analyze differences between the two groups on compliance with sections A.12.a., A.12.g., and A.12.h. of the American Counseling Association Ethics Code, as well as an aggregate total of all three. Professional counselors were found to be significantly more compliant than psychologists with section A.12.h. and the aggregate total of all sections. However, compliance rates for both groups were generally low, and implications are discussed.
    • WITH US OR AGAINST US: USING RELIGIOSITY AND SOCIODEMOGRAPHIC VARIABLES TO PREDICT HOMOPHOBIC BELIEFS

      Schwartz, Erin Coale (2011-07-20)
      Affiliation with religious organizations is prevalent in the United States and within some of these organizations negative messages about lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals are regularly espoused. Exposure to such homophobic sentiment has been found to have a detrimental impact on the mental health of sexual minorities and thereby, makes the exploration of religiosity and homophobia an imperative. This study examined differences in homophobia among the sociodemographic variables of gender, age, education level, religious affiliation, frequency of attendance at religious services, and amount of contact with lesbian, gay, and bisexual people. Additionally, a stepwise multiple regression was conducted to determine which religiosity variables were the best predictors of homophobia. The religiosity variables used in the study were Religious Fundamentalism, Quest, Immanence, as well as Intrinsic and Extrinsic religious orientations. Significant differences in homophobia were found for gender, age, religious affiliation, frequency of attendance at religious services, and number of known lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals. Religious Fundamentalism and Intrinsic religious orientation were found to be the best predictors of homophobia.
    • Women's Use of Violence: An Ecological Systems Model

      Byczek, Sara (2013-01-30)
      Women’s use of violence within intimate relationships is an important area of which both researchers and clinicians can benefit from gaining a better understanding. In the current literature on women’s use of violence, two main perspectives dominate, including the family violence perspective and the feminist perspective. The main goal of the present study was to gain a better understanding of women’s use of violence. Specifically, qualitative methodology was utilized to explore the possibility that typologies may exist within women’s use of violence that may help to explain the discrepant findings within the literature. Twelve women completed an online questionnaire that included interview-style questions developed utilizing Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems model, the Conflict Tactics Scale-2, and a measure created by the main researcher called the Contextual Relationship Measure. Key findings included (a) development of four typologies, (b) identification of characteristics associated with women who have used violence in their relationship, and (c) development of a grounded theory on women’s use of violence. Limitations and suggestions for future research are also discussed, including (a) issues related to the methodology utilized, (b) issues related to the population being studied, and (c) suggestions on how to build from the current findings.