Recent Submissions


    Ghattu, Anupama (Indiana State University, 2015-05)
    Mobile technology is revolutionizing the American higher education system. Integrating mobile technology into college classrooms is changing the teaching and learning process. Today’s millennial generation students are tech savvy and using their mobile devices to learn and explore in many possible ways. Mobile technology devices can be used as effective tools to enhance teaching and learning. The ubiquitous nature of these mobile devices with wireless capabilities makes learning possible instantly anywhere and everywhere with easy access to information for everyone. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of integrating mobile wireless technologies (MWT) on preservice teachers’ attitudes and learning outcomes in teacher education classrooms. A pretest-posttest exploratory model was used to examine the effect of using MWT in the classroom setting. Students’ learning outcomes and attitudes were compared between two teacher education classes to see if there was a significant effect in using MWT. This quantitative study explored the effects of using MWT for classroom activities. Undergraduate students enrolled in two sections of a teacher education course were the study participants; one section was the control group and the other was the experimental group that used iPads for in-class activities. Data were collected at pretest before the treatment and at posttest after the treatment using an achievement test on the assigned chapter for investigating students’ learning outcomes and a Likert-scale survey for investigating students’ attitudes. The attitude survey was categorized and analyzed using four factors: a confidence/anxiety factor, a liking factor, a usefulness factor, and a training factor. The study results showed no significant change in students’ learning outcomes and attitudes towards using MWT. Due to a small sample size, use of a single intervention, and a limited period for the experiment were some of the major factors for insignificant results of this study. The information from this study can be the basis for further research to determine better ways to use MWT in teacher education classrooms.

    Forbes, Sarah A. (Indiana State University, 2015-05)
    Most high school students have not spent deliberate time preparing for their transition to college. Knowing this, institutions have developed a first-year seminar geared toward transitional issues inherent to a specific institution. While the research on these programs illustrates their utility, there appears to be an opportunity to further their success by incorporating peers as educators in the classroom. Bandura (1986) saw the potential of observational learning through peer modeling, though few researchers have studied first-year seminars from this theoretical perspective. Through a postpositivistic philosophical paradigm, this exploratory qualitative study utilized a phenomenological design to investigate two research questions: what are the academic and social challenges freshmen face in the transition to a small, private, highly selective, STEM-focused institution and how does the presence of sophomore peer educators in a first-year seminar influence freshman preparation for those fall quarter challenges. A total of 41 freshmen participated in the study. Data were collected through student journals and focus group interviews. The results of this study confirm that the transition to this specific type of institution is just as complex as the transition to other types of institutions, with students reporting similar academic and social challenges as found in the literature. However, their emphasis was on the core (i.e., academic) rather than the periphery (i.e., social) of the collegiate experience. The application of modeling, however, was not strong enough to determine whether observational learning influenced these transitional challenges.

    Franklin, Deanna M. (Indiana State University, 2015-05)
    This study examined strategies teachers are implementing for personal finance instruction in answer to the state financial-literacy mandates in Central Texas. One-on-one interviews, focus groups, and document analysis found that teachers are relying on personal experience, community resources, and Internet resources to instruct in personal finance in absence of personal finance curricula. No data emerged that school districts were providing resources; however, administrators are willing to provide resources if they were available. Teachers are using a variety of creative methods to enhance personal financial literacy in the classroom. Sporadic in-service/professional-development opportunities were available to train teachers in personal financial-literacy instruction; however, many teachers opted not to participate in those events, selecting to depend on their own personal experiences as background. Data from this study also found that there was no evidence of teachers being involved in the curriculum-change process for personal financial-literacy education.

    Countermine, Bradley (Indiana State University, 2015-05)
    This study aimed to shed light on the current state of educational reform rhetoric through an analysis of previous attempts to shape public education for the benefit of all. Analyzing Eugene V. Debs’s and John Dewey’s views on democracy and education during the Progressive Era promotes a version and vision of education that inspires people to think critically, to navigate contemporary society, and to acknowledge current issues within public education and United States society at large. Because education both reflects society and has the power to transform it, the struggle for fair, equitable, and enlightening education is paramount to the success of future generations within any society. By linking Progressive Era educational reform rhetoric to issues prevalent in United States educational reform today, I illustrate the consistencies between both periods and the underlying fundamental social, economic, and political issues shaping both educational and societal reform in the 21st century. Further research can focus on intervening historical variables especially as they contribute toward the motivation behind the current corporate educational reform movement and the push toward privatization at the expense of public schools created to make education the great equalizer.

    Bierman Mulvey, Nichole A. (Indiana State University, 2014-12)
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of large-group, explicit, story grammar vocabulary instruction during shared storybook reading on the narrative retell skills of preschoolers. Two preschool classrooms in rural, southeastern Illinois participated in the study. The study examined narrative retell ability via the Test of Narrative Retell-Preschool. Scores were compared for the experimental group, who received instruction from the investigator, to the control group, who received instruction from their regular classroom teacher. The study also explored instructional practices during shared storybook reading through observational checklists of recorded sessions. The results of the study indicated that students who received experimental instruction showed significant gains in scores for character, setting, and emotion on the Test of Narrative Retell-Preschool, but these gains were not significantly higher than the control group students, who also showed significant gains in scores throughout the six-week study.

    McBride, Jonica H. (Indiana State University, 2014-12)
    This study considered the impact of explicit teaching of misconceptions regarding randomness on cognitive growth of preservice teachers. Specifically, the purpose was to compile and validate instructional materials that facilitate preservice teachers’ conceptual understandings of randomness. The quasiexperimental design compared the cognitive effects of the instructional materials. Hence, in addition to the instructional materials, assessment instruments were compiled and validated. These items were intended to illuminate the cognitive growth resulting from the treatment instruction. The convenience sample of 67 students represented approximately one third of the teacher-education students enrolled in a mathematics education content course at this institution. Three sections were chosen and then two were randomly assigned to the experimental course (pooled to form one treatment group) that included a brief task-based module on misconceptions of randomness in the probability unit and one was assigned to the traditional course that did not include the experimental module. The participants were pretested and posttested for evidence of misconceptions regarding randomness. The data were analyzed using parametric and nonparametric tests for means and proportions. Results indicated that there were no significant differences found between the groups on total posttest scores; however, the treatment group did show a significant increase in scores from the pretest to the posttest (gain scores). An item analysis revealed significant differences between the groups’ posttest scores on three of the assessment items and a proportional analysis indicated that the treatment instruction had a significant effect on evidence of two of the misconceptions. Explicit instruction on misconceptions may not be sufficient to overcome all invalid probabilistic reasoning involving randomness; however, it appears that addressing the common misconceptions of randomness has the potential to remedy preservice teachers’ mistaken ideas that lead to incorrect probabilistic reasoning and possible transmission of invalid reasoning to future students.

    El Raggas, Abdelsalam A. Mustafa (Indiana State University, 2014-12)
    This study investigate d the writing difficulties that Libyan graduate students encounter while attending universities in the United State s. Libyan graduate students have difficulties in writing effective paragraphs and essays Most of their academic writing tasks have numerous grammatical errors and their writing style appears elementary like . The main purpose of this study was to diagnose writing issues such as grammar, unity, style, diction, and language interference that the students encounter and find solutions for existing problems. A mixed methods approach was employed in this study. One hundred Libyan graduate students studying at U. S. universities were sought as part icipants. Data were collected by using an online questionnaire that consisted of 14 multiple choice questions, four open end ed questions and two writing tasks. In the writing part, the participants were asked to write tw o different topics. Error analysis was used to analyze the participants’ mistakes. The analysis of the writing samples focused on thesis, unity, style, and diction and grammatical mistakes. The findings have revealed that the most common difficulty encount ered by Libyan graduate students in writing is grammar. The common grammatical errors from the participants involved articles especially over use of the definite article the in many sentences. The study also showed that the majority of participants did not use writing techniques such as brain storming, outlining and clustering to complete their writing assignments in English . It was also revealed that there was little emphasis in teaching English writing on other elements, such as techniques and style, communicating the content (idea and information) and learning vocabulary and diction (knowing the correct use of the word). Therefore, teaching methods that Libyan teachers frequently use in teaching writing were not adequate in terms of preparing the Liby an students for appropriate levels of academic writing and did not help them to be more creative in writing since writing is not just grammatical rules. This study has also indicated that the majority of the participants, 84.5%, did not do any collaborativ e work activities, such as peer editing, proofreading, and so forth in writing class es in Li bya It has been observed that some participants relied on both the first language thinking and translation while composing in English to complete their writing tasks. Some participants employed some similar rhetorical strategies of their first language when composing in English. The rhetorical impact of the first language, Arabic, has been shown in some cases for example, repetition. It appeared from their writing samples that the participants were not acquainted with various writing styles and purpose s of writing in English . Lack of variation and misapplication of some cohesive devices in the writing samples were also revealed. Some of the participants found difficulty in staying on topic in the paragraph. In other words, supporting sentences may not be related to the main idea of the paragraph. This may be due to different reasons, such as language interference. This study suggested many recommendations that will improve teaching writing in Libya.

    Alharbi, Mohammed (Indiana State University, 2014-12)
    The purpose of this mixed method study, quantitative and descriptive, was to determine whether the first-middle grade (seventh grade) students at Saudi schools are able to learn and use the Autodesk Maya software to interact and create their own 3-D models and animations and whether their use of the software influences their study habits and their understanding of the school subject matter. The study revealed that there is value to the science students regarding the use of 3-D software to create 3-D models to complete science assignments. Also, this study aimed to address the middle-school students’ ability to learn 3-D software in art class, and then ultimately use it in their science class. The success of this study may open the way to consider the impact of 3-D modeling on other school subjects, such as mathematics, art, and geography. When the students start using graphic design, including 3-D software, at a young age, they tend to develop personal creativity and skills. The success of this study, if applied in schools, will provide the community with skillful young designers and increase awareness of graphic design and the new 3-D technology. Experimental method was used to answer the quantitative research question, are there significant differences applying the learning method using 3- D models (no 3-D, premade 3-D, and create 3-D) in a science class being taught about the solar system and its impact on the students’ science achievement scores? Descriptive method was used to answer the qualitative research questions that are about the difficulty of learning and using Autodesk Maya software, time that students take to use the basic levels of Polygon and Animation parts of the Autodesk Maya software, and level of students’ work quality.

    AlNajdi, Sameer M. (Indiana State University, 2014-08)
    This purpose of this study was to investigate students’ perceptions and the role of their gender, level of experience, and interaction between gender and level of experience toward using a web-based learning management system, Jusur, in the Saudi universities. A questionnaire was sent through the National Center of E-Learning and Distance Education, NCEL, to students who used Jusur though the second semester of the academic year 2013-2014. A total of 132 students participated in this study. The findings showed students had positive perceptions toward using Jusur, and there were no significant differences between men and women in their perceptions. First-time users and experienced users also showed no statistically significant differences and there were no statistically significant differences based on interaction between gender and level of experience.

    Bauer, Renee Noel (Indiana State University, 2014-05)
    Living-learning communities, although not a novel concept, have been known to promote student performance and a sense of collegiality. Because nursing is essential to the medical profession, nursing student retention and pass rates are of paramount importance. Attrition tends to happen to nursing students in their first formative years (Newton & Moore, 2009). Therefore, this study was conducted to explore findings associated with living arrangements and residential factors promoting and deterring retention. Although most studies on this topic have utilized quantitative methods, this qualitative comparative case study, involving two universities in Indiana during the winter of 2014, examined the personal experiences of 14 students residing or having resided in a nursing-themed living-learning community. The investigation searched for themes in mentoring and explored if and how mentoring was used. A symbiotic relationship was found among the various themes identified revealing that the dynamics of the living-learning community offer a strong network for mentoring and promoting the academic, social, and personal development of the nursing student that, in turn, promotes retention and program completion. Additionally, the resident assistant in the living-learning community was found to be of central importance in sustaining the positive dynamic. Implications for practice that are thought to be of most use in carefully building and sustaining a living--learning community were derived from the themes.

    Brown, Roderick S. (Indiana State University, 2014-08)
    This study investigated potential causes of developmental English placement among recent African-American high school graduates enrolled at a community college. Participants were four men and five women from lower- and lower-middle economic backgrounds who had completed an entry-level writing assessment prior to enrollment. An electronic survey was administered to all participants and included questions about literacy experiences in elementary, middle, and high school. Using an ethnographic approach to thematic narrative analysis, the author compared the literacy narratives of students who had tested into college-level composition with those who had tested into developmental English. Results indicated that participants who had tested into developmental English perceived fewer connections with parents and teachers and held lower standards for their academic achievement than their peers who had tested into college-level composition. The author encourages future research on the impact of gender, socioeconomic status, and home language on writing placement among African-American students and concludes with recommendations for curricularists, instructional designers, and policymakers.

    Vemulapalli, Bhargavi (Indiana State University, 2014-08)
    This study explored the factors affecting the retention rates of freshman students in the College of Technology (COT) at Indiana State University. Literature supports that factors such as age, gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and parental education are valid variables affecting the retention rates of freshman student populations across the United States. Also included in the list of valid retention variables are pre-college factors including high school curriculum, SAT/ACT scores, and high school GPA. Environmental factors such as living in dorms or being a commuter student, working on campus or off campus, and number of hours working per week are also considered valid variables affecting retention. Moreover, academic and social experiences are among the valid variables affecting the retention rates of freshman. Characteristics of universities and students vary among the populations. Hence making note that Indiana State University is unique, factors affecting the freshmen retention rate were studied. This study explored the data recorded by the university for years 2008 through 2013. The impact of factors such as ethnicity, high school GPA, and SAT/ACT scores was studied. The university does not have records of marital status of students and information regarding their employment; hence the impact of being traditional and non-traditional students on retention rates was not studied. Analysis of data collected through the survey and the Business Intelligence Department at ISU affirms that retention rates did vary over the past five-year period. Ethnicity, SAT/ACT scores, and high school GPA impacted the freshman retention rates in the COT at ISU. Summarization of the results reveals that both African Americans and a composite group entitled others that was comprised of American Indians, Asian Americans, Hispanics, multiracial, and those who had not reported their ethnicity are at risk of dropping out of school by end of the freshman fall semester. Students who have SAT scores of lower than 899, high school GPA of less than 2.50, and those who have not reported their SAT scores or high school GPA are more prone to drop out of school by the end of the freshman fall semester. The survey questionnaire consisting of 33 questions revealed that the students are highly self-motivated and have a strong desire to achieve a degree. Students also expressed their worries about the debt that might be accumulated in the process of degree completion. Students expressed that they were satisfied with the quality of teaching in the COT; however, they also mentioned that they might consider leaving the COT if the teaching quality depreciates.

    Walters, Linda (Indiana State University, 2014-05)
    Many nnrsing programs use standardized testing packages in order to evaluate students' content mastery as well as predict probability of passing the National Council Licensure for Registered Nurses (NCLEX-RN). Instead of a diagnosis for weak content areas, programs implement testing policies in the belief that such policies ensure student success on the N CLEX-RN examination. In addition to the use of the standardized examinations to ensure success on N CLEX-RN and in subsequent Registered Nurse (RN) practice, most nursing programs use simulation to prepare students for practice. What is not known is whether simulation promotes better content mastery as students' progress through nursing programs. Therefore the purpose of this study was to determine whether there were significant differences between two student cohorts, one with no exposure to simulation and one with one hour of exposure to simulation, on the Assessment Technology Institute® (ATI) Nursing Care of the Children RN content mastery series (CMS) examination at the end of a pediatric course in a Baccalaureate nursing program. This study also determined that there was a significant difference between Cohort 1 scores and Cohort 2 scores on the ATI® RN Comprehensive Predictor, which these students took upon completion of a baccalaureate nursing program. Simulation use demonstrated no statistical significance in high-stakes testing when compared to traditional methods of nursing education. Nursing research needs to move forward and find ways that faculty can become prepared to use best practices regardless of what is being taught to prepare students for licensure. Benner (1984) clearly advocated the importance of experiential learning in nursing curriculum. However, knowing about resources available to improve the overall curriculum is the key to maintaining the high standards expected by stakeholders. The final competency is demonstrated upon passing the NCLEX-RN. With resources made available to faculty by the Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN) Institute, simulation and highstakes examinations have two true connections in all areas of the healthcare field, and these are patient safety and patient satisfaction. Clinical decision-making skills are expected upon graduation regardless of practice location (American Association of Colleges of Nursing, 2008).

    Gimbert, Tonya L. (Indiana State University, 2013-12)
    A review of the literature indicates an absence of studies about compliance officers working in higher education institutions belonging to the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). The current qualitative study explored the perceptions of compliance officers in the field of intercollegiate athletics at NCAA Division I institutions in regards to a need for a formalized compliance curriculum. Limited information is currently available about NCAA Division I compliance officers or their perceptions. One research study was conducted with the Pacific-10 conference compliance officers on morality and moral reasoning. In this study, semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with a sample of nine participants from diverse backgrounds. The research was conducted and analyzed over an eight-month period. The primary themes that emerged from the study were (a) experiential learning, (b) hard and soft skills, (c) curricula, (d) image, (e) complexity, (f) interpersonal skills, (g) unnecessary certification, and (h) physical environment. Recommendations for future research included expanding the sample incorporating NCAA Division I conference compliance commissioners and developing a compliance curriculum.

    Baker, Tanya Michelle (Indiana State University, 2013-12)
    This quantitative study examined the relationships and effects of women’s learning styles and achievement and success at a Midwestern, private, Catholic, liberal arts women’s undergraduate program. The primary focus was on first-year female students’ learning styles and how these learning styles may affect their GPAs and decisions to persist to the next academic year. There is a lack of research dedicated to female student learning styles as they relate to student success and achievement, which prompted this endeavor. Kolb’s Learning Style Inventory 3.1 was used to determine student-preferred style of learning. Experiential learning theory justified use of the theoretical model underlying this research as it encompasses the entire individual experience of learning and views learning as a process that occurs as an exchange of internal and external mechanisms. This study aimed to determine specific learning styles of women that tend to achieve and persist at higher rates as well as what specific women’s learning styles require in teaching methods and environmental changes in order to assist women of different learning styles in succeeding. The inventory was administered to 25 first-year, traditional, female students during the spring semester of 2013. GPA and registration information were gathered on each participant at the end of the spring semester and paired with the LSI she had completed at the beginning of the semester. The results of this quantitative study rendered no significance in female student learning style in predicting GPA or persistence. The results may be attributed to the low number of participants, as this reduced power within the statistical models used. However, the descriptive statistics indicated the Assimilating style learner held the highest GPA and highest persistence rate, which may indicate a preferred teaching style used at this institution. Further research is needed with a larger group of first-year female students in order to gain insight into the effects of learning style on GPA and persistence.
  • A Qualitative Analysis of the Example of George Orwell: From His Lived Experience to Ours

    Gallagher, Christian Webster (Indiana State University, 2013-12)
    This study examined the manner in which students enrolled in the Honors program at Indiana State University responded to intensive, seminar-based exploration into the life and writing of George Orwell. A common trend among those who teach Orwell, especially at the high school level, is to teach the man’s literature while focusing little attention upon his life. How much more valuable can Orwell scholarship be for students when they study his work in relation to the author’s unique lived experience? Can a more thorough study of this life and literature inspire students to draw more from their own experiences, or become more aware and more critical of the world around them? This research was conducted on the campus of Indiana State University, in Terre Haute, Indiana, and used participants who were enrolled in the Honors program at that university. Specifically, participants who had enrolled in a 300-level Orwell course taught by Dr. Michael Shelden were recruited for the study, which then ran concurrently with that course. Qualitative methods used to gather data from those participants included a questionnaire, seminar sessions, and individual interviews. This study indicated that George Orwell’s biography, i.e., his “lived experience,” is a very important part of Orwellian scholarship, one that allows students to appreciate and understand his writing on a much more meaningful level. The study also provided valuable insights as to Orwell’s continued relevance for students of today, as well as the manner in which studying Orwell—with the proper context—can influence and empower students.

    Waite, Adel Marlane (Cunningham Memorial Library, Terre Haute, Indiana State University., 2017-12)
    The problems under investigation included (a) Did a directed study of mathematics vocabulary significantly affect student performance levels on standardized mathematical questions? and (b) Did the strategies used in this study significantly affect student performance levels on standardized mathematical questions? The population consisted of eighth-grade pre-algebra students from two different middle schools in southern Indiana. This quasi-experimental study was of a quantitative, repeated-measures design, using a population of approximately 140 eighthgrade students with a control sample of 37 and an experimental sample of 52. I performed a repeated measures ANCOVA to analyze scores from a mathematics vocabulary posttest for each participant, by the treatment and control groups, while controlling for student pretests scores. Results showed that after adjusting for pretest scores (F = 20.12, p < 0.0001), students who received intervention through a directed study of mathematical vocabulary had significantly higher posttest scores compared to the group who did not receive treatment. Students in the treatment group were required to keep a vocabulary journal, part of which was a self-rating of their understanding of each term. At the conclusion of the study, I assigned journal/understanding ratings for each term in the participants’ journals. To decide if the journal/understanding scores were associated with pretest and posttest scores, I performed a Pearson’s correlation analysis using the continuous variables of journal/understanding score and pretest and posttest scores. There was no significant correlation to the pretest scores for either the student self-rating journal/understanding scores (r = -0.04, p = 0.756) nor the v journal/understanding scores that I assigned(r = -0.04, p = 0.756). The results of the correlation analysis showed that the rating of students on their own journal/understanding (r = 0.23, p = 0.103) did not have any correlation with the posttest scores; however, the rating given by the teacher on the journal/understanding of the student was positively correlated with the posttest scores (r = 0.38, p = 0.005). Higher posttest scores were associated with higher journal/understanding scores, with a moderately positive correlation. School professionals such as teachers, administrators, and curriculum directors can assess and review the intervention done in this study and explore replicating or incorporating the approach in their curriculum. With the increase in test scores due to a directed study of mathematical vocabulary, school officials may consider this approach to increase the learning of students and as a result, increase their test scores on high-stakes examinations.

    Nur, Abdi Hashi (Cunningham Memorial Library, Terre Haute, Indiana State University., 2017-12)
    The purpose of this mixed methods research study was to investigate whether the relationships between education and medication and healthy exercise adherence were the same among female and male Type 2 diabetic adult learners. The purpose included also exploring whether registered nurses would alter their approach to diabetic adult learners’ education on medication and healthy exercise adherence considering patients’ gender and education levels. The study also investigated the correlation between diabetes duration and medication and healthy exercise adherence. The research investigation employed mixed methods sequential explanatory design using qualitative data to help explain the quantitative findings. The quantitative study was based on preexisting data of 102 Type 2 diabetic adult learners collected by the researcher. The qualitative study was a phenomenological investigation based on semi-structured interviews of 10 registered nurses from Terre Haute Regional Hospital. The research investigation suggested no significant interaction between gender and education levels regarding medication and healthy exercise adherence (respectively p = .746; p = .664). In contrast, the findings in the qualitative analyses suggested that the registered nurses would change their approach to patients’ education on medication adherence based on education levels, not gender. The nurses expressed also that healthy exercise adherence among Type 2 diabetic adults was individual based, i.e., education attainment and gender had no impact on patients’ healthy exercise adherence. The quantitative analyses also suggested an inverse correlation between how long Type two diabetic adult learners have been diagnosed with the iv disease and their healthy exercise adherence. The longer patients were diabetic the less they were adherent to healthy exercise routines. The study recommended that more investigation on Type 2 diabetic adult learners would be useful to understand the impact of the interaction between gender and education attainment on medication and healthy exercise routines. The study suggested as well that future investigations should include larger sample sizes of study subjects and more representation of male Type 2 diabetic adult learners. They should as well include more representation of minority and young Type 2 diabetic populations. Moreover, this study suggested future investigations which include other groups of diabetes educators such as specialists from dietary and pharmacy professions.

    Challa, Sowmya (Cunningham Memorial library, Terre Haute,Indiana State University, 2017-12)
    The purpose of this study is to identify any trends in personality traits of students at a midwestern university along with the influence of gender, choice of STEM or non-STEM academic major, and level of education on personality traits. The chosen mid-western university is Indiana State University (ISU) located in Terre Haute, Indiana. This study investigated the personality traits of student’s through administering Goldberg’s (1999) International Personality Item Pool of the Big Five Broad Domains of Personality. The personality profiles of students at ISU who have taken the questionnare are summarized. The personality profiles of female students were analyzed further with special focus to identify the role of level of education and choice of major among female students. Based on the responses of the study’s subjects, there are significant relationships found between gender and all of the big five personality traits. Level of education, graduate or undergraduate, had significant impact on extraversion, agreeability, concientiousness, and emotional stability. Choice of STEM and non-STEM major impacted emotional stability for subjects in general but its influence is not significant among female subjects. Choice of STEM or non-STEM major had a significant influence on the intelligence/imagination trait for both male and female subjects. Level of education did not have any significant influence on intellegence/imagination. Overall, this study found a few significant relationships between Big-Five personality traits and identified categorizations.

    Alrehaili, Bakheet Wasel (2013-12)
    The main objective of this study was to investigate the attitudes of undergraduate mathematics students in Saudi Arabia towards online mathematics education. Comparisons were made among male, female, underclassmen, and upperclassmen undergraduate mathematics students at the University of Tabuk (UT). Of 161 students enrolled in the mathematics program, 118 mathematics students responded to the survey. The sample consisted of 57 male and 61 female students. A 2 x 2 ANOVA test was used to reveal any statistically significant differences between the various groups based on gender and educational level. The findings showed that underclassmen did not differ significantly from upperclassmen in their attitudes toward online mathematics, male students did not differ significantly from female students in their attitudes toward online mathematics, and there was no significant interaction between educational level and gender in terms of the students’ attitudes toward online mathematics education.

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