• An Exploratory Study of the Career Aspirations and Self-Perceptions of University Honors Program Students

      Gresham, Pamela Malone (2010-07-20)
      This study examined the career aspirations and self-perceptions of University Honors Program students at Indiana State University. The current trend in education, especially gifted and talented education, focuses on science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). How has this impacted the gifted and talented population when they become young adults ready to pursue college and careers? Are the interests and skills of University Honors Program students aligned with the majors they have chosen? What are their interests and skills? The research was conducted on the campus of Indiana State University. This is a public higher education campus whose University Honors Program has about 500 members. The sample consisted of 20 University Honors Students. Each participant was asked to complete the Self-Directed Search Assessment Booklet: A Guide to Educational and Career Planning (4th ed.). This instrument, created by Holland, is used to assist in career planning. A three letter code resulted from the Self-Directed Search (4th ed.) (Psychological Assessment Resources [PAR], 2004). The results of the study revealed a variety of majors, although STEM majors were the most prevalent. One identical match between the three letter career aspiration codes and the codes developed from the survey. However, three participants’ codes included the same three letters in different combinations and eleven participants had an acceptable match of two of the three letters. Five students had only one common occupational letter. Multipotentiality and Millennial characteristics were examined. The University Honors Program sample had strong Investigative and Social scores.
    • Perceptions of Faculty Caring: Comparison of Distance and Traditional Graduate Nursing Students

      Hall, Lea R. (2010-07-20)
      The concept of caring has played a vital role in nursing education. Role modeling has been identified as the primary way to teach caring and has been investigated extensively. As caring has evolved, so has the ways in which we educate nurses. Countless institutions now offer distance education programs in nursing in an effort to address the nurse and nurse educator shortage. It is unclear, however, from the nursing education literature if the modeling of caring can be transferred to students in a distance learning environment. This study investigated the impact of learning environment, program satisfaction, and persistence on graduate nursing students’ perceptions of faculty caring measured by the Organizational Climate for Caring Questionnaire. The 162 participants were recruited from 76 different accredited institutions throughout five states. Preliminary review of the data revealed no variability in persistence among the sample as all students were planning to persist or were graduating. Therefore a two-way analysis of variance was conducted and found no significant interaction between learning environment and student satisfaction and no significant main effect for learning environment. Satisfied students, however, did perceive their faculty as more caring than unsatisfied students. Results from this study indicate that as students feel cared for by their faculty, they are more satisfied with their programs of study, which may lead to better outcomes and increased student retention rates. Furthermore, no differences were found among the three learning environments indicating that role modeling of caring can occur in the distance environment as in the traditional face-to-face environment. Nurse educators need to be aware of both caring and non-caring behaviors they portray regardless of learning environment, and the impact they have on student satisfaction and student persistence.
    • The Correlation between Academic Achievements, Self-Esteem and Motivation of Female Seventh Grade Students: A Mixed Methods Approach

      Henman, Karen (2010-07-20)
      During the early grades, female students generally display enthusiasm for learning science. As these same students go though school, however, their level of motivation changes. Once female students reach high school, many lack the confidence to take chemistry and physics. Then, in college they lack the background necessary to major in chemistry, physics, and engineering. This study used quantitative data to investigate the correlation between female students' motivation, self-esteem, and standards-based state science achievement tests combined with a qualitative survey of student’s perceptions of parents’ attitudes toward science. The Children’s Science Motivation Inventory (CAIMI) determined students’ levels of motivation toward science. The Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory (CSEI) ascertained female students’ overall self-esteem. The ISTEP+ exam given in the 6th grade measured the students’ academic achievement in science. Trained examiners who interviewed students comprised the qualitative component of the study. Each examiner elaborated on selected questions from the CSEI and CAIMI to determine the students’ perceptions of parental attitudes toward science. A multiple regression was used to determine the correlation between self-esteem, motivation, and achievement in science. The correlation was strongest between motivation. Interviews revealed parents and teachers had the most influence on students' perception of science. In understanding the correlation between female students’ motivation, achievement, and self-esteem, schools will gain further knowledge into how students relate to the academic field of science and can thus promote females' participation in more science courses in high school. This then will provide females the necessary background knowledge to pursue a greater number of science majors in college.
    • Science Museums, Centers and Professional Development: Teachers Self Reflection on Improving Their Practice

      Ogbomo, Queen O. (2010-07-20)
      The purpose of this qualitative case study research was to ascertain the significance of the professional development programs workshops organized by a science museum and a science center in two Midwestern cities. The research investigated the effect the workshops had on the instructional practice of the participating elementary science teachers. More specifically, this study was guided by the following research question: How do the professional development programs at museums help teachers change the way they teach and consider science in their classroom? The core of this study consists of case studies of six elementary school teachers who were identified as a result of their participation in the museum and science center workshops and an instructor from the museum and another instructor from the science center. Teachers‟ selfefficacy regarding the teaching of science was sought through a Likert-style survey and triangulated with classroom observations and interviews of individual teachers. The findings of this study revealed two overarching themes: one, that the workshops were beneficial and two, that it did not improve instructional practice. The following are the factors identified as reasons for the workshops being beneficial: 1) the opportunity to build their content knowledge, 2) opportunity to experience and discuss the materials: 3) opportunity to collaborate with colleagues: 4) workshop materials and resources are linked to state goals: and 5) that they promote teacher confidence. The teachers who thought the workshops did not improve their instructional practice gave the following reasons: 1) they already had a strong background in science: 2) there was no follow-up activity: 3) the loss of a full day of teaching: and 4) the time constraint to implement what was learned. Though this study utilized a small sample of teachers, those involved in this study felt they acquired knowledge that would be either beneficial to them or to their students and they particularly enjoyed the inquiry-based activities that were conducted in either the museum or the science center workshops.
    • Language Learning Strategies of English as a Foreign Language University in Korea

      Yang, Mihwa (2010-07-20)
      The purpose of this research was twofold. The first was to investigate which English learning strategies are frequently used by EFL Korean university students, and the second was to discover the differences in the use of English learning strategies by self-assessed language proficiency and gender. This study investigated the strategy usage of 288 Korean university students through administering a demographic questionnaire and Oxford’s (1990) SILL. Independent t-tests, a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), post-hoc Scheffé tests, and chi-square tests were performed at the .05 level of significance to answer research questions. The findings indicated that Korean university students used a medium range of strategies. Compensation strategies were used most frequently whereas memory strategies were used least frequently among Korean university learners. Language proficiency levels had significant effects on the overall strategy use, the six categories of strategy, and individual strategy use items. The present study also found that gender did not affect the overall strategy usage of EFL Korean university learners, the six categories of strategy, and individual strategy use. In sum, this research provides English teachers and curriculum planners with validated information on strategies currently used by EFL Korean university learners. The findings allow English teachers and curriculum planners to understand which overall strategies are used by EFL Korean learners.
    • Educators' Opinions Towards the Factors that increase Educational Television Programs and Channels' Effectiveness: A Survey on a sample of Teachers and Inspectors in the schools of Kuwait

      AlShammari, Fahad Z. (2010-07-22)
      The study aimed to explore the educators' opinions to increasing the effectiveness of educational television channels and programs to make them a positive influence on academic achievements. In addition, part of the objective was to investigate if the factors' priority arrangements are related to the sample educators' teaching experience, gender, and level of education. The study sample was 410 educators in the State of Kuwait, 175 males and 235 females. Of the sample, 233 have bachelors' degree and 177 hold master's and Ph.D. degrees. The researcher created a survey that measures the educator's attitudes towards educational television programs and the factors that increase the effectiveness of educational television channels. The seven factors were educational qualification, media qualification, financial factor, time factor, relation to the curriculum, curriculum overlap factor and presentation method. The result pointed out that all factors were of great importance from the educators point view, where the highest factor of importance was relation to the curriculum factor, then educational qualification, and media qualification. The results showed that the years of experience of educators were not significant. The result results of the study pointed out that educators with bachelor's degree felt the educational qualification factor and curriculum overlap factor in the educational television program has a big impact, more so than their peers who have master's or Ph.D. degrees. Also, the results showed that male educators gave more importance to the financial factor than female educators. The study concluded with other educational applications and recommendations on the research subject.
    • The Attitude of Middle Eastern Faculty toward the use of Distance Education in the Middle Eastern State Universities: A Comparative Study between the Middle Eastern Faculty and USA Faculty

      AlTameemy, Farooq A. (2010-07-27)
      Although distance education is offered in many academic institutions, specifically universities, in most of the developed countries, utilizing it as a part of the educational system in the Middle East is still in the development stage and not at the same stage as Western and European countries. Of the institutions in the Middle East that have started utilizing distance education, many face difficulties, an example of which is that these distance programs are not accredited by the educational system in the country. In turn, this leads to other problems for graduates of these distance programs, such as inability to find a job or inability to go for a higher education degree.As the faculty members of the universities in the Middle East represent a strong and an effective part of the education stake holders in the Middle East, this study investigates their attitudes toward the use of distance education in Middle Eastern universities. A comparison between the attitudes of the faculty members in the Middle East and faculty members in the United States was conducted.The study involved 139 faculty members from the Middle East, who live and work in Yemen, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, and Bahrain; and 126 participants from the United States, who work at various universities. To investigate their attitudes toward the use of distance education, a web-based survey was created in two versions, Arabic and English, and a link to it was sent out to participants via email.The study results showed negative attitudes of Middle Eastern faculty members in the use of technology, culture and social, economic, location, policies, educational, academic achievement and availability of distance education tools factors. When compared to the faculty members in the USA, Middle Eastern faculty members showed more negative attitudes toward the use of distance education.
    • Border Pedagogy and the Acculturation of Korean Students in U.S. Institutions of High Education

      Green, Randy (2010-09-22)
      This study aimed at identifying learning and teaching strategies that can promote the process of acculturation for Korean students in institutions of higher education in the United States. In particular, the study attempted to pinpoint ways in which these students and their instructors can become aware of and resist educational tendencies and approaches that promote hegemony and devalue cultural perspectives and experiences as well as construct meaning within the context of a worldview that is influenced by both Korean and U.S. cultures. It was hoped that the identification of these skills and strategies would aid both students and instructors in developing the ability to become successful border crossers, as defined by Giroux‟s (2005) border pedagogy, as well as culturally enlightened citizens of the global community. The study was qualitative in nature and consisted of a series of interviews with six South Korean students (three undergraduate and three graduate) enrolled in a mid-sized institution of higher education in the U.S. Midwest, six U.S. faculty members at the same university who had had Korean students in their courses, and four faculty members from Korea who were teaching at the university. A review of the literature included an examination of Positivism and its role in U.S. education, border pedagogy, particularly as it relates to international education and the process of acculturation, processes of cross-cultural adaptation, studies that have been conducted about South Korean students at U.S. institutions of higher education, historical influences on Korean higher education, and teaching and learning strategies common in South Korean universities. The study was able to identify several teaching and learning strategies that were interpreted as encouraging the process of acculturation and enabling students to cross borders. These strategies appeared to be supportive of the empowerment of and dialogue between students and teachers and strove to incorporate the cultural perspectives of both parties into the teaching and learning process. The study also identified a number of practices and perceptions that appeared to promote the assimilation of these students. In particular, there was little evidence that suggested the participants had reflected on or resisted influences and educational tendencies which could possibly promote the process of hegemony. The development of strategies that combat this tendency and facilitate a demystification of the educational process is recommended.
    • An Activity Theory Exploratory of the Differential Impact on Students' and Professors' Experiences in How Laptops are Used for Instruction

      Niyikora, Jean Pierre (2010-09-22)
      This exploratory study examined the differential impact of a laptop initiative in two general education classrooms during the winter term session of the 2009-2010 academic year at Midwest institution of higher learning. Beyond observing these two classrooms, a total of 12 student volunteers and two instructors were selected from the laptop using and non-laptop using classrooms for focus group interviews. In total, the researcher conducted 22 classroom observations per each class. Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) was used as a tool to analyze different tensions that occurred within or between different components of the laptop activity for both classrooms. The researcher also collected evidence to explain the justification for using laptops in the classroom, the benefits, disadvantages, and the reason behind expressed reluctance to applying laptops in instruction. Findings from qualitative data revealed that students from the laptop using class appeared more enthusiastic about having a laptop for classroom activities than students in the non-laptop using classroom. The factors which contributed to such success were the instructor‟s motivation, the integration of the interactive software (DyKnow), tablets, and a well-organized pedagogy. The finding for this investigation have implications for educators, instructors, researchers, policymakers, and are intended to assist institutions of higher education especially those passionate to integrate laptop in learning.
    • Faculty Perceptions About Attributes and Barriers Impacting the Diffusion of Online Education in Two Saudi Universities

      Alhawiti, Mohammed Mfarij (2011-06-23)
      Recognizing that faculty are an essential part of the success of any distance education program, this study sought to examine faculty perceptions of attributes and barriers impacting diffusion of online education at two Saudi universities: Taif University and Tabuk University. More specifically, the study intended to (a) give an overview of faculty members’ current stage in the innovation-decision process in regards to online education, (b) examine faculty perceptions about attributes (motivating factors) and barriers (inhibiting factors) impacting diffusion of online education, (c) investigate the relationship between faculty members’ selected personal characteristics (including age, years of teaching, DE experience, gender, academic rank, nationality, and level of education) and their perceptions about attributes (motivating factors) and barriers (inhibiting factors) impacting diffusion of online education, (d) investigate the relationship between faculty members’ selected personal characteristics (including age, years of teaching, distance education experience, gender, academic rank, professional area, nationality, and level of education) and their stage in the innovation-decision process, and (e) demonstrate how these factors can be used to increase faculty adoption of online education to respond to the increasing demands for this kind of education. Rogers’ (1995) diffusion of innovation theory was employed to discuss the findings from this study and to reveal which attributes of innovation are perceived to be important in the innovation decision process by faculty members as they decide to adopt or reject online education. Data was collected using a self-administrated and cross-sectional questionnaire. The findings revealed that the most important attribute of WBDE was relative advantage and that the main barriers that prevented faculty members from adopting online education were technical expertise, infrastructure, and planning issues. The inferential analysis showed that distance education experience was a significant predictor for faculty perceptions about relative advantage, compatibility, observability, and complexity. It also showed that age, academic rank, and level of education were significant predictors of faculty perceptions of financial concerns as a barrier to WBDE. Moreover, the relationship between DE experience and faculty’s stage in the innovation-decision process was found to be statistically significant.
    • A Liberating Intent: The American Civics Curriculum in Illinois High Schools and the Development of a Critically Constructive Citizenry

      Albear, Gustavo David (2011-07-18)
      Civics education and constructive criticality are not usually found within the same curriculum. In America the two concepts tend to be considered as antithetical in content and practice. Students and teachers do not approach education about the citizen‘s responsibilities with great necessity or urgency, and when they do approach the subject it is from the perspective of inherent rights that should not be questioned, since they are by birth granted, albeit only to some. The idea of criticality is also not considered to be part of the developmental need of a citizen, since the overall sentiment associated with it is one of negativity. However, a philosophical analysis of the foundational principles of both concepts demonstrates a singular genesis, one that has been obscured through the erroneous development of a citizenry for the sake of the maintenance of the status quo. This research develops a clearer picture of the state of civic education in the United States through a review of the pertinent literature in the field, including the historical texts considered to be foundational to American civics curricula, as well as the most prominent texts presently in use. The study clarifies this image further through the design and application of a philosophically analytic tool based on a hermeneutic review of concepts, predominant language usage, and critical reasoning. This extension is accomplished by scrutinizing a particular civics curriculum to determine its philosophical similarity to the concepts of the originating documents of the United States. A culminating summary of the results derived from the analysis concludes the study, along with some pedagogic suggestions that should help align future curricular designs more closely with the founding principles of the American republic.
    • Understanding Non-Native English-Speaking Teachers' Identity Construction and Transformation in the English-Speaking Community: A Closer Look at Past, Present, and Future

      Tseng, Shu-Chun (2011-07-20)
      Building on Kachru‟s (2005) diagram of World Englishes and Norton‟s (2000) theoretical conception of identity, the researcher acknowledges that each Non-Native English Speaking Teacher (NNEST) comes to the English-speaking community with a different variety of Englishes. Each believes in various cultural values and norms, and his or her identity is an ongoing process that can be impacted when he or she is immersed in different contexts. Using a qualitative approach, this study examined the way NNESTs construct their self-perceptions of English Language Teaching (ELT) professionalism based on social and educational experiences in their countries. In addition, the study examined how they reconstruct professional identity depending on current social and educational experiences in an English-speaking country, and how they contribute this newly-constructed sense of professionalism in future ELT practices. Findings revealed participants possessed less awareness of the importance of professional identity in their home countries, but the education offered through Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) programs in the United States played an essential role in raising this awareness. However, the participants‟ identity was impacted by feelings of inferiority. Most participants never thought that they were as competent as Native English Speaking Teacher‟s (NESTs) in terms of English teaching. Various contributing components, such as self-confidence, expectation, perception, investment, language ideology, and language proficiency played essential roles in the development of each NNEST‟s self-image. Having a TESOL program that provides practicums and social programs that connect NNESTs with NEST‟s and other people in the society where they are studying could impact the dissonance between expectation and reality of an NNEST's educational experience. However, each NNEST retains his or her own right to develop a positive or negative self-image by nurturing an active and open-minded attitude.
    • Perception of Social Presence in Asynchronous and Synchronous Online Discussion from The Perspective of Native and Non-Native Speaker

      Alruhaimi, Abdullah (2011-09-16)
      The technology innovation of telecommunication gave confidence to educational institutions to substitute some of their courses from traditional courses into virtual ones. This switch in education inspired globalization. The learners use either synchronous or asynchronous communication tools to interact with each other. Most previous studies in this field show that social presence is correlated with learner achievement satisfaction and interaction. So the researcher measured the level of social presence for both groups of learners, native and nonnative speakers, across both types of online communication, synchronous and asynchronous communication. The researcher conducted a 2x2 split-plot ANOVA design with repeated measure for this study. The four cells in this design help the researcher to find how every group differs in both discussion formats. The findings of this study will lend a hand to institutions, instructional designers, instructors, and software and hardware developers to improve and concentrate on preferable methods of communication for global virtual institutions. The researcher did not find a statistically significant difference between native and nonnative speakers across the methods of online communications. There was no statistically significant difference between the learners in general across the methods of online communications. But the reported low level of agreement toward the level of social presence in both methods of online communication emphasizes the importance for all people who are concerned about virtual education to work hand in hand to elevate the level of social presence in online learning.The researcher encourages those who are concerned about online learning, and education in general to be the early adopters of technology such as Smartphone applications and the advanced features of social networking such as Facebook and Google wave.
    • Teachers’ Perceptions toward Enhancing Learning through Multiple Intelligences Theory in Elementary School: A Mixed Methods Study

      Al-Wadi, Nouf I. (2012-01-19)
      The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of multiple intelligences theory on elementary students’ academic achievement and to investigate teacher perceptions of multiple intelligences theory. The multiple intelligences school that was chosen for this study was Edwin Rhodes Elementary School. The study examined Edwin Rhodes Elementary School performance via the California Academic Performance Index. Edwin Rhodes School scores were compared with similar traditional school scores and with gifted and talented scores. The study found that the multiple intelligences school performance was between traditional and gifted and talented school performances. The study also explored teachers’ perceptions at Edwin Rhodes School toward multiple intelligences theory using a cross-sectional survey. The results of the study showed that teachers were familiar with the theory of multiple intelligences, but they did not have formal education about it, either in a teacher education program or through professional development.
    • A study of Indiana State University's PDS partnerships through qualitative review of liaison activities,collaborative inquiry and teacher perceptions.

      Bolinger, Kevin Bruce (2012-04-11)
      The purpose of his study was to examine the characteristics of the Professional Development School partnership between Indiana State University and several local school sites to determine the extent of institutional commitment, the roles which are valued and practiced by university liaisons, and the types of collaborative inquiry research which are conducted by university and school personnel. A survey of school teachers within PDS school sites was conducted to elaborate on the perceptions and opinions about the funstions and results of the PDS partnership. A sample of 425 teachers was non-randomly selected from five PDS sites; 171 teachers completed and returned the survey. Additionally, 18 past and present university liaisons were surveyed to provide descriptions of both their activities and priorities as a liaison.Fourteen liaisons returned the survey. A review of the collaborative inquiry projects funded by the ISU PDS program over the past six years was conducted to classify the types of research occuring within the program. Sixty-six projects were examined.Results showed that classroom teacher's expectations of the program are commensurate with the goals of the ISU PDS program, but that 58% of the respondents could not or did not cite specific changes within the school resulting from the partnership. 70% of the respondents cited lack of involvement or lack of collaboration as a weakness of the ISU PDS program.The liaison survey results showed a high degree of disagreement between liaisons as to the priorities and performances of their roles as liaisons. The collaborative inquiry review showed a majority of qualitative projects primarily investigating instructional techniques or teaching methods.
    • The need for a master of science program in automotive technology management as perceived by automotive professionals.

      Peters, Randell W (2012-05-09)
      The opinions of automotive professionals regarding the importance of 24 content areas or topics relevant to automotive education beyond a four-year degree and the need for an automotive technology management master's degree were investigated.Sixteen similar four-year automotive programs were located and identified.No current master's degree level programs in automotive technology and or management were located within the United States.Literature regarding professional master's degrees were reviewed.A survey instrument was developed for collecting data.Evidence of validity was demonstrated for the survey.A Cronbach's Alpha of .833 indicated an acceptable level of internal consistency and reliability.Two distinct groups of automotive professionals were surveyed:faculty memebers currently teaching in a four year degree program,and graduates of the automotive four year program at Indiana State University.A total of 81 participants(55 graduates and 26 faculty) were contacted via telephone with 54 total respondents(29 graduates and 25 faculty).The 24 content areas or topics were ranked ordered according to the means.A multivariate analysis of variance and independent samples t-tests were conducted to evaluate differences between the groups.Frequency distribution indicated 77% of the respondents atleast somewhat agreed that automotive education beyond a bachelor's degree could lead to higher starting pay, and/or allow for advancement to higher paying management positions.The overall analysis appears to indicate automotive professionals perceived there is a need for such education.The information gathered in this study should provide direction for the type of courses and their content that should comprise a new master's degree program in automotive technology management,thus meeting the needs of industry and providing a path for further education for graduates of four-year automotive programs.
    • The relationship of attitude,social influence and self-efficacy to diabetes type II outcomes.

      Keefer-Ward, Autumn L (2012-05-09)
      The purpose of this study was to investigate the Attitude-Social Influence-Self Efficacy model and its relationship to Type II diabetes outcomes.One hundred-twelve adults ages 55-75 with Type II diabetes were recruited from a physician's office in West Central Indiana.Participants completed instruments that assessed (a)attitude,(b)social influence of the physician,(c)diabetes-specific self-efficacy and (d)diabetes-specific quality of life.A measurement of metabolic control was also obtained.Multiple regressions were performed using (a)quality of life,and (b)metabolic control as criterion varibales.Only one subscale of the self-efficacy variable scale,managing the Psychosocial Aspects of Diabetes,was found to be significant in predicting quality of life.None of the predictor variables were significant in predicting metabolic control.The author offers several explanations for the paucity of significant results.
    • The impact of personality and affect on college student's motives for marijuana use.

      Hawkins, Lindsey W (2012-05-09)
      Previous research has examined the relationship between motives for drinking and alcohol use. However, less research has been conducted on the relationship between motives for marijuana use and marijuana use/problems. This study attempted to examine what predictors of marijuana use and problems are mediated by motives for marijuana use, Prior research has identified several predictors of marijuana use including psychological distress, expectancies, sensation seeking, and various personality factors. In addition, previous studies have suggested that use-related problems are not merely a function of how much of a substance one consumes, but also one's motivation for using that substance. The current study tested a series of path models treating motives for marijuana use as mediators of the relationship between various affect-related and personality variables and marijuana use in a sample of college students who had used marijuana at least once in their lifetime (N =398, 60% female, mean age =19). Results suggested that Coping motives directly predict marijuana-related problems. Also, higher psychological distress and higher Relaxation and Tension Reduction expectancies predicted using marijuana for Coping reasons. Additionally, the relationship between Openness to Experience and marijuana use and between Perceptual and Cognitive Enhancement expectancies and use were mediated by Expansion motives (i.e., using marijuana to expand awareness), Higher levels of Perceived Peer Marijuana Use and Social/Sexual Facilitation expectancies predicted Social and Enhancement motives for marijuana use.The current study also suggested that psychological distress and Neuroticism redicts Conformity motives for marijuana use.In addition,Perceived Peer Marijuana Use and Neuroticism impacted marijuana outcomes directly as well as through alternate mediational pathways.Theoretical and practical implications of the results are present,as well as suggestions for future research.
    • The impact of creative problem solving for general education intervention teams on team member's ratings of treatment acceptability.

      Grimes, Jennifer L (2012-05-09)
      Many states require or recommend school-based,problem solving teams in an effort to develop interventions to address student and teacher needs.Often these teams have not been trained in a structured problem-solving process,which is thought to improve the quality of interventions developed by a team.Creative Problem Solving(CPS)is a problem-solving process developed from creativity and cognitive psychology literature and has been found to increase team effectiveness.CPS has been modified for use with school-based,problem-solving teams,which are called General Education Intervention(GEI)teams in the state of Indiana,to assist in developing quality interventions.This modified process is called CPS for GEI teams.School-based problem-solving teams,CPS and treatment acceptability literature were discussed.The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of training in CPS for GEI teams on team member's ratings of familiarity,acceptability and perceived effectiveness of interventions.A self-report instrument,developed from the literature,assessed team member's ratings of familiarity,acceptability and perceived effectiveness of positive,negative and consultation intervention types by problem severity.There were 89 participants from 23 elementary schools that completed pre and posttest surveys in this treatment(CPS-GEI trained)vs control(untrained)group experimental design.Findings indicated that training in CPS-GEI significantly increases teams member's familiarity ratings for all intervention types measured,acceptabilty ratings for all intervention types measured,acceptability ratings for positive interventions and perceived effectiveness ratings for consultation interventions.These findings suggest that training school-based,problem-solving teams in a specific process will increase team member's familiarity with interventions.Findings in this study do not support current treatment acceptability models suggesting that familiarity,acceptability,use,integrity and effectiveness are interrelated and that by changing one variable,others will change as a function of the interrelationship.
    • The impact of the September11,2001 tragedy on Saudi high school student's attitudes toward studying in the United States of America.

      Alzamil, Abdullah (2012-05-09)
      This thesis is a qualitative study of the Impact of September 11,2001 Tragedy on Saudi High School Student's Attitudes Studying in America.Its main aim is to 1)find the Saudi high school student's attitudes toward studying in the US,2)investigate in-depth the factors that make Saudi high school students choose a specific country to study in,3)identify the obstacles and barriers that prevent Saudi high school students from studying in the US due to the impact of September 11 attacks on the US from their perspectives,and 4)find out the Saudi high school student's suggestion's to solve these problems.The subjects of the study are 15 high school students coming from frive educational zones in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.Their ages range from 18-19.The data collected are based on their responses in both the focus group discussion and the in-depth interviews.The subject's responses were audio-recorded and analysed.The main findings of the research are:one,there do appear to be negative attitudes among Saudi students toward studying abroad in general and in the US specifically.Two,the majority of the students considered their safe and friendly enviornment and their parents worries and concerns as the major factors that affect their choice of study in a particular country.Quality of education was placed as the least important factor.Three,Saudi students believe that visa restrictions and regulations and new rules applied on Saudis are among the barriers that prevent them from studying in the United States.