• Perception of Social Presence in Asynchronous and Synchronous Online Discussion from The Perspective of Native and Non-Native Speaker

      Alruhaimi, Abdullah (2011-09-16)
      The technology innovation of telecommunication gave confidence to educational institutions to substitute some of their courses from traditional courses into virtual ones. This switch in education inspired globalization. The learners use either synchronous or asynchronous communication tools to interact with each other. Most previous studies in this field show that social presence is correlated with learner achievement satisfaction and interaction. So the researcher measured the level of social presence for both groups of learners, native and nonnative speakers, across both types of online communication, synchronous and asynchronous communication. The researcher conducted a 2x2 split-plot ANOVA design with repeated measure for this study. The four cells in this design help the researcher to find how every group differs in both discussion formats. The findings of this study will lend a hand to institutions, instructional designers, instructors, and software and hardware developers to improve and concentrate on preferable methods of communication for global virtual institutions. The researcher did not find a statistically significant difference between native and nonnative speakers across the methods of online communications. There was no statistically significant difference between the learners in general across the methods of online communications. But the reported low level of agreement toward the level of social presence in both methods of online communication emphasizes the importance for all people who are concerned about virtual education to work hand in hand to elevate the level of social presence in online learning.The researcher encourages those who are concerned about online learning, and education in general to be the early adopters of technology such as Smartphone applications and the advanced features of social networking such as Facebook and Google wave.
    • Perceptions of Faculty Caring: Comparison of Distance and Traditional Graduate Nursing Students

      Hall, Lea R. (2010-07-20)
      The concept of caring has played a vital role in nursing education. Role modeling has been identified as the primary way to teach caring and has been investigated extensively. As caring has evolved, so has the ways in which we educate nurses. Countless institutions now offer distance education programs in nursing in an effort to address the nurse and nurse educator shortage. It is unclear, however, from the nursing education literature if the modeling of caring can be transferred to students in a distance learning environment. This study investigated the impact of learning environment, program satisfaction, and persistence on graduate nursing students’ perceptions of faculty caring measured by the Organizational Climate for Caring Questionnaire. The 162 participants were recruited from 76 different accredited institutions throughout five states. Preliminary review of the data revealed no variability in persistence among the sample as all students were planning to persist or were graduating. Therefore a two-way analysis of variance was conducted and found no significant interaction between learning environment and student satisfaction and no significant main effect for learning environment. Satisfied students, however, did perceive their faculty as more caring than unsatisfied students. Results from this study indicate that as students feel cared for by their faculty, they are more satisfied with their programs of study, which may lead to better outcomes and increased student retention rates. Furthermore, no differences were found among the three learning environments indicating that role modeling of caring can occur in the distance environment as in the traditional face-to-face environment. Nurse educators need to be aware of both caring and non-caring behaviors they portray regardless of learning environment, and the impact they have on student satisfaction and student persistence.
    • Practice in the fundamentals of printing

      Tranbarger, John C. (John Clarence) (2012-07-24)
      Not Available.
    • Recent investigations in the teaching of secondary biology

      Graham, Ross R. (2012-07-30)
      Not Available.
    • Relation of science teaching to pupil's reading activities

      Hoffhaus, Edwin H. (2012-08-15)
      Not Available.
    • Remedial methods for common faults in high-school journalism

      Jardine, William C. (2013-01-22)
      Not available.
    • Resources and Instructional Strategies Effective Middle School Science Teachers Use to Improve Content Area Reading Skills

      Beaver, Melanie S. (2012-10-22)
      This study examined the resources and instructional strategies effective middle school science teachers use to improve content area reading skills. Reading instruction in the middle school years should follow the natural cognitive progression that occurs in the adolescent brain from learning to read to reading to learn. Scientific reading is a different type of reading than most middle school students are accustomed to. It is important to understand that students will continue to be expected to read non-fiction critically for success in the 21st century. Effective teachers know this, and they perceive themselves as teachers of reading regardless of the content area in which their expertise lies. This qualitative research study was conducted at a rural middle school with three science teachers who employ before, during, and after literacy strategies when reading the textbook content with their students. The methodologies used in this study were interviews, observations, and document collection. The results of this study revealed the students‘ reading difficulties perceived by the teacher participants, the literacy strategies used by the teacher participants, the instructional resources the teacher participants used to improve comprehension, and the need for professional development in content area literacy.
    • Saudi College Student's preference for synchronous and asynchronous web-based courses:An exploratory study.

      Al-Jabri, Abdullah (2012-05-17)
      Technology has become an essential component of the teaching-learning process,and online-learning,in particular,has captivated the interest of many educational institutions throughout the world.Web-based learning has provided both students and teachers with new and unique ways of communicating with each other.As a result,many studies have been conducted to investigate factors affecting the establishment of productive communications in web-based settings.Likewise,the focus of this study is how the number of courses completed and the participants perception of their English language competence impacted their preferences for synchronous and asynchronous web-based learning in English instruction and in Arabic instruction.The sample consisted of 82 Saudi undergraduate students enrolled at Indiana State University during the spring 2011.The study used a hard copy modified version of a survey that was designed by Burton(2009)containing 27 items,which were divided into three parts.A four-point Likert scale was utilized to gain an overall score of student's preferences for synchronous and asynchronous web-based courses.Descriptive statistics(frequencies,means and standard deviations,skewness and kurtosis).one-way ANOVA tests,and repeated measures test(paired samples t-test)were utilized to answer the questions presented in this study.The results revealed that there was no significant difference in student preferences for synchronous web-based courses delivered in English or Arabic on the basis of grade level or the learner's perceptions of their level of English language proficiency.There were also no significant differences between preferences for synchronous learning in English(L2)and preferences for synchronous learning in Arabic(L1).The results also showed that the participants had greater preferences for synchronous online courses over asynchronous online courses.These findings mirror those found in earlier studies.The descriptive statistics revealed that learners had a strong preference for having direct conversations with the teacher,having more flexibility,studying on their own,and learning new materials through discussions with others or through having someone explain it to them.
    • School leadership mentoring characteristics in an era of significant educational reform.

      Monahan, Bobbie Jo (2012-05-18)
      The state of Indiana is undergoing substantial educational reform,as is the nation.Educational leaders are in great need of support as they address reform initiatives.The support that educational leaders receive from mentors/coaches may be a determining factor in how they embrace the latest reform and work with their school communities.The primary purpose of this study was to understand the role of experienced superintendents/district leaders as mentors and coaches to new superintendents/district leaders in times of stressful educational reform.Four experienced district leaders were interviewed using the research method of qualitative inquiry.Based on the perceptions of four experienced district leaders in response to interview questions involving leadership skills outlined by the National Association of Secondary School Principals:Mentoring and Coaching-Developing Educational Leaders,the following conclusions were made:1)The mentor's leadership style is significant in the mentoring of new district leaders.Each participant described his or her leadership styles differently,yet there is a connection of high involvement in their organizations and the need to adapt their leadership to each unique situation. 2)Legislative agendas are directly impacting district leadership.Both Indiana Senate Bill No 575(Collective Bargaining Act,2011a)and Indiana Senate Bill No 1(Teaching Evaluation and Licensing Act,2011b)clearly focus on district leaders.3)Stress defines educational leadership and is a persistent topic between mentors and mentees. 4)Stress is a positive factor in leading.However,the stress from current educational reform is viewed as a positive factor in leading amidst the negative stressors. 5)Successful mentoring practices in education among participants are more informal than formal.6)The reasons for mentoring in an educational setting are grounded in feeling of moral accountability regarding mentoring and giving back to the craft of leading.
    • Science Museums, Centers and Professional Development: Teachers Self Reflection on Improving Their Practice

      Ogbomo, Queen O. (2010-07-20)
      The purpose of this qualitative case study research was to ascertain the significance of the professional development programs workshops organized by a science museum and a science center in two Midwestern cities. The research investigated the effect the workshops had on the instructional practice of the participating elementary science teachers. More specifically, this study was guided by the following research question: How do the professional development programs at museums help teachers change the way they teach and consider science in their classroom? The core of this study consists of case studies of six elementary school teachers who were identified as a result of their participation in the museum and science center workshops and an instructor from the museum and another instructor from the science center. Teachers‟ selfefficacy regarding the teaching of science was sought through a Likert-style survey and triangulated with classroom observations and interviews of individual teachers. The findings of this study revealed two overarching themes: one, that the workshops were beneficial and two, that it did not improve instructional practice. The following are the factors identified as reasons for the workshops being beneficial: 1) the opportunity to build their content knowledge, 2) opportunity to experience and discuss the materials: 3) opportunity to collaborate with colleagues: 4) workshop materials and resources are linked to state goals: and 5) that they promote teacher confidence. The teachers who thought the workshops did not improve their instructional practice gave the following reasons: 1) they already had a strong background in science: 2) there was no follow-up activity: 3) the loss of a full day of teaching: and 4) the time constraint to implement what was learned. Though this study utilized a small sample of teachers, those involved in this study felt they acquired knowledge that would be either beneficial to them or to their students and they particularly enjoyed the inquiry-based activities that were conducted in either the museum or the science center workshops.
    • Teachers’ Perceptions toward Enhancing Learning through Multiple Intelligences Theory in Elementary School: A Mixed Methods Study

      Al-Wadi, Nouf I. (2012-01-19)
      The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of multiple intelligences theory on elementary students’ academic achievement and to investigate teacher perceptions of multiple intelligences theory. The multiple intelligences school that was chosen for this study was Edwin Rhodes Elementary School. The study examined Edwin Rhodes Elementary School performance via the California Academic Performance Index. Edwin Rhodes School scores were compared with similar traditional school scores and with gifted and talented scores. The study found that the multiple intelligences school performance was between traditional and gifted and talented school performances. The study also explored teachers’ perceptions at Edwin Rhodes School toward multiple intelligences theory using a cross-sectional survey. The results of the study showed that teachers were familiar with the theory of multiple intelligences, but they did not have formal education about it, either in a teacher education program or through professional development.
    • Test-teach-test procedure in general science

      Hensley, R.W. (2013-01-22)
      Not available.
    • The Attitude of Middle Eastern Faculty toward the use of Distance Education in the Middle Eastern State Universities: A Comparative Study between the Middle Eastern Faculty and USA Faculty

      AlTameemy, Farooq A. (2010-07-27)
      Although distance education is offered in many academic institutions, specifically universities, in most of the developed countries, utilizing it as a part of the educational system in the Middle East is still in the development stage and not at the same stage as Western and European countries. Of the institutions in the Middle East that have started utilizing distance education, many face difficulties, an example of which is that these distance programs are not accredited by the educational system in the country. In turn, this leads to other problems for graduates of these distance programs, such as inability to find a job or inability to go for a higher education degree.As the faculty members of the universities in the Middle East represent a strong and an effective part of the education stake holders in the Middle East, this study investigates their attitudes toward the use of distance education in Middle Eastern universities. A comparison between the attitudes of the faculty members in the Middle East and faculty members in the United States was conducted.The study involved 139 faculty members from the Middle East, who live and work in Yemen, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, and Bahrain; and 126 participants from the United States, who work at various universities. To investigate their attitudes toward the use of distance education, a web-based survey was created in two versions, Arabic and English, and a link to it was sent out to participants via email.The study results showed negative attitudes of Middle Eastern faculty members in the use of technology, culture and social, economic, location, policies, educational, academic achievement and availability of distance education tools factors. When compared to the faculty members in the USA, Middle Eastern faculty members showed more negative attitudes toward the use of distance education.
    • The compositional style of keith emerson in Tarkus(1971)for the rock music trio emerson,lake and palmer.

      Ford, Peter T (2012-05-10)
      British composer and keyboardist Keith Emerson(b.1944)has composed for various mediums,which include piano,orchestra and rock trio.A consistent level of musical awareness is manifested in all three of these mediums,and a unique compositional style can be identified by studying the rhythmic,melodic,harmonic,and formal language of his music.The subject of this discussion is one representative large-scale work,Tarkus(1971),as it appears on side one of the eponymous album recorded by the rock music trio Emerson,Lake and Palmer (ELP).The Tarkus album was released in 1971 during the early initial ELP period.Theintent of this thesis is to define and document the compositional approaches keyboardist Keith Emerson took when writing the suite Tarkus for Emerson,Lake and Palmer.Following a biographical chapter,this study examines each of the seven movements of the suite,detailing Emerson's compositional treatment of instrumentation,text (where applicable),rhythm,texture,harmony,melody,counterpoint and form.An eclectic analytical approach is taken,with theoretical descriptions of vertical and linear events including traditional functioning harmony,jazz chord symbols,atonal set theory,and other devices.Emerson's compositional collaboration with Greg Lake on certain meovements is also addressed.A Summary and Conclusions chapter ends the study.Tarkus was chosen for analysis for the following reasons:it is oen of the few large-scale works by Emerson with a published score;it contains representative a large-scale work from the beginning of the early initial ELP period,Emerson's most prolific and successful period to date.Emerson's compositional style in Tarkus is consistent with both earlier and later works,as it involves an abundance of harmonic and melodic intervals of a fourth,the use of ostinatos,and the recurrence of compound meters.
    • The Correlation between Academic Achievements, Self-Esteem and Motivation of Female Seventh Grade Students: A Mixed Methods Approach

      Henman, Karen (2010-07-20)
      During the early grades, female students generally display enthusiasm for learning science. As these same students go though school, however, their level of motivation changes. Once female students reach high school, many lack the confidence to take chemistry and physics. Then, in college they lack the background necessary to major in chemistry, physics, and engineering. This study used quantitative data to investigate the correlation between female students' motivation, self-esteem, and standards-based state science achievement tests combined with a qualitative survey of student’s perceptions of parents’ attitudes toward science. The Children’s Science Motivation Inventory (CAIMI) determined students’ levels of motivation toward science. The Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory (CSEI) ascertained female students’ overall self-esteem. The ISTEP+ exam given in the 6th grade measured the students’ academic achievement in science. Trained examiners who interviewed students comprised the qualitative component of the study. Each examiner elaborated on selected questions from the CSEI and CAIMI to determine the students’ perceptions of parental attitudes toward science. A multiple regression was used to determine the correlation between self-esteem, motivation, and achievement in science. The correlation was strongest between motivation. Interviews revealed parents and teachers had the most influence on students' perception of science. In understanding the correlation between female students’ motivation, achievement, and self-esteem, schools will gain further knowledge into how students relate to the academic field of science and can thus promote females' participation in more science courses in high school. This then will provide females the necessary background knowledge to pursue a greater number of science majors in college.
    • The development and change process needed for the implementation of the electronic writing protfolio to assess student writing at Eastern Illinois University.

      Hopgood, Debra Cross (2012-05-10)
      The purpose of this study was to analyse how the adoption of an electronic writing portfolio led to institutional change at an institution of higher education that chose to adopt the Electronic Writing Portfolio(EWP)to assess the writing skills of their students.This study also analyzed the perceptions and experiences of key administrators and faculty that participated in the adoption of the EWP.The research questions addressed in this study were:1)To what extent has the institution demonstrated that the EWP is linked to the mission of the institution? 2)What is the institutional evidence that faculty participated in the development of the EWP? 3) what is the institutional evidence that the EWP is institution-wide in conceptualization and scope? 4)To what degree has the perceptions of key faculty and administrators,regarding the development and implementation process of the EWP,been congruent with the Four-Frame Model for organizational change developed by Bolman and deal(1997)? The research was a qualitative study using a case study design.Eastern Ilinois University,located in Charleston,Illinois was the case study institution.The case study was conducted in accordance with the protocol established in Research Designs by John W Creswell(1994).Information was gathered from archival data and through interviews with key faculty and administrators.A literature review related to organizational change and assessment in higher education was conducted.Minutes taken from meetings of the Committee for the Assessment of Student Learning were reviewed and analysed.Minutes from the Writing Across the Curriculum and the Council on Academic Affairs were also reviewed and analyzed.The conclusions indicated that faculty and administrators consistently demonstrated in their interviews that the Electronic Writing Portfolio and the University's mission statement are linked.Faculty also consistently demonstrated that faculty was engaged in the development of the Electronic Writing Portfolio.Interviews also indicated,however,that administrators believe there was not enough faculty involvement.The research also indicated,that the issue of second tier assessment has not been resolved.This indicated congruence with Bolman and Deal's(1997)political framework,which states that conflict is natural and inevitable.Future study is recommended to analyze the effects of the fully implemented EWP from student's freshman through senior year.The effects of the EWP on teaching and learning should be studied as well.Additionally,a study is recommended to analyze why there is a difference of opinion between faculty and administartion concerning the level of faculty participation in the development and implementation of the EWP.
    • The differences of information technology visions between the faculty and students in the engineering laptop institution.

      Yamamoto, Toshiyuki (2012-05-10)
      The main purpose of this study was to examine the Information Technology Visions of the faculty and the students in the engineering college with atleast five years of history of being a laptop institution.A survey was conducted in the Division of Human Information Sciences at Kanazawa Institute of Technology in Kanazawa,Japan which has been a laptop institution since 1993.Furthermore,the relationship between the Information Technology Vision(henceforth,IT Visions)and computer skills was examined independently at the faculty's level and at the student's level.An original instrument was developed from Delcourt et al.(1994) and Janz(1999) as the basis for the survey.The instrument contained four parts:Part I included questions about demographic information;Part II included questions regarding prior experience in Information Technology;Part III included questions about the IT Vision;Part IV included questions about computer skills.The uniqueness of this instrument was that both the faculty and the students were examined using the same instrument.The participants in the survey were all faculty members in the Division of Human Information Science:24 male professors and 644 students.All 24 professors were selected as the faculty sample.50 students were randomly selected from a completed survey pool with the method of a stratified sampling conforming to the student population radio of 91% male and 9% female.This study was composed of three examinations:The difference of the IT Vision between the faculty sample and the stratified student sample;the relationship between the IT Vision and computer skills in the faculty sample;the relationship between the IT Vision and computer skills in the stratified student sample.Results showed that the IT Vision of the faculty and that of the students were significantly different.The student's IT Vision was higher than the faculty's.Further,the correlation results showed that the faculty's IT Vision was not significantly correlated with their computer skills,while the student's IT Visions was significantly correlated with their computer skills.