• The effect of Instrument Type on the measure of Hydration Status

      Niemann, Andrew (2012-05-18)
      Context: Although some instruments have been validated for clinical measure of hydration status, new and currently invalid instruments are available for purchase and clinical use. Athletic trainers commonly use these instruments to assess hydration status for weight checks and body mass loss charts due to their ease of use. However, the validity of these popular instruments has not yet been established. Objective: To determine the validity of urine specific gravity (USG) for the assessment of hydration status via the following instruments: handheld clinical refractometer, pen style digital refractometer, and midget urinometer as compared to the gold standard urine osmometer(OSMO). Design: Descriptive diagnostic validity study. Setting: Biochemical research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Healthy active men and women (n=108;mean age=22±4yrs; self reported height=174±20cm and mass=75±17kg) were recruited among faculty and students on a university campus. Interventions: The independent variable was instrument type with four levels: osmometer, handheld clinical refractometer, pen style digital refractometer, and midget urinometer. After recruitment, participants completed an informed consent and a short health history questionnaire to rule out any exclusionary criteria such as kidney disease or chronic urinary tract infection. Participants were then given a clean standard urine cup and asked to provide as much sample as possible, providing more than one cup when possible. Main Outcome Measures: Hydration status was measured by USG and OSM. USG was evaluated by a handheld clinical refractometer, pen style digital refractometer, and midget urinometer. The gold standard OSM was calculated by a freezing point depression osmometer. Z scores were calculated for each instrument and Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients were evaluated to examine the relationship between each instrument of USG and OSM. Results: Strong significant correlations were identified for the digital refractometer (r=0.814, p< 0.001) and handheld clinical refractometer (r=0.943, p< 0.001) with OSM. A weak statistically insignificant correlation was established between the midget urinometer (r=0.133, p< 0.142) and OSM. Average hydration status indicated variability among some of the instruments: digital refractometer USG=1.0194±0.0075, clinical refractometer USG=1.020±0.007, urinometer USG=1.028±0.091, osmometer OSM=743±271) Conclusions: Handheld clinical refractometry can be used confidently for assessing hydration status as it shows a strong significant correlation with the gold standard osmometer, which is consistent with previous literature. Additionally, the use of the pen style digital refractometer showed a strong, significant correlation with the gold standard osmometer and provides clinicians with another option for the clinical assessment of USG and hydration status. The findings of this also study suggest that the use of a midget urinometer should be performed with extreme caution, as it showed a weak correlation with the gold standard osmometer, indicating it might not provide accurate results when used to determine hydration status.
    • The effects of supportive interventions on first-year teacher efficacy.

      Johnson, Li-Yen K. (2012-05-09)
      Purpose of study:The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of supportive interventions on first-year teacher efficacy.Two Rand Studies(1976 & 1977)and a study by Kilgore and Kozisek(1989)provided the theoretical framework for this investigation.Procedures:One hundred and fourty-four first-year teachers in the Indianapolis Public Schools received a questionnaire to participate in this study.Ninety-five teachers responded to the questionnaire.The response rate for the teacher questionnaires was 66%.The questionnaire was divided into five parts.The first part measured teacher efficacy.This was determined by answers given to questions regarding the confidence level of first-year teachers in areas such as classroom discipline,instruction,assessment,and public relations.The second part measured teacher support from peeople other than the mentor.This was a measure of school climate.The third part measured instructional guidance.Instructional guidance was defined as the feedback given to teachers on their performance.The fourth part was a measure of principal support.Teachers rated how often each of fifteen behaviors was associated with principals.The fifteen behaviors included discussion on district and school policies,classroom observation,invitations to school gatherings,suggestions on assessment,assistance with teaching strategies,demonstration of lessons,assistance with administrative paperwork,encouragement to attend professional development activities,and assistance with classroom management.The fifth part was a measure of mentor support.Teachers again rated how often each of same fifteen behaviors was associated with mentoring.Demongraphic data were collected,analysed and reported.Descriptive data were tabulated and analyzed to determine whether mentor support,teacher support,principal support,and instructional guidance had an effect on first-year teacher efficacy.Findings:Four hypotheses were tested in this research project.Statistical analysis included descriptive statistics,Pearson correlation,and regression analysis.The building Environment or climate(support),instructional guidance,and principal support had an effect on teacher efficacy.There were significant relationships found between efficacy and suppport,instructional guidance,and principal support.However,there was not a significant relationship found between efficacy and mentoring.This information suggests that mentoring support cannot increase first-year teacher efficacy and teacher efficacy is related to the building climate(teacher support),instructional guidance,and principal support.Furthermore,aditional item correlation analysis reveals that a sense of accomplishment,job satisfaction,and sufficient materials do significantly impact first-year teacher efficacy.The results of this study should be of interest to both district and school level administrators.Since teacher efficacy is related to teacher retention and student achievement,district and school level administrators should make every effort to create a professional environment that values collegiality and positive school climate.
    • The impact of creative problem solving for general education intervention teams on team member's ratings of treatment acceptability.

      Grimes, Jennifer L (2012-05-09)
      Many states require or recommend school-based,problem solving teams in an effort to develop interventions to address student and teacher needs.Often these teams have not been trained in a structured problem-solving process,which is thought to improve the quality of interventions developed by a team.Creative Problem Solving(CPS)is a problem-solving process developed from creativity and cognitive psychology literature and has been found to increase team effectiveness.CPS has been modified for use with school-based,problem-solving teams,which are called General Education Intervention(GEI)teams in the state of Indiana,to assist in developing quality interventions.This modified process is called CPS for GEI teams.School-based problem-solving teams,CPS and treatment acceptability literature were discussed.The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of training in CPS for GEI teams on team member's ratings of familiarity,acceptability and perceived effectiveness of interventions.A self-report instrument,developed from the literature,assessed team member's ratings of familiarity,acceptability and perceived effectiveness of positive,negative and consultation intervention types by problem severity.There were 89 participants from 23 elementary schools that completed pre and posttest surveys in this treatment(CPS-GEI trained)vs control(untrained)group experimental design.Findings indicated that training in CPS-GEI significantly increases teams member's familiarity ratings for all intervention types measured,acceptabilty ratings for all intervention types measured,acceptability ratings for positive interventions and perceived effectiveness ratings for consultation interventions.These findings suggest that training school-based,problem-solving teams in a specific process will increase team member's familiarity with interventions.Findings in this study do not support current treatment acceptability models suggesting that familiarity,acceptability,use,integrity and effectiveness are interrelated and that by changing one variable,others will change as a function of the interrelationship.
    • The impact of personality and affect on college student's motives for marijuana use.

      Hawkins, Lindsey W (2012-05-09)
      Previous research has examined the relationship between motives for drinking and alcohol use. However, less research has been conducted on the relationship between motives for marijuana use and marijuana use/problems. This study attempted to examine what predictors of marijuana use and problems are mediated by motives for marijuana use, Prior research has identified several predictors of marijuana use including psychological distress, expectancies, sensation seeking, and various personality factors. In addition, previous studies have suggested that use-related problems are not merely a function of how much of a substance one consumes, but also one's motivation for using that substance. The current study tested a series of path models treating motives for marijuana use as mediators of the relationship between various affect-related and personality variables and marijuana use in a sample of college students who had used marijuana at least once in their lifetime (N =398, 60% female, mean age =19). Results suggested that Coping motives directly predict marijuana-related problems. Also, higher psychological distress and higher Relaxation and Tension Reduction expectancies predicted using marijuana for Coping reasons. Additionally, the relationship between Openness to Experience and marijuana use and between Perceptual and Cognitive Enhancement expectancies and use were mediated by Expansion motives (i.e., using marijuana to expand awareness), Higher levels of Perceived Peer Marijuana Use and Social/Sexual Facilitation expectancies predicted Social and Enhancement motives for marijuana use.The current study also suggested that psychological distress and Neuroticism redicts Conformity motives for marijuana use.In addition,Perceived Peer Marijuana Use and Neuroticism impacted marijuana outcomes directly as well as through alternate mediational pathways.Theoretical and practical implications of the results are present,as well as suggestions for future research.
    • The impact of state energy programs and other contextual factors on US buildings energy comsumption.

      Boadu, Andrea N.Y.A Ofori (2012-05-18)
      High energy consumption in the United States has been influenced by populations, climates, income and other contextual factors. In the past decades, U.S. energy policies have pursued energy efficiency as a national strategy for reducing U.S. environmental degradation and dependence on foreign oils. The quest for improved energy efficiency has led to the development of energy efficient technologies and programs. The implementation of energy programs in the complex U.S. socio-technical environment is believed to promote the diffusion of energy efficiency technologies. However, opponents doubt the fact that these programs have the capacity to significantly reduce U.S. energy consumption. In order to contribute to the ongoing discussion, this quantitative study investigated the relationships existing among electricity consumption/ intensity, energy programs and contextual factors in the U.S. buildings sector. Specifically, this study sought to identify the significant predictors of electricity consumption and intensity, as well as estimate the overall impact of selected energy programs on electricity consumption and intensity. Using state-level secondary data for 51 U.S. states from 2006 to 2009, seven random effects panel data regression models confirmed the existence of significant relationships among some energy programs, contextual factors, and electricity consumption/intensity. The most significant predictors of improved electricity efficiency included the price of electricity, public benefits funds program, building energy codes program,financial and informational incentives program and the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) program. Consistently, the Southern region of the U.S. was associated with high electricity consumption and intensity; while the U.S. commercial sector was the greater benefactor from energy programs. On the average, energy programs were responsible for approximately 7% of the variation observed in electricity consumption and intensity, over and above the variation associated with the contextual factors. This study also had implications in program implementation theory, and revealed that resource availability, stringency and adherence had significant impacts on program outcomes. Using seven classification tables, this study categorized and matched the predictors of electricity consumption and intensity with the specific energy sectors in which they demonstrated statistical significance. Project developers, energy advocates, policy makers, program administrators, building occupants and other stakeholders could use study findings in conjunction with other empirical findings, to make informed decisions regarding the adoption, continuation or discontinuation of energy programs, while taking contextual factors into consideration. The adoption and efficient implementation of the most significant programs could reduce U.S. electricity consumption, and in the long term, possibly reduce U.S. energy waste, environmental degradation, energy imports, energy prices, and demands for expanding energy generation and distribution infrastructure.
    • The impact of the September11,2001 tragedy on Saudi high school student's attitudes toward studying in the United States of America.

      Alzamil, Abdullah (2012-05-09)
      This thesis is a qualitative study of the Impact of September 11,2001 Tragedy on Saudi High School Student's Attitudes Studying in America.Its main aim is to 1)find the Saudi high school student's attitudes toward studying in the US,2)investigate in-depth the factors that make Saudi high school students choose a specific country to study in,3)identify the obstacles and barriers that prevent Saudi high school students from studying in the US due to the impact of September 11 attacks on the US from their perspectives,and 4)find out the Saudi high school student's suggestion's to solve these problems.The subjects of the study are 15 high school students coming from frive educational zones in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.Their ages range from 18-19.The data collected are based on their responses in both the focus group discussion and the in-depth interviews.The subject's responses were audio-recorded and analysed.The main findings of the research are:one,there do appear to be negative attitudes among Saudi students toward studying abroad in general and in the US specifically.Two,the majority of the students considered their safe and friendly enviornment and their parents worries and concerns as the major factors that affect their choice of study in a particular country.Quality of education was placed as the least important factor.Three,Saudi students believe that visa restrictions and regulations and new rules applied on Saudis are among the barriers that prevent them from studying in the United States.
    • The legitimate field of secondary education

      Kibler, Zoe M. (Zoe Marie) (2012-08-16)
      Not Available.
    • The need for a master of science program in automotive technology management as perceived by automotive professionals.

      Peters, Randell W (2012-05-09)
      The opinions of automotive professionals regarding the importance of 24 content areas or topics relevant to automotive education beyond a four-year degree and the need for an automotive technology management master's degree were investigated.Sixteen similar four-year automotive programs were located and identified.No current master's degree level programs in automotive technology and or management were located within the United States.Literature regarding professional master's degrees were reviewed.A survey instrument was developed for collecting data.Evidence of validity was demonstrated for the survey.A Cronbach's Alpha of .833 indicated an acceptable level of internal consistency and reliability.Two distinct groups of automotive professionals were surveyed:faculty memebers currently teaching in a four year degree program,and graduates of the automotive four year program at Indiana State University.A total of 81 participants(55 graduates and 26 faculty) were contacted via telephone with 54 total respondents(29 graduates and 25 faculty).The 24 content areas or topics were ranked ordered according to the means.A multivariate analysis of variance and independent samples t-tests were conducted to evaluate differences between the groups.Frequency distribution indicated 77% of the respondents atleast somewhat agreed that automotive education beyond a bachelor's degree could lead to higher starting pay, and/or allow for advancement to higher paying management positions.The overall analysis appears to indicate automotive professionals perceived there is a need for such education.The information gathered in this study should provide direction for the type of courses and their content that should comprise a new master's degree program in automotive technology management,thus meeting the needs of industry and providing a path for further education for graduates of four-year automotive programs.
    • The need for sex education in the public schools

      Flick, E. Perry (2012-08-14)
      Not Available.
    • The organization and administration of a county audio-visual center

      Kuhn, Albert Joseph (2013-03-08)
      Not available.
    • The preparation of a supplementary reader especially adapted for Negroes

      Merriweather, Evangeline Harris (2013-04-09)
      Not available.
    • The relationship between reading fluency and mathematical word problem solving:An exploratory study.

      Walker, Amy M (2012-05-18)
      The present study examined the relationship between Oral Reading Fluency(ORF)scores and mathematics problem solving scores.The reading fluency scores were obtained from the Dynamic Indicator of Basic Early Literacy(DIBELS)assessment.The mathematics problem solving scores were obtained from the Indiana State Test of Education Progress Plus(ISTEP+)assessment.In addition,error patterns found in mathematics problem solving on ISTEP+and Acuity Diagnosis Tests were analysed.The purpose of the quantitative study was to determine if DIBELS ORF scores were correlated with mathematics problem solving ISTEP+ scores.A linear regression was conducted to determine the significance of the correlation.The purpose of the qualitative study was to determine error patterns found on the Mathematics Problem Solving portion of the ISTEP+ test and the Acuity Mathematics Diagnostic test.For both studies,the data were evaluated for the whole group,male group,and female group.For the qualitative analysis,data were also examined based on DIBELS oral reading fluency level.A total of 121 students in Grades 3,4 and 5 were used for the study.The students attended an inner city schools in the midwestern portion of Indiana.Several ethnic groups were represented,including Caucasian,Hispanic,African American and multiracial.The majority was from high poverty level homes and qualified for either free or reduced lunch services.
    • The relationship of attitude,social influence and self-efficacy to diabetes type II outcomes.

      Keefer-Ward, Autumn L (2012-05-09)
      The purpose of this study was to investigate the Attitude-Social Influence-Self Efficacy model and its relationship to Type II diabetes outcomes.One hundred-twelve adults ages 55-75 with Type II diabetes were recruited from a physician's office in West Central Indiana.Participants completed instruments that assessed (a)attitude,(b)social influence of the physician,(c)diabetes-specific self-efficacy and (d)diabetes-specific quality of life.A measurement of metabolic control was also obtained.Multiple regressions were performed using (a)quality of life,and (b)metabolic control as criterion varibales.Only one subscale of the self-efficacy variable scale,managing the Psychosocial Aspects of Diabetes,was found to be significant in predicting quality of life.None of the predictor variables were significant in predicting metabolic control.The author offers several explanations for the paucity of significant results.
    • The social studies in the junior high schools of Indiana

      Lamb, Herbert Ingram. (2012-06-27)
      Not Available
    • The use of thermal infrared multispectral scanner data for geochronologic mapping of the cima volcanic field,san bernardino,california

      The use of the Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner(TIMS)as a tool for geologic mapping of a portion of the Cima Volcanic Field,San Bernardino County,California was investigated.TIMS data received from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory were reformatted and analyzed in the LARSFRIS computer processing environment at the Indiana State University Remote Sensing Laboratory.Classifications of the Cima Field lava flows were produced from three data sets derived from the raw TIMS data(radiance,emissivity,decorrelation stretch).Earlier chemical analyses have shown that Tertiary lava flows are consistency higher in bulk silica than the Quaternary lava flows.It was hypothesized that the TIMS system would be able to identify this trend and thus be a good tool for geologic mapping in the Cima Field area.The classifications were analysed in order to understand the nature of the information contained in each of the data sets.Classifications suing each of the original data sets along with classifications formed from combinations of the three original data sets were produced in an attempt to best differentiate features of interest in the Cima Volcanic Field study area.The best classification produced allows an analyst to discriminate the Tertiary lava flows from the Quaternary lava flows with acceptable accuracy.It also allowed the discrimination between the Quaternary lava flows through the use of textures created by the mixing of colors in the image product.This classification corresponded well to the existing geologic maps of the Cima Field Study area.The best classification did not prove to be the one using all of the available information but rather utilizing all of the radiance and emissivity bands and band 1 of the decorrelation stretch data set.Bands 2 and 3 of the decorrelation stretch data set tended to amplify geomorphic and scanner noise,thus they were poor to use for classification.The spectral relationships within the data sets were analysed in the light of geochemical and radiometric information culled from the literature on the Cima field.One trend which was identified in the data sets consisted of increasing radiances in the lava flows with decreasing age.This trend could have been associated with the geochemistry or with geomorphology of the study area.Future considerations for research are presented along with recoomendations for the use of TIMS data and possible design changes for an improved thermal scanner.
    • Transformational Effects of Museum Exhibits Upon Their Patrons: The National Underground Railroad Freedom Center

      Caruso-Woolard, Cassandra (2013-09-06)
      The focus of this research was on the affective learning experienced at the National Underground Railroad Freedom Center—a museum that tells the history of slavery in the United States, the courage, cooperation, and perseverance enacted by many who overcame the challenges and consequences of the unfreedoms once practiced in America. Such a study is important in order to understand the challenges faced and how adversity was prevailed upon. The qualitative approach adopted in this study included focus groups, observations, artifact collection, and a review of literature. The findings from this research provide evidence that the participants in this study did experience affective learning, which led to a dialogue about societal concerns regarding racial tensions in America. Conclusions drawn from this study are the 21st century paradigm shift of how the Freedom Center advocates courage cooperation and perseverance in its mission; also, that history should be retold to understand present-day ideologies and circumstances. This study provides a solid foundation for further work investigating affective learning school-age children experience when visiting the Freedom Center. A longitudinal behavioral study to see if these children reach the fifth level of the affective domain is recommended.
    • Trends in the philosophy of supervision of instruction

      Kennedy, Irma Agnes (2013-01-23)
      Not available.

      Alrehaili, Bakheet Wasel (2013-12)
      The main objective of this study was to investigate the attitudes of undergraduate mathematics students in Saudi Arabia towards online mathematics education. Comparisons were made among male, female, underclassmen, and upperclassmen undergraduate mathematics students at the University of Tabuk (UT). Of 161 students enrolled in the mathematics program, 118 mathematics students responded to the survey. The sample consisted of 57 male and 61 female students. A 2 x 2 ANOVA test was used to reveal any statistically significant differences between the various groups based on gender and educational level. The findings showed that underclassmen did not differ significantly from upperclassmen in their attitudes toward online mathematics, male students did not differ significantly from female students in their attitudes toward online mathematics, and there was no significant interaction between educational level and gender in terms of the students’ attitudes toward online mathematics education.