• EFFECT OF DIRECTED STUDY OF MATHEMATICS VOCABULARY ON STANDARDIZED MATHEMATICS ASSESSMENT QUESTIONS

      Waite, Adel Marlane (Cunningham Memorial Library, Terre Haute, Indiana State University., 2017-12)
      The problems under investigation included (a) Did a directed study of mathematics vocabulary significantly affect student performance levels on standardized mathematical questions? and (b) Did the strategies used in this study significantly affect student performance levels on standardized mathematical questions? The population consisted of eighth-grade pre-algebra students from two different middle schools in southern Indiana. This quasi-experimental study was of a quantitative, repeated-measures design, using a population of approximately 140 eighthgrade students with a control sample of 37 and an experimental sample of 52. I performed a repeated measures ANCOVA to analyze scores from a mathematics vocabulary posttest for each participant, by the treatment and control groups, while controlling for student pretests scores. Results showed that after adjusting for pretest scores (F = 20.12, p < 0.0001), students who received intervention through a directed study of mathematical vocabulary had significantly higher posttest scores compared to the group who did not receive treatment. Students in the treatment group were required to keep a vocabulary journal, part of which was a self-rating of their understanding of each term. At the conclusion of the study, I assigned journal/understanding ratings for each term in the participants’ journals. To decide if the journal/understanding scores were associated with pretest and posttest scores, I performed a Pearson’s correlation analysis using the continuous variables of journal/understanding score and pretest and posttest scores. There was no significant correlation to the pretest scores for either the student self-rating journal/understanding scores (r = -0.04, p = 0.756) nor the v journal/understanding scores that I assigned(r = -0.04, p = 0.756). The results of the correlation analysis showed that the rating of students on their own journal/understanding (r = 0.23, p = 0.103) did not have any correlation with the posttest scores; however, the rating given by the teacher on the journal/understanding of the student was positively correlated with the posttest scores (r = 0.38, p = 0.005). Higher posttest scores were associated with higher journal/understanding scores, with a moderately positive correlation. School professionals such as teachers, administrators, and curriculum directors can assess and review the intervention done in this study and explore replicating or incorporating the approach in their curriculum. With the increase in test scores due to a directed study of mathematical vocabulary, school officials may consider this approach to increase the learning of students and as a result, increase their test scores on high-stakes examinations.
    • THE EFFECTS OF EXPLICIT STORY GRAMMAR INSTRUCTION ON THE NARRATIVE SKILLS OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

      Bierman Mulvey, Nichole A. (Indiana State University, 2014-12)
      The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of large-group, explicit, story grammar vocabulary instruction during shared storybook reading on the narrative retell skills of preschoolers. Two preschool classrooms in rural, southeastern Illinois participated in the study. The study examined narrative retell ability via the Test of Narrative Retell-Preschool. Scores were compared for the experimental group, who received instruction from the investigator, to the control group, who received instruction from their regular classroom teacher. The study also explored instructional practices during shared storybook reading through observational checklists of recorded sessions. The results of the study indicated that students who received experimental instruction showed significant gains in scores for character, setting, and emotion on the Test of Narrative Retell-Preschool, but these gains were not significantly higher than the control group students, who also showed significant gains in scores throughout the six-week study.
    • AN EXPLORATORY STUDY OF FACTORS AFFECTING RETENTION RATES OF FRESHMEN IN THE COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY AT INDIANA STATE UNIVERSITY

      Vemulapalli, Bhargavi (Indiana State University, 2014-08)
      This study explored the factors affecting the retention rates of freshman students in the College of Technology (COT) at Indiana State University. Literature supports that factors such as age, gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and parental education are valid variables affecting the retention rates of freshman student populations across the United States. Also included in the list of valid retention variables are pre-college factors including high school curriculum, SAT/ACT scores, and high school GPA. Environmental factors such as living in dorms or being a commuter student, working on campus or off campus, and number of hours working per week are also considered valid variables affecting retention. Moreover, academic and social experiences are among the valid variables affecting the retention rates of freshman. Characteristics of universities and students vary among the populations. Hence making note that Indiana State University is unique, factors affecting the freshmen retention rate were studied. This study explored the data recorded by the university for years 2008 through 2013. The impact of factors such as ethnicity, high school GPA, and SAT/ACT scores was studied. The university does not have records of marital status of students and information regarding their employment; hence the impact of being traditional and non-traditional students on retention rates was not studied. Analysis of data collected through the survey and the Business Intelligence Department at ISU affirms that retention rates did vary over the past five-year period. Ethnicity, SAT/ACT scores, and high school GPA impacted the freshman retention rates in the COT at ISU. Summarization of the results reveals that both African Americans and a composite group entitled others that was comprised of American Indians, Asian Americans, Hispanics, multiracial, and those who had not reported their ethnicity are at risk of dropping out of school by end of the freshman fall semester. Students who have SAT scores of lower than 899, high school GPA of less than 2.50, and those who have not reported their SAT scores or high school GPA are more prone to drop out of school by the end of the freshman fall semester. The survey questionnaire consisting of 33 questions revealed that the students are highly self-motivated and have a strong desire to achieve a degree. Students also expressed their worries about the debt that might be accumulated in the process of degree completion. Students expressed that they were satisfied with the quality of teaching in the COT; however, they also mentioned that they might consider leaving the COT if the teaching quality depreciates.
    • AN EXPLORATORY STUDY OF THE FIVE-FACTOR PERSONALITY TRAITS MODEL AS PREDICTORS AMONG WOMEN IN SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, ENGINEERING, AND MATHEMATICS FIELDS AT INDIANA STATE UNIVERSITY

      Challa, Sowmya (Cunningham Memorial library, Terre Haute,Indiana State University, 2017-12)
      The purpose of this study is to identify any trends in personality traits of students at a midwestern university along with the influence of gender, choice of STEM or non-STEM academic major, and level of education on personality traits. The chosen mid-western university is Indiana State University (ISU) located in Terre Haute, Indiana. This study investigated the personality traits of student’s through administering Goldberg’s (1999) International Personality Item Pool of the Big Five Broad Domains of Personality. The personality profiles of students at ISU who have taken the questionnare are summarized. The personality profiles of female students were analyzed further with special focus to identify the role of level of education and choice of major among female students. Based on the responses of the study’s subjects, there are significant relationships found between gender and all of the big five personality traits. Level of education, graduate or undergraduate, had significant impact on extraversion, agreeability, concientiousness, and emotional stability. Choice of STEM and non-STEM major impacted emotional stability for subjects in general but its influence is not significant among female subjects. Choice of STEM or non-STEM major had a significant influence on the intelligence/imagination trait for both male and female subjects. Level of education did not have any significant influence on intellegence/imagination. Overall, this study found a few significant relationships between Big-Five personality traits and identified categorizations.
    • FACTORS RELATED TO WOMEN’S UNDERGRADUATE SUCCESS

      Baker, Tanya Michelle (Indiana State University, 2013-12)
      This quantitative study examined the relationships and effects of women’s learning styles and achievement and success at a Midwestern, private, Catholic, liberal arts women’s undergraduate program. The primary focus was on first-year female students’ learning styles and how these learning styles may affect their GPAs and decisions to persist to the next academic year. There is a lack of research dedicated to female student learning styles as they relate to student success and achievement, which prompted this endeavor. Kolb’s Learning Style Inventory 3.1 was used to determine student-preferred style of learning. Experiential learning theory justified use of the theoretical model underlying this research as it encompasses the entire individual experience of learning and views learning as a process that occurs as an exchange of internal and external mechanisms. This study aimed to determine specific learning styles of women that tend to achieve and persist at higher rates as well as what specific women’s learning styles require in teaching methods and environmental changes in order to assist women of different learning styles in succeeding. The inventory was administered to 25 first-year, traditional, female students during the spring semester of 2013. GPA and registration information were gathered on each participant at the end of the spring semester and paired with the LSI she had completed at the beginning of the semester. The results of this quantitative study rendered no significance in female student learning style in predicting GPA or persistence. The results may be attributed to the low number of participants, as this reduced power within the statistical models used. However, the descriptive statistics indicated the Assimilating style learner held the highest GPA and highest persistence rate, which may indicate a preferred teaching style used at this institution. Further research is needed with a larger group of first-year female students in order to gain insight into the effects of learning style on GPA and persistence.
    • Faculty Perceptions About Attributes and Barriers Impacting the Diffusion of Online Education in Two Saudi Universities

      Alhawiti, Mohammed Mfarij (2011-06-23)
      Recognizing that faculty are an essential part of the success of any distance education program, this study sought to examine faculty perceptions of attributes and barriers impacting diffusion of online education at two Saudi universities: Taif University and Tabuk University. More specifically, the study intended to (a) give an overview of faculty members’ current stage in the innovation-decision process in regards to online education, (b) examine faculty perceptions about attributes (motivating factors) and barriers (inhibiting factors) impacting diffusion of online education, (c) investigate the relationship between faculty members’ selected personal characteristics (including age, years of teaching, DE experience, gender, academic rank, nationality, and level of education) and their perceptions about attributes (motivating factors) and barriers (inhibiting factors) impacting diffusion of online education, (d) investigate the relationship between faculty members’ selected personal characteristics (including age, years of teaching, distance education experience, gender, academic rank, professional area, nationality, and level of education) and their stage in the innovation-decision process, and (e) demonstrate how these factors can be used to increase faculty adoption of online education to respond to the increasing demands for this kind of education. Rogers’ (1995) diffusion of innovation theory was employed to discuss the findings from this study and to reveal which attributes of innovation are perceived to be important in the innovation decision process by faculty members as they decide to adopt or reject online education. Data was collected using a self-administrated and cross-sectional questionnaire. The findings revealed that the most important attribute of WBDE was relative advantage and that the main barriers that prevented faculty members from adopting online education were technical expertise, infrastructure, and planning issues. The inferential analysis showed that distance education experience was a significant predictor for faculty perceptions about relative advantage, compatibility, observability, and complexity. It also showed that age, academic rank, and level of education were significant predictors of faculty perceptions of financial concerns as a barrier to WBDE. Moreover, the relationship between DE experience and faculty’s stage in the innovation-decision process was found to be statistically significant.
    • Foreign Language Anxiety in the Classroom and in on Online Environment

      Báez-Holley, Monica (2014-03-18)
      This study compared the levels of anxiety that students experienced when taking a foreign language in the classroom with those taking a foreign language at a distance. It also aimed to determine if the student’s academic performance in the course could be predicted by his or her foreign language anxiety level. The sample consisted of 107 undergraduate students (57 traditional classroom students and 50 online students) enrolled in SPAN 101 at Indiana State University in the spring of 2012. Participants were asked to complete the L120 Questionnaire 2 developed by Hurd (2003). The original version of the instrument was used with the online students and a modified version with the classroom students. The results of this study indicated that there was no difference in the levels of foreign language anxiety experienced between classroom and online students. It was concluded that students’ anxiety level was not a good predictor of final test scores in either environment.
    • General metal work for the junior high school

      Luehring, A. H. (Arthur H.) (2012-08-14)
      Not Available.
    • Global-Mindedness and Intercultural Competence: A Quantitative Study of Pre-Service Teachers

      Cui, Qi (2013-08-28)
      This study assessed pre-service teachers’ levels of global-mindedness and intercultural competence using the Global-Mindedness Scale (GMS) and the Cultural Intelligence Scale (CQS) and investigated the correlation between the two. The study examined whether the individual scale factors such as gender, perceived competence in non-native language or culture, frequency of interaction with people of diverse backgrounds, and teaching experience were good predictors of pre-service teachers’ global-mindedness and intercultural competence. The survey was conducted through Qualtrics with privacy protection. The Statistical Package of the Social Science (SPSS) was used and multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), multiple regression, and Pearson product-moment correlation tests were utilized to analyze the data. The research results were based on 184 survey responses of undergraduate students who have declared an education major or minor at a Midwest state university. The results revealed that the independent variables of gender, perceived competence in non-native language or culture, and teaching experience were significant predictors of the pre-service teachers’ levels of global-mindedness. The independent variables of perceived competence in non-native language or culture, frequency of interaction with people of diverse backgrounds, and teaching experience were significant predictors of pre-service teachers’ levels of intercultural competence. There was a moderate, positive, and significant correlation between pre-service teachers’ overall GMS scores and overall CQS scores.
    • THE IMPACT OF EXPLICIT INSTRUCTION ON PRESERVICE TEACHERS’ CONCEPTIONS OF RANDOMNESS

      McBride, Jonica H. (Indiana State University, 2014-12)
      This study considered the impact of explicit teaching of misconceptions regarding randomness on cognitive growth of preservice teachers. Specifically, the purpose was to compile and validate instructional materials that facilitate preservice teachers’ conceptual understandings of randomness. The quasiexperimental design compared the cognitive effects of the instructional materials. Hence, in addition to the instructional materials, assessment instruments were compiled and validated. These items were intended to illuminate the cognitive growth resulting from the treatment instruction. The convenience sample of 67 students represented approximately one third of the teacher-education students enrolled in a mathematics education content course at this institution. Three sections were chosen and then two were randomly assigned to the experimental course (pooled to form one treatment group) that included a brief task-based module on misconceptions of randomness in the probability unit and one was assigned to the traditional course that did not include the experimental module. The participants were pretested and posttested for evidence of misconceptions regarding randomness. The data were analyzed using parametric and nonparametric tests for means and proportions. Results indicated that there were no significant differences found between the groups on total posttest scores; however, the treatment group did show a significant increase in scores from the pretest to the posttest (gain scores). An item analysis revealed significant differences between the groups’ posttest scores on three of the assessment items and a proportional analysis indicated that the treatment instruction had a significant effect on evidence of two of the misconceptions. Explicit instruction on misconceptions may not be sufficient to overcome all invalid probabilistic reasoning involving randomness; however, it appears that addressing the common misconceptions of randomness has the potential to remedy preservice teachers’ mistaken ideas that lead to incorrect probabilistic reasoning and possible transmission of invalid reasoning to future students.
    • IMPACT OF THE 3-D MODEL STRATEGY ON SCIENCE LEARNING OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM

      Alharbi, Mohammed (Indiana State University, 2014-12)
      The purpose of this mixed method study, quantitative and descriptive, was to determine whether the first-middle grade (seventh grade) students at Saudi schools are able to learn and use the Autodesk Maya software to interact and create their own 3-D models and animations and whether their use of the software influences their study habits and their understanding of the school subject matter. The study revealed that there is value to the science students regarding the use of 3-D software to create 3-D models to complete science assignments. Also, this study aimed to address the middle-school students’ ability to learn 3-D software in art class, and then ultimately use it in their science class. The success of this study may open the way to consider the impact of 3-D modeling on other school subjects, such as mathematics, art, and geography. When the students start using graphic design, including 3-D software, at a young age, they tend to develop personal creativity and skills. The success of this study, if applied in schools, will provide the community with skillful young designers and increase awareness of graphic design and the new 3-D technology. Experimental method was used to answer the quantitative research question, are there significant differences applying the learning method using 3- D models (no 3-D, premade 3-D, and create 3-D) in a science class being taught about the solar system and its impact on the students’ science achievement scores? Descriptive method was used to answer the qualitative research questions that are about the difficulty of learning and using Autodesk Maya software, time that students take to use the basic levels of Polygon and Animation parts of the Autodesk Maya software, and level of students’ work quality.
    • Language Learning Strategies of English as a Foreign Language University in Korea

      Yang, Mihwa (2010-07-20)
      The purpose of this research was twofold. The first was to investigate which English learning strategies are frequently used by EFL Korean university students, and the second was to discover the differences in the use of English learning strategies by self-assessed language proficiency and gender. This study investigated the strategy usage of 288 Korean university students through administering a demographic questionnaire and Oxford’s (1990) SILL. Independent t-tests, a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), post-hoc Scheffé tests, and chi-square tests were performed at the .05 level of significance to answer research questions. The findings indicated that Korean university students used a medium range of strategies. Compensation strategies were used most frequently whereas memory strategies were used least frequently among Korean university learners. Language proficiency levels had significant effects on the overall strategy use, the six categories of strategy, and individual strategy use items. The present study also found that gender did not affect the overall strategy usage of EFL Korean university learners, the six categories of strategy, and individual strategy use. In sum, this research provides English teachers and curriculum planners with validated information on strategies currently used by EFL Korean university learners. The findings allow English teachers and curriculum planners to understand which overall strategies are used by EFL Korean learners.
    • LIBYAN GRADUATE STUDENTS ENCOUNTER ENGLISH WRITING DIFFICULTIES WHILE ATTENDING U.S. UNIVERSITIES

      El Raggas, Abdelsalam A. Mustafa (Indiana State University, 2014-12)
      This study investigate d the writing difficulties that Libyan graduate students encounter while attending universities in the United State s. Libyan graduate students have difficulties in writing effective paragraphs and essays Most of their academic writing tasks have numerous grammatical errors and their writing style appears elementary like . The main purpose of this study was to diagnose writing issues such as grammar, unity, style, diction, and language interference that the students encounter and find solutions for existing problems. A mixed methods approach was employed in this study. One hundred Libyan graduate students studying at U. S. universities were sought as part icipants. Data were collected by using an online questionnaire that consisted of 14 multiple choice questions, four open end ed questions and two writing tasks. In the writing part, the participants were asked to write tw o different topics. Error analysis was used to analyze the participants’ mistakes. The analysis of the writing samples focused on thesis, unity, style, and diction and grammatical mistakes. The findings have revealed that the most common difficulty encount ered by Libyan graduate students in writing is grammar. The common grammatical errors from the participants involved articles especially over use of the definite article the in many sentences. The study also showed that the majority of participants did not use writing techniques such as brain storming, outlining and clustering to complete their writing assignments in English . It was also revealed that there was little emphasis in teaching English writing on other elements, such as techniques and style, communicating the content (idea and information) and learning vocabulary and diction (knowing the correct use of the word). Therefore, teaching methods that Libyan teachers frequently use in teaching writing were not adequate in terms of preparing the Liby an students for appropriate levels of academic writing and did not help them to be more creative in writing since writing is not just grammatical rules. This study has also indicated that the majority of the participants, 84.5%, did not do any collaborativ e work activities, such as peer editing, proofreading, and so forth in writing class es in Li bya It has been observed that some participants relied on both the first language thinking and translation while composing in English to complete their writing tasks. Some participants employed some similar rhetorical strategies of their first language when composing in English. The rhetorical impact of the first language, Arabic, has been shown in some cases for example, repetition. It appeared from their writing samples that the participants were not acquainted with various writing styles and purpose s of writing in English . Lack of variation and misapplication of some cohesive devices in the writing samples were also revealed. Some of the participants found difficulty in staying on topic in the paragraph. In other words, supporting sentences may not be related to the main idea of the paragraph. This may be due to different reasons, such as language interference. This study suggested many recommendations that will improve teaching writing in Libya.
    • LITERACY NARRATIVES OF AFRICAN-AMERICAN COMMUNITY COLLEGE STUDENTS: IMPLICATIONS FOR CURRICULUM ALIGNMENT, INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN, AND ENTRY-LEVEL ASSESSMENT

      Brown, Roderick S. (Indiana State University, 2014-08)
      This study investigated potential causes of developmental English placement among recent African-American high school graduates enrolled at a community college. Participants were four men and five women from lower- and lower-middle economic backgrounds who had completed an entry-level writing assessment prior to enrollment. An electronic survey was administered to all participants and included questions about literacy experiences in elementary, middle, and high school. Using an ethnographic approach to thematic narrative analysis, the author compared the literacy narratives of students who had tested into college-level composition with those who had tested into developmental English. Results indicated that participants who had tested into developmental English perceived fewer connections with parents and teachers and held lower standards for their academic achievement than their peers who had tested into college-level composition. The author encourages future research on the impact of gender, socioeconomic status, and home language on writing placement among African-American students and concludes with recommendations for curricularists, instructional designers, and policymakers.
    • Middle School Special Education Reading Teachers’ Experiences Utilizing Study Island Technology to Enhance Male Students’ Literacy: An Exploratory Case Study

      Grimes, Roddran (2012-10-22)
      This mixed methods study examined the experiences that four middle school special education teachers had implementing an online education program called Study Island in their reading classes. The teachers wanted to increase their students’ reading decoding and comprehension skills and also wanted to prepare their students for their state’s standardized test. Many male students today are underachieving academically and lack motivation to excel in their studies. Because boys comprise the majority gender in most resource classes (i.e., only special education students), this study focused on the male population in order to determine whether an online education program with a game component such as Study Island would induce them to focus on content-specific reading passages and utilize their analytical skills to answer the associated multiple choice questions correctly. This study used interviews, observations, and analysis of Study Island reporting data in order to understand the experiences of the teachers and determine if the middle school boys were progressing in their literacy ability. The results of this study revealed that Study Island was effective if students were well-behaved and focused on the material, thereby enhancing the teachers’ perceptions of personal satisfaction. However, if students were distracted, unfocused, and unmotivated, less improvement was achieved and teachers felt sadness due to the lack of progress. This study also found that if teachers felt comfortable using technology, and received training and mentoring, they were more apt to use an online education program.
    • NCAA COMPLIANCE: AN EXAMINATION OF NCAA DIVISION I COMPLIANCE OFFICERS’ PERCEPTIONS ON THE EDUCATIVE PROCESS

      Gimbert, Tonya L. (Indiana State University, 2013-12)
      A review of the literature indicates an absence of studies about compliance officers working in higher education institutions belonging to the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). The current qualitative study explored the perceptions of compliance officers in the field of intercollegiate athletics at NCAA Division I institutions in regards to a need for a formalized compliance curriculum. Limited information is currently available about NCAA Division I compliance officers or their perceptions. One research study was conducted with the Pacific-10 conference compliance officers on morality and moral reasoning. In this study, semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with a sample of nine participants from diverse backgrounds. The research was conducted and analyzed over an eight-month period. The primary themes that emerged from the study were (a) experiential learning, (b) hard and soft skills, (c) curricula, (d) image, (e) complexity, (f) interpersonal skills, (g) unnecessary certification, and (h) physical environment. Recommendations for future research included expanding the sample incorporating NCAA Division I conference compliance commissioners and developing a compliance curriculum.
    • Perception of Social Presence in Asynchronous and Synchronous Online Discussion from The Perspective of Native and Non-Native Speaker

      Alruhaimi, Abdullah (2011-09-16)
      The technology innovation of telecommunication gave confidence to educational institutions to substitute some of their courses from traditional courses into virtual ones. This switch in education inspired globalization. The learners use either synchronous or asynchronous communication tools to interact with each other. Most previous studies in this field show that social presence is correlated with learner achievement satisfaction and interaction. So the researcher measured the level of social presence for both groups of learners, native and nonnative speakers, across both types of online communication, synchronous and asynchronous communication. The researcher conducted a 2x2 split-plot ANOVA design with repeated measure for this study. The four cells in this design help the researcher to find how every group differs in both discussion formats. The findings of this study will lend a hand to institutions, instructional designers, instructors, and software and hardware developers to improve and concentrate on preferable methods of communication for global virtual institutions. The researcher did not find a statistically significant difference between native and nonnative speakers across the methods of online communications. There was no statistically significant difference between the learners in general across the methods of online communications. But the reported low level of agreement toward the level of social presence in both methods of online communication emphasizes the importance for all people who are concerned about virtual education to work hand in hand to elevate the level of social presence in online learning.The researcher encourages those who are concerned about online learning, and education in general to be the early adopters of technology such as Smartphone applications and the advanced features of social networking such as Facebook and Google wave.
    • Perceptions of Faculty Caring: Comparison of Distance and Traditional Graduate Nursing Students

      Hall, Lea R. (2010-07-20)
      The concept of caring has played a vital role in nursing education. Role modeling has been identified as the primary way to teach caring and has been investigated extensively. As caring has evolved, so has the ways in which we educate nurses. Countless institutions now offer distance education programs in nursing in an effort to address the nurse and nurse educator shortage. It is unclear, however, from the nursing education literature if the modeling of caring can be transferred to students in a distance learning environment. This study investigated the impact of learning environment, program satisfaction, and persistence on graduate nursing students’ perceptions of faculty caring measured by the Organizational Climate for Caring Questionnaire. The 162 participants were recruited from 76 different accredited institutions throughout five states. Preliminary review of the data revealed no variability in persistence among the sample as all students were planning to persist or were graduating. Therefore a two-way analysis of variance was conducted and found no significant interaction between learning environment and student satisfaction and no significant main effect for learning environment. Satisfied students, however, did perceive their faculty as more caring than unsatisfied students. Results from this study indicate that as students feel cared for by their faculty, they are more satisfied with their programs of study, which may lead to better outcomes and increased student retention rates. Furthermore, no differences were found among the three learning environments indicating that role modeling of caring can occur in the distance environment as in the traditional face-to-face environment. Nurse educators need to be aware of both caring and non-caring behaviors they portray regardless of learning environment, and the impact they have on student satisfaction and student persistence.
    • Practice in the fundamentals of printing

      Tranbarger, John C. (John Clarence) (2012-07-24)
      Not Available.