McBride, Jonica H. (Indiana State University, 2014-12)
      This study considered the impact of explicit teaching of misconceptions regarding randomness on cognitive growth of preservice teachers. Specifically, the purpose was to compile and validate instructional materials that facilitate preservice teachers’ conceptual understandings of randomness. The quasiexperimental design compared the cognitive effects of the instructional materials. Hence, in addition to the instructional materials, assessment instruments were compiled and validated. These items were intended to illuminate the cognitive growth resulting from the treatment instruction. The convenience sample of 67 students represented approximately one third of the teacher-education students enrolled in a mathematics education content course at this institution. Three sections were chosen and then two were randomly assigned to the experimental course (pooled to form one treatment group) that included a brief task-based module on misconceptions of randomness in the probability unit and one was assigned to the traditional course that did not include the experimental module. The participants were pretested and posttested for evidence of misconceptions regarding randomness. The data were analyzed using parametric and nonparametric tests for means and proportions. Results indicated that there were no significant differences found between the groups on total posttest scores; however, the treatment group did show a significant increase in scores from the pretest to the posttest (gain scores). An item analysis revealed significant differences between the groups’ posttest scores on three of the assessment items and a proportional analysis indicated that the treatment instruction had a significant effect on evidence of two of the misconceptions. Explicit instruction on misconceptions may not be sufficient to overcome all invalid probabilistic reasoning involving randomness; however, it appears that addressing the common misconceptions of randomness has the potential to remedy preservice teachers’ mistaken ideas that lead to incorrect probabilistic reasoning and possible transmission of invalid reasoning to future students.

      Alharbi, Mohammed (Indiana State University, 2014-12)
      The purpose of this mixed method study, quantitative and descriptive, was to determine whether the first-middle grade (seventh grade) students at Saudi schools are able to learn and use the Autodesk Maya software to interact and create their own 3-D models and animations and whether their use of the software influences their study habits and their understanding of the school subject matter. The study revealed that there is value to the science students regarding the use of 3-D software to create 3-D models to complete science assignments. Also, this study aimed to address the middle-school students’ ability to learn 3-D software in art class, and then ultimately use it in their science class. The success of this study may open the way to consider the impact of 3-D modeling on other school subjects, such as mathematics, art, and geography. When the students start using graphic design, including 3-D software, at a young age, they tend to develop personal creativity and skills. The success of this study, if applied in schools, will provide the community with skillful young designers and increase awareness of graphic design and the new 3-D technology. Experimental method was used to answer the quantitative research question, are there significant differences applying the learning method using 3- D models (no 3-D, premade 3-D, and create 3-D) in a science class being taught about the solar system and its impact on the students’ science achievement scores? Descriptive method was used to answer the qualitative research questions that are about the difficulty of learning and using Autodesk Maya software, time that students take to use the basic levels of Polygon and Animation parts of the Autodesk Maya software, and level of students’ work quality.
    • Language Learning Strategies of English as a Foreign Language University in Korea

      Yang, Mihwa (2010-07-20)
      The purpose of this research was twofold. The first was to investigate which English learning strategies are frequently used by EFL Korean university students, and the second was to discover the differences in the use of English learning strategies by self-assessed language proficiency and gender. This study investigated the strategy usage of 288 Korean university students through administering a demographic questionnaire and Oxford’s (1990) SILL. Independent t-tests, a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), post-hoc Scheffé tests, and chi-square tests were performed at the .05 level of significance to answer research questions. The findings indicated that Korean university students used a medium range of strategies. Compensation strategies were used most frequently whereas memory strategies were used least frequently among Korean university learners. Language proficiency levels had significant effects on the overall strategy use, the six categories of strategy, and individual strategy use items. The present study also found that gender did not affect the overall strategy usage of EFL Korean university learners, the six categories of strategy, and individual strategy use. In sum, this research provides English teachers and curriculum planners with validated information on strategies currently used by EFL Korean university learners. The findings allow English teachers and curriculum planners to understand which overall strategies are used by EFL Korean learners.

      El Raggas, Abdelsalam A. Mustafa (Indiana State University, 2014-12)
      This study investigate d the writing difficulties that Libyan graduate students encounter while attending universities in the United State s. Libyan graduate students have difficulties in writing effective paragraphs and essays Most of their academic writing tasks have numerous grammatical errors and their writing style appears elementary like . The main purpose of this study was to diagnose writing issues such as grammar, unity, style, diction, and language interference that the students encounter and find solutions for existing problems. A mixed methods approach was employed in this study. One hundred Libyan graduate students studying at U. S. universities were sought as part icipants. Data were collected by using an online questionnaire that consisted of 14 multiple choice questions, four open end ed questions and two writing tasks. In the writing part, the participants were asked to write tw o different topics. Error analysis was used to analyze the participants’ mistakes. The analysis of the writing samples focused on thesis, unity, style, and diction and grammatical mistakes. The findings have revealed that the most common difficulty encount ered by Libyan graduate students in writing is grammar. The common grammatical errors from the participants involved articles especially over use of the definite article the in many sentences. The study also showed that the majority of participants did not use writing techniques such as brain storming, outlining and clustering to complete their writing assignments in English . It was also revealed that there was little emphasis in teaching English writing on other elements, such as techniques and style, communicating the content (idea and information) and learning vocabulary and diction (knowing the correct use of the word). Therefore, teaching methods that Libyan teachers frequently use in teaching writing were not adequate in terms of preparing the Liby an students for appropriate levels of academic writing and did not help them to be more creative in writing since writing is not just grammatical rules. This study has also indicated that the majority of the participants, 84.5%, did not do any collaborativ e work activities, such as peer editing, proofreading, and so forth in writing class es in Li bya It has been observed that some participants relied on both the first language thinking and translation while composing in English to complete their writing tasks. Some participants employed some similar rhetorical strategies of their first language when composing in English. The rhetorical impact of the first language, Arabic, has been shown in some cases for example, repetition. It appeared from their writing samples that the participants were not acquainted with various writing styles and purpose s of writing in English . Lack of variation and misapplication of some cohesive devices in the writing samples were also revealed. Some of the participants found difficulty in staying on topic in the paragraph. In other words, supporting sentences may not be related to the main idea of the paragraph. This may be due to different reasons, such as language interference. This study suggested many recommendations that will improve teaching writing in Libya.

      Brown, Roderick S. (Indiana State University, 2014-08)
      This study investigated potential causes of developmental English placement among recent African-American high school graduates enrolled at a community college. Participants were four men and five women from lower- and lower-middle economic backgrounds who had completed an entry-level writing assessment prior to enrollment. An electronic survey was administered to all participants and included questions about literacy experiences in elementary, middle, and high school. Using an ethnographic approach to thematic narrative analysis, the author compared the literacy narratives of students who had tested into college-level composition with those who had tested into developmental English. Results indicated that participants who had tested into developmental English perceived fewer connections with parents and teachers and held lower standards for their academic achievement than their peers who had tested into college-level composition. The author encourages future research on the impact of gender, socioeconomic status, and home language on writing placement among African-American students and concludes with recommendations for curricularists, instructional designers, and policymakers.
    • Middle School Special Education Reading Teachers’ Experiences Utilizing Study Island Technology to Enhance Male Students’ Literacy: An Exploratory Case Study

      Grimes, Roddran (2012-10-22)
      This mixed methods study examined the experiences that four middle school special education teachers had implementing an online education program called Study Island in their reading classes. The teachers wanted to increase their students’ reading decoding and comprehension skills and also wanted to prepare their students for their state’s standardized test. Many male students today are underachieving academically and lack motivation to excel in their studies. Because boys comprise the majority gender in most resource classes (i.e., only special education students), this study focused on the male population in order to determine whether an online education program with a game component such as Study Island would induce them to focus on content-specific reading passages and utilize their analytical skills to answer the associated multiple choice questions correctly. This study used interviews, observations, and analysis of Study Island reporting data in order to understand the experiences of the teachers and determine if the middle school boys were progressing in their literacy ability. The results of this study revealed that Study Island was effective if students were well-behaved and focused on the material, thereby enhancing the teachers’ perceptions of personal satisfaction. However, if students were distracted, unfocused, and unmotivated, less improvement was achieved and teachers felt sadness due to the lack of progress. This study also found that if teachers felt comfortable using technology, and received training and mentoring, they were more apt to use an online education program.

      Gimbert, Tonya L. (Indiana State University, 2013-12)
      A review of the literature indicates an absence of studies about compliance officers working in higher education institutions belonging to the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). The current qualitative study explored the perceptions of compliance officers in the field of intercollegiate athletics at NCAA Division I institutions in regards to a need for a formalized compliance curriculum. Limited information is currently available about NCAA Division I compliance officers or their perceptions. One research study was conducted with the Pacific-10 conference compliance officers on morality and moral reasoning. In this study, semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with a sample of nine participants from diverse backgrounds. The research was conducted and analyzed over an eight-month period. The primary themes that emerged from the study were (a) experiential learning, (b) hard and soft skills, (c) curricula, (d) image, (e) complexity, (f) interpersonal skills, (g) unnecessary certification, and (h) physical environment. Recommendations for future research included expanding the sample incorporating NCAA Division I conference compliance commissioners and developing a compliance curriculum.
    • Perception of Social Presence in Asynchronous and Synchronous Online Discussion from The Perspective of Native and Non-Native Speaker

      Alruhaimi, Abdullah (2011-09-16)
      The technology innovation of telecommunication gave confidence to educational institutions to substitute some of their courses from traditional courses into virtual ones. This switch in education inspired globalization. The learners use either synchronous or asynchronous communication tools to interact with each other. Most previous studies in this field show that social presence is correlated with learner achievement satisfaction and interaction. So the researcher measured the level of social presence for both groups of learners, native and nonnative speakers, across both types of online communication, synchronous and asynchronous communication. The researcher conducted a 2x2 split-plot ANOVA design with repeated measure for this study. The four cells in this design help the researcher to find how every group differs in both discussion formats. The findings of this study will lend a hand to institutions, instructional designers, instructors, and software and hardware developers to improve and concentrate on preferable methods of communication for global virtual institutions. The researcher did not find a statistically significant difference between native and nonnative speakers across the methods of online communications. There was no statistically significant difference between the learners in general across the methods of online communications. But the reported low level of agreement toward the level of social presence in both methods of online communication emphasizes the importance for all people who are concerned about virtual education to work hand in hand to elevate the level of social presence in online learning.The researcher encourages those who are concerned about online learning, and education in general to be the early adopters of technology such as Smartphone applications and the advanced features of social networking such as Facebook and Google wave.
    • Perceptions of Faculty Caring: Comparison of Distance and Traditional Graduate Nursing Students

      Hall, Lea R. (2010-07-20)
      The concept of caring has played a vital role in nursing education. Role modeling has been identified as the primary way to teach caring and has been investigated extensively. As caring has evolved, so has the ways in which we educate nurses. Countless institutions now offer distance education programs in nursing in an effort to address the nurse and nurse educator shortage. It is unclear, however, from the nursing education literature if the modeling of caring can be transferred to students in a distance learning environment. This study investigated the impact of learning environment, program satisfaction, and persistence on graduate nursing students’ perceptions of faculty caring measured by the Organizational Climate for Caring Questionnaire. The 162 participants were recruited from 76 different accredited institutions throughout five states. Preliminary review of the data revealed no variability in persistence among the sample as all students were planning to persist or were graduating. Therefore a two-way analysis of variance was conducted and found no significant interaction between learning environment and student satisfaction and no significant main effect for learning environment. Satisfied students, however, did perceive their faculty as more caring than unsatisfied students. Results from this study indicate that as students feel cared for by their faculty, they are more satisfied with their programs of study, which may lead to better outcomes and increased student retention rates. Furthermore, no differences were found among the three learning environments indicating that role modeling of caring can occur in the distance environment as in the traditional face-to-face environment. Nurse educators need to be aware of both caring and non-caring behaviors they portray regardless of learning environment, and the impact they have on student satisfaction and student persistence.
    • Practice in the fundamentals of printing

      Tranbarger, John C. (John Clarence) (2012-07-24)
      Not Available.
    • A Qualitative Analysis of the Example of George Orwell: From His Lived Experience to Ours

      Gallagher, Christian Webster (Indiana State University, 2013-12)
      This study examined the manner in which students enrolled in the Honors program at Indiana State University responded to intensive, seminar-based exploration into the life and writing of George Orwell. A common trend among those who teach Orwell, especially at the high school level, is to teach the man’s literature while focusing little attention upon his life. How much more valuable can Orwell scholarship be for students when they study his work in relation to the author’s unique lived experience? Can a more thorough study of this life and literature inspire students to draw more from their own experiences, or become more aware and more critical of the world around them? This research was conducted on the campus of Indiana State University, in Terre Haute, Indiana, and used participants who were enrolled in the Honors program at that university. Specifically, participants who had enrolled in a 300-level Orwell course taught by Dr. Michael Shelden were recruited for the study, which then ran concurrently with that course. Qualitative methods used to gather data from those participants included a questionnaire, seminar sessions, and individual interviews. This study indicated that George Orwell’s biography, i.e., his “lived experience,” is a very important part of Orwellian scholarship, one that allows students to appreciate and understand his writing on a much more meaningful level. The study also provided valuable insights as to Orwell’s continued relevance for students of today, as well as the manner in which studying Orwell—with the proper context—can influence and empower students.

      Countermine, Bradley (Indiana State University, 2015-05)
      This study aimed to shed light on the current state of educational reform rhetoric through an analysis of previous attempts to shape public education for the benefit of all. Analyzing Eugene V. Debs’s and John Dewey’s views on democracy and education during the Progressive Era promotes a version and vision of education that inspires people to think critically, to navigate contemporary society, and to acknowledge current issues within public education and United States society at large. Because education both reflects society and has the power to transform it, the struggle for fair, equitable, and enlightening education is paramount to the success of future generations within any society. By linking Progressive Era educational reform rhetoric to issues prevalent in United States educational reform today, I illustrate the consistencies between both periods and the underlying fundamental social, economic, and political issues shaping both educational and societal reform in the 21st century. Further research can focus on intervening historical variables especially as they contribute toward the motivation behind the current corporate educational reform movement and the push toward privatization at the expense of public schools created to make education the great equalizer.

      Bauer, Renee Noel (Indiana State University, 2014-05)
      Living-learning communities, although not a novel concept, have been known to promote student performance and a sense of collegiality. Because nursing is essential to the medical profession, nursing student retention and pass rates are of paramount importance. Attrition tends to happen to nursing students in their first formative years (Newton & Moore, 2009). Therefore, this study was conducted to explore findings associated with living arrangements and residential factors promoting and deterring retention. Although most studies on this topic have utilized quantitative methods, this qualitative comparative case study, involving two universities in Indiana during the winter of 2014, examined the personal experiences of 14 students residing or having resided in a nursing-themed living-learning community. The investigation searched for themes in mentoring and explored if and how mentoring was used. A symbiotic relationship was found among the various themes identified revealing that the dynamics of the living-learning community offer a strong network for mentoring and promoting the academic, social, and personal development of the nursing student that, in turn, promotes retention and program completion. Additionally, the resident assistant in the living-learning community was found to be of central importance in sustaining the positive dynamic. Implications for practice that are thought to be of most use in carefully building and sustaining a living--learning community were derived from the themes.
    • Recent investigations in the teaching of secondary biology

      Graham, Ross R. (2012-07-30)
      Not Available.
    • Relation of science teaching to pupil's reading activities

      Hoffhaus, Edwin H. (2012-08-15)
      Not Available.
    • Remedial methods for common faults in high-school journalism

      Jardine, William C. (2013-01-22)
      Not available.
    • Resources and Instructional Strategies Effective Middle School Science Teachers Use to Improve Content Area Reading Skills

      Beaver, Melanie S. (2012-10-22)
      This study examined the resources and instructional strategies effective middle school science teachers use to improve content area reading skills. Reading instruction in the middle school years should follow the natural cognitive progression that occurs in the adolescent brain from learning to read to reading to learn. Scientific reading is a different type of reading than most middle school students are accustomed to. It is important to understand that students will continue to be expected to read non-fiction critically for success in the 21st century. Effective teachers know this, and they perceive themselves as teachers of reading regardless of the content area in which their expertise lies. This qualitative research study was conducted at a rural middle school with three science teachers who employ before, during, and after literacy strategies when reading the textbook content with their students. The methodologies used in this study were interviews, observations, and document collection. The results of this study revealed the students‘ reading difficulties perceived by the teacher participants, the literacy strategies used by the teacher participants, the instructional resources the teacher participants used to improve comprehension, and the need for professional development in content area literacy.
    • Saudi College Student's preference for synchronous and asynchronous web-based courses:An exploratory study.

      Al-Jabri, Abdullah (2012-05-17)
      Technology has become an essential component of the teaching-learning process,and online-learning,in particular,has captivated the interest of many educational institutions throughout the world.Web-based learning has provided both students and teachers with new and unique ways of communicating with each other.As a result,many studies have been conducted to investigate factors affecting the establishment of productive communications in web-based settings.Likewise,the focus of this study is how the number of courses completed and the participants perception of their English language competence impacted their preferences for synchronous and asynchronous web-based learning in English instruction and in Arabic instruction.The sample consisted of 82 Saudi undergraduate students enrolled at Indiana State University during the spring 2011.The study used a hard copy modified version of a survey that was designed by Burton(2009)containing 27 items,which were divided into three parts.A four-point Likert scale was utilized to gain an overall score of student's preferences for synchronous and asynchronous web-based courses.Descriptive statistics(frequencies,means and standard deviations,skewness and kurtosis).one-way ANOVA tests,and repeated measures test(paired samples t-test)were utilized to answer the questions presented in this study.The results revealed that there was no significant difference in student preferences for synchronous web-based courses delivered in English or Arabic on the basis of grade level or the learner's perceptions of their level of English language proficiency.There were also no significant differences between preferences for synchronous learning in English(L2)and preferences for synchronous learning in Arabic(L1).The results also showed that the participants had greater preferences for synchronous online courses over asynchronous online courses.These findings mirror those found in earlier studies.The descriptive statistics revealed that learners had a strong preference for having direct conversations with the teacher,having more flexibility,studying on their own,and learning new materials through discussions with others or through having someone explain it to them.
    • School leadership mentoring characteristics in an era of significant educational reform.

      Monahan, Bobbie Jo (2012-05-18)
      The state of Indiana is undergoing substantial educational reform,as is the nation.Educational leaders are in great need of support as they address reform initiatives.The support that educational leaders receive from mentors/coaches may be a determining factor in how they embrace the latest reform and work with their school communities.The primary purpose of this study was to understand the role of experienced superintendents/district leaders as mentors and coaches to new superintendents/district leaders in times of stressful educational reform.Four experienced district leaders were interviewed using the research method of qualitative inquiry.Based on the perceptions of four experienced district leaders in response to interview questions involving leadership skills outlined by the National Association of Secondary School Principals:Mentoring and Coaching-Developing Educational Leaders,the following conclusions were made:1)The mentor's leadership style is significant in the mentoring of new district leaders.Each participant described his or her leadership styles differently,yet there is a connection of high involvement in their organizations and the need to adapt their leadership to each unique situation. 2)Legislative agendas are directly impacting district leadership.Both Indiana Senate Bill No 575(Collective Bargaining Act,2011a)and Indiana Senate Bill No 1(Teaching Evaluation and Licensing Act,2011b)clearly focus on district leaders.3)Stress defines educational leadership and is a persistent topic between mentors and mentees. 4)Stress is a positive factor in leading.However,the stress from current educational reform is viewed as a positive factor in leading amidst the negative stressors. 5)Successful mentoring practices in education among participants are more informal than formal.6)The reasons for mentoring in an educational setting are grounded in feeling of moral accountability regarding mentoring and giving back to the craft of leading.