Recent Submissions


    Omahen, Abby (Indiana State University, 2014-12)
    Obesity among American Indian young adults is a significant health problem. There is an increase in the prevalence rate of diseases associated with obesity which tend to have high medical costs and high mortality rates. Fruit and vegetable consumption, exercise, gender and education are factors which could affect obesity among American Indians. Therefore, the primary purpose of the current study was to determine if there was an association between certain factors (fruit and vegetable consumption, exercise, gender and education level) and obesity among young American Indian adults in North Dakota. The secondary purpose was to determine if there was a statistically significant difference in obesity prevalence between American Indian young adults and non-American Indian young adults in North Dakota. Secondary data from the 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey was used for the study. Binary logistic regression analysis odds ratio was used to analyze the data in the study. Exercise, education and fruit and vegetable consumption did not show statistical significance. Gender was the only statistically significant factor. Recommendations were made for the specific population and future studies based on the results of the study.
  • College Students’ Perceptions of Barriers to Seeking Health Care

    Medavarapu, Harika (Indiana State University, 2014-12)
    Access to health care is important to obtain health equity and improve quality of life (Healthy People, 2012). Various factors such as religion, education, family income, geographic location, and travel constraints act as barriers to access health care (Celeya et al., 2010). On the other hand, the health behaviors of medical students vary from general population of same age (Clair, Wilson, & Clore, 2004). Consequently, the perceived barriers may also vary based on the majors of students. Therefore, the main purpose of this research was to identify the difference in perceived barriers between students with health-based majors and non-health based majors. Collecting these data would help to design interventions to facilitate people’s access to health services (Sharkey, Chopra, Jackson, Winch, & Minkoviyz, 2011). The Health Belief Model (HBM) was used to explain the health behaviors of students. The study participants were 248 undergraduate students in an introductory personal health course, and participants were recruited using census method. An online survey was distributed to all students to obtain information on their perceived barriers to seek health care. The Barriers to Help Seeking Scale (BHSS) was used as a part of the survey to collect data on perceived barriers (Mansfield, Addis, & Courtenay, 2005). A cross-sectional study design was used. The data collection method was quantitative except for one open-ended question. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics, a t-test, the Chi-squared test of association, and coding and summarizing of qualitative data. The results show that the mean scores for total score and five subscales’ (Need for Control and Self-reliance, Minimizing Problem and Resignation, Concrete Barriers and Distrust of Caregivers, Privacy, and Emotional Control) scores of the BHSS were significantly higher for non-health based majors compared to health-based majors. Previous studies in literature review supports the study findings indicating that non-health-based majors’ students perceived more barriers to seek health care than students in health-based majors. Also, the HBM was used to discuss the findings and to recommend future steps to public health professionals, student health centers, university administrators and staff to help students to seek health care. Future research was recommended using broader population and more qualitative questions.
  • The Influence of Underlying Factors and the Relationship of HIV/AIDS Among African Americans in Shreveport, Louisiana and Surrounding Areas

    Ellis, Frederick T., Sr. (Indiana State University, 2014-12)
    The significance of this study was to evaluate multiple underlying factors among African Americans in Shreveport, Louisiana and the influence of those factors on their relationship with HIV/AIDS. This is extremely important for two very reasons. First, in the past 30 years since the initial presentation of HIV/AIDS into society, a shift in the demographic of the infected individuals has resulted in African Americans becoming the new face of HIV/AIDS in the United States. Secondly, African Americans are only 12 to 13% of the United States population, but they represent more than 45% of all new HIV/AIDS cases reported annually. In order to evaluate this significance, this study employed multinomial logistic regression to examine the potential influence of specific underlying factors present among African Americans and the relationship of those factors to HIV/AIDS. Such factors, including incarceration, the influence of drugs or alcohol prior to sex, HIV/AIDS under-recognition, stigma, the number of sexual partners, poverty, and inflammatory sexual transmitted diseases were assessed for their significance. The populations defined in this study were sexually active African American adult men and women, aged 18 to 45, residing in predominantly black urban and rural geographical areas within Shreveport, Louisiana. There were 103 participants included in this study among the population previously mentioned. These cases were selected by a cluster of area probability sampling method. The research was quantitative, utilizing primary data from African American adult subjects who reside in predominantly black urban and rural geographical areas via an anonymous online survey. The statistical measures that were used in this study included descriptive statistics and regression analysis. The results of this study sought to demonstrate an association between the presences of the above mentioned underlying factors and the relationship of HIV/AIDS among African Americans living in Shreveport, Louisiana. Based on the results of this study, it was determined that a relationship between specific underlying factors among African Americans and HIV/AIDS status do exist. More specifically, results indicated that the factors incarceration, substance use prior to sex, and inflammatory sexually transmitted diseases all had statistical influence on the HIV/AIDS status of African Americans in Shreveport, Louisiana.

    Alshenawi, Samar (Indiana State University, 2014-05)
    Annually, millions of Muslim pilgrims take the journey to Makkah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) to perform the holy pilgrimage. Due to the potential ramifications of such a large gathering, caring for the needs of pilgrims occupies the top priority among the Kingdom’s concerns. This research was conducted to investigate the level of the health related services that were provided during the 2012 Hajj to the pilgrims and Hajj agencies to ensure the safety and accessibility of the public services. With the support from the Ministry of Hajj, 225 Saudi citizens residing in Jeddah, participated in 2012 Hajj answered and completed the study survey. A total of 48 employees who worked in Hajj agencies as a subsidiary to the Ministry of Hajj were also selected for the study and completed the survey. For the data collection, electronic questionnaires were provided to both pilgrims and Hajj agencies. The collected data was analyzed using SPSS 20.0 program. The study aimed to evaluate the new preparedness plan for the event and provide feedback for decision makers. The results showed that on average the majority of pilgrims were satisfied with the overall services (85%). Moreover, on an average 76.8% of the pilgrims were satisfied about the health and the accommodation services in 2012 Hajj. However, there was no significant difference of satisfaction on the overall services in various age groups but there was significant difference in health and general services among various educational levels (p=0.034). Similarly, on average the majority of the agents were satisfied with the overall services during Hajj 2012 (83.1%) but there was no significant difference on overall service satisfaction among agents having different educational levels.

    Cooper-Bolinskey, Dianna (Cunningham Memorial Library, Terre Haute, Indiana State University., 2017-12)
    State regulated social work practice began in the 1960s; by the mid-1990s, all of the states within the United States regulated the profession through licensure. The purpose of licensure was ostensibly to protect the public and the profession; however, legislation defining social work practice varied vastly from state to state. The variation existed not only between states, but also within licensure categories with regard to the scope of practice of the social work profession. Licensed clinical social workers in some states could practice relatively independently, as they had the ability to diagnose, provide psychotherapy, and bill Medicaid, Medicare, and third party insurance companies; licensed clinical social workers in other states, however, could not engage in some, or all, of these practices. The disparity within the practice of clinical social work continues without resolve. The present qualitative study explored the barriers encountered and the solutions incorporated to overcome those barriers in three states during their attempts to secure legislation allowing licensed clinical social workers to independently provide mental health services. Grounded theory research was used to form a theory based on information learned from 12 Historians for use in states who have not yet achieved a fully independent level of clinical social work practice. Using strategic systems of solutions to overcome barriers in the legislative process should help those states desiring legislative change to reach their goals. Reaching a foundational scope of practice across all states with regard to licensed clinical social workers’ ability to independently provide mental health services facilitates the Association of iv Social Work Board’s goal of practice mobility and license portability. Achievement of this goal would facilitate social workers’ ability to practice across state lines and social worker relocations. Establishing a foundational scope of practice also improves clients’ access to mental health services.

    Nur, Abdi H. (2015-12-01)
    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between diabetics’ socioeconomic status, self-efficacy, education levels, gender, and ethnicity and their medication and physical activity (i.e., healthy exercise) adherence regarding to their physicians and health educators’ counsels. Also, the study investigated whether or not the respondents adhered to medication prescription and physical activity routines. The study used a non-probability convenience sampling technique to recruit 102 type 2 diabetics (female, n = 65 and male, n = 37) from Indiana and Illinois Counties surrounding Vigo County, Indiana. The respondents reported their self-care activities throughout the seven days prior to completing the study questionnaire. A positive (direct) relationship between self-efficacy and healthy exercise, and a positive association between gender and self-efficacy were found (P < 0 .5). Besides, while the majority of the respondents adhered to medication treatment, nonetheless medication non-compliance level among the patients was alarming. Interventions that can boost patients’ confidence to successfully engage in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the American Diabetes Association (ADA)’s endorsed physical activity routines may be helpful. These interventions may include diabetes education follow-ups to improve patients’ self-efficacy scores (M = 4.73). Also, healthcare professionals may need to develop more operational plans to improve medication adherence levels among type two diabetics. Moreover, the present study suggests that diet and exercise treatments may be considered as potentials that can lead future success for blood glucose control among type 2 diabetics.
  • Acceptability of Brownies Supplemented with Black Bean Puree by College Students at Indiana State University

    Fleischer, Amanda M. (2013-09-04)
    Studies have shown that legumes can be an effective fat replacer in baked goods. However, little research has been conducted addressing black beans as a fat replacer in brownies. The purpose of this study was to determine the overall acceptability, palatability, and nutrient content of brownies made using black bean puree as a replacement for shortening. Using black beans as fat replacers in baked goods reduces total calories and fat content yielding a more nutritionally acceptable product. Today’s obesity epidemic justifies exploring lower calorie options for baked products. Black beans were chosen due to their dark color which will unlikely alter the color of the brownies. Black beans were used to replace 30%, 60%, and 90% of the shortening by weight in a control brownie formula. One hundred sixty seven untrained students from Indiana State University evaluated the product using a 9-point hedonic scale. One-way ANOVA revealed significant differences in appearance, odor, mouthfeel, taste, and total score when replacing shortening with black beans (p<0.05). For all tested sensory characteristics, Bonferroni post hoc testing indicated that 30% fat replacement was not significantly different from the control. Also, 30% fat replacement compared with the control showed a reduction in 12 calories and 1.52g fat per 1.15 ounce serving. Using an acceptability level of 20 for total score, the control, 30, 60, and 90% fat replacement were rated as acceptable. This study showed that pureed black beans can replace as much as 90% of the fat (by weight) in brownies, while yielding an acceptable and more nutritious product. However, overall acceptability, determined by total score, was lower in brownies with higher concentrations of fat replacement.
  • Behaviors and Perceptions Concerning Online Nutrition Information Among Young Adult Midwest University Students

    Moeckly, Brenda (2013-02-18)
    Since the inception of the Internet, Americans have become increasingly dependent upon this medium for gleaning information, with each new generation being more apt to seek information online. This general trend has affected, among many other things, the search for health and nutrition information. While the Internet can provide a wealth of beneficial information for users, it can pose a myriad of dangers, as well, if users do not know how to look for credible information. The objectives of this study were to determine where university students search for nutrition information and what criteria they use when seeking nutrition information online. The population sampled was from a Midwest University. Participants were selected via convenience sampling methods. Students were invited to participate in an online survey available campuswide. Data was analyzed using SPSS statistical software. This study found that 73% of students surveyed indicated they use the Internet to search for nutrition information online. Government websites and product websites were shown to be chosen most often as being visited for nutrition information. The credibility criteria most often chosen as being important included date of publication or update of information, the information’s being authored by a medical doctor, and the web address ending in “.gov.” The results of this study identified that the majority of university students sampled used the Internet when searching for nutrition information and identified several criteria that students use when determining online nutrition information’s credibility. These results can be used to help health professionals, and registered dietitians in particular, know how best to provide and promote online health and nutrition information for consumers. Young adults are leading the trend of searching for health and nutrition information online, and registered dietitians need to provide timely, and understandable information for the public in order to best meet their needs.
  • Risk Characteristics of Healthcare Workers that Decline Voluntary Influenza Vaccination

    Epler, Caroline (2013-02-11)
    Influenza, also known as the flu, is one of the most common seasonal illnesses with outbreaks occurring each year. Transmission of the influenza virus in a hospital setting is a significant concern, because although most cases of influenza are mild, up to 25% require outpatient medical care, as many as 4% require inpatient care, and 1% require intensive care. One way to prevent influenza is through vaccination of those deemed to be high risk for contracting and spreading the disease, such as healthcare workers. The purpose of this study was to identify personal, demographic and professional characteristics of healthcare workers who decline influenza vaccination in a Southeastern United States teaching hospital. Characteristics examined in this study included gender, ethnicity, number of years employed at the hospital, personnel role and level of patient contact. The method for this research involved the utilization of existing (secondary) data from the 2010-2011 flu vaccination program gained from the employee database of the hospital. A population consisting of 22,845 healthcare workers was observed. Findings included identification of African Americans as the ethnic group with the highest declination rate. Healthcare workers with little patient contact also had high rates of declination. While physicians and nurses had relatively low rates of declination, environmental service workers had a high rate of declination. This study concluded that although specific groups were identified with high rates of declination, further research is needed to determine the reason behind declination amongst these groups and if any relationship can be made with regard to education level or job title that affects declination of the influenza vaccine. Future research is needed to understand why healthcare workers decline vaccination and how to improve vaccination rates in this population.
  • A study of health habits of senior high-school girls

    Jones, Mary V. (2012-08-09)
    Not Available.
  • Signs of health in school children that a teacher should know

    Albright, Aaron (2012-07-25)
    Not Available.