Recent Submissions

  • FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO THE ACADEMIC SUCCESS OF LOW-SES STUDENTS

    Daanen, Lynn Kathryn (Indiana State University, 2015-05)
    The purpose of this study was to identify factors that may contribute to the success of some students of poverty to complete high school through graduation. The research examined if positive teacher–student relationship behaviors, the use of learning strategies, school locality or enrollment, years of experience as a principal, and years of teaching prior to becoming a principal had an impact on the non-waivered graduation rate of some Indiana poverty high schools. The study tested for a statistically significant difference between graduation rates or types of school locales on the relationship score and the learning style score. The study also examined if years teaching prior to holding an administrative position, gender of principal, enrollment size of the school, and years as principal might account for a significant proportion of the variance in the relationship score or the learning strategies score. The study’s results showed the participants’ current enrollment and years teaching prior to holding an administration position served as predictors of the learning strategies score. There was no significant difference between graduation rates or types of school locales on the relationship score or the learning style score. The participants’ years in current position, gender, and school location did not serve as predictors of the relationships score or the learning strategies score. The current enrollment of the participants’ schools and years teaching prior to administration did not serve as predictors of the learning strategies score.
  • THE PERFORMANCE OF LEADERSHIP: ALL THE SCHOOL’S A STAGE AND THE TEACHERS AND STUDENTS ARE MERELY PLAYERS

    Fenton, Christi Anne (Indiana State University, 2015-05)
    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to identify and better understand the performance qualities that are prevalent in successful principals. Specifically, acting and leadership tools previously identified and compared by Dunklee (2000) were used to gain a better understanding of the interview process utilized to hire K-12 principals in school districts with more than 10,000 students in the state of Indiana. Arguably, the roles of the principal are much like those of an actor who must think on his or her feet in multiple situations. It is hoped that this study contributes new knowledge to assist in the selection process of principals and help in developing an interview framework to use in identifying and hiring the most effective principals by acknowledging and capitalizing on performance qualities. The following research questions framed the interviews with practicing hiring managers: 1. In what ways does acting like an effective school principal, as understood through performance qualities, result in being an effective principal? 2. What performance qualities do hiring managers perceive their successful principals utilize? A case study methodology was selected to take a more in depth look into the hiring process in five large urban school systems in Indiana. A variety of demographic data were collected about the individual school systems, with a key focus on the interview process and desirable attributes for hiring principals. The major themes and subthemes were also identified. Primary themes include the following: (a) Hiring protocols are not focused on performance qualities, (b) Performance qualities were predetermined to inform the interview process, and, (c) Districts supported professional development for both aspiring and practicing principals. The primary theme of hiring protocols included the subthemes of (a) The use of a cattlecall approach (i.e., mass interviewing) in the interview process are consistent in all districts included in the study, (b) The practice of hiring internal candidates is a prevalent practice, and (c) Current interview rubrics and questions to identify effective principals. The primary theme of nine performance qualities were maintained as subthemes in this category and later reduced in number. The primary theme of training for aspiring and practicing principals led to the subthemes of (a) Internal and (b) External use of those professional development practices.
  • MEASURING SCHOOL ACCOUNTABILITY: PERCEPTIONS FROM TEACHERS, PRINCIPALS, AND SUPERINTENDENTS

    Bush, Keith Thomas (Indiana State University, 2015-05)
    The purpose of this study was to identify the multiple factors that are utilized by accountability models and to identify the perceptions of Indiana educators in regard to what these professional educators believe should be utilized to assess school accountability. No Child Left Behind and the Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) accountability model frameworks have had an impact on all public schools in the United States. Under AYP, high stakes testing results are utilized to provide acknowledgement to schools that meet pre-established thresholds, as well as to provide consequences for schools that fail to meet these requirements. This study is significant because it measures the perceptions of educators in what variables they believe should be utilized to determine whether or not schools meet specific accountability thresholds. Potential reliability issues that are correlated to specific accountability models can be identified through the analysis of the composite score differences between the different accountability variables. Descriptive statistics, one-way ANOVAs, and a simple multiple regression were used to analyze and disseminate the data collected for this study. This study was conducted by administering an electronic survey to all public school K-12 teachers, principals, and superintendents throughout Indiana. A 17-item accountability perception survey was created to quantitatively measure the opinions and perceptions of teachers, principals, and superintendents as to the variables used measure school accountability. A total of 746 educators submitted responses to the Perception of Variables Utilized to Effectively Measure School Accountability Survey. Statistical analysis of the data included descriptive analysis for selected items as well as inferential analysis that included one-way ANOVAs and a simple multiple regression. The composite score was tabulated from the survey to determine if significant differences existed among dependent variables that included position type, locality, socioeconomic level, and school letter grade received from the Indiana Department of Education. By collecting the responses of teachers, principals, and superintendents, a composite score was determined as to the perceptions of the variables utilized to measure school accountability. A one-way ANOVA found a statistically significant difference among the composite scores when separated by position type. The teacher composite mean scores were significantly lower than the principal and superintendent composite scores. A one-way ANOVA found no statistically significant differences between locality (urban, suburban, rural), socio-economic level (0%–33%, 34%–67%, 68%–100%), or school letter grade received by the Indiana Department of Education (A, B, C, D or F) and the accountability variable composite scores. A multiple regression analysis determined that demographic factors (locality, number of years at current building, socioeconomic status, school size, Indiana A–F letter grade) do not serve as significant predictors of the composite scores for principals.
  • THE EXPERIENCES OF AFRICAN-BORN WOMEN FACULTY AND ADMINISTRATORS AT COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES IN THE UNITED STATES

    Afoaku, Oyibo H. (Indiana State University, 2015-05)
    The purpose of this study was to document the experiences of African-born women faculty and administrators at colleges and universities in the United States. The study explored the factors that motivated African-born women to immigrate to and extend their stay in the United States beyond completion of their education; factors they perceive as constraint on their quest for self-empowerment and identity as foreign students, college instructors, and/or administrators, and parents; and factors that have enabled them to adapt to their host culture and achieve their educational and professional goals even though they had to contend with multiple challenges associated with living in America as Black women. Eight women who are currently or previously serving as faculty or administrators were interviewed for this study. Participants were originally from Benin, Cameroun, Congo, Ghana, Mali, Nigeria, and Tanzania. Six of them were faculty and three were administrators. Ten themes emerged from the study: family-centered cultural orientation, multicultural perspectives, dealing with transition and culture shock, preservation of cultural heritage, American higher education culture, American higher education structure, American higher education curriculum, American higher education policy, limited leadership opportunity for African-born women, and alumni loyalty. The participants expressed reservations about the status quo and want to see significant improvement in diversity policy and practices on their respective campuses that will yield substantive outcomes for all stake holders, including foreign students, foreign-born faculty and administrators. The study concluded by recommending inclusive dialogue and communication, comprehensive policy process; broad leadership structure, and wide-ranging mentoring programs as steps that can enhance the experiences of African born faculty and administrators at colleges and universities in the United States.
  • How Effective Superintendents Select and Develop Principals

    Willman, Robert W. (Indiana State University, 2014-12)
    The purpose of this qualitative study was to determine how effective superintendents select and develop principals. Through this qualitative study, the perceptions of four superintendents explored several areas: a) the process by which principals are selected which includes qualities desired, interviewing, education, and internal versus external candidates and b) the professional development that takes place after the principal has been selected. The superintendents in the study were located in the state of Indiana and met the study criteria outlined in Chapter 3. The topics of related literature reviewed included the characteristics of instructional leaders, succession management and studies of professional development. In exploring these four superintendents, several elements emerged: a) the establishment of a clearly defined process of selecting principals, b) superintendents prefer to hire principals from within their districts but value external candidates in the process, and c) professional development for principals should be both global to the needs of the district as well as specific to their strengths and weaknesses. Insight gained from this study should assist superintendents in their efforts to create a selection process and a direction for professional development of principals that will work for their school districts.
  • EFFECTIVE LITERACY INSTRUCTION ACROSS THE CURRICULUM AT THE SECONDARY LEVEL IN INDIANA

    White, Paul Michael (Indiana State University, 2014-12)
    The purpose of this study was to discover school- teacher- and student-level factors that describe effective literacy instruction at the secondary level of high-performing schools. A sub-question of the study focused on whether high-performing schools practiced “literacy across the curriculum.” National data suggest only about one-third of secondary-level students in the United States read at a proficient level. A recent trend to improve secondary-level student literacy has been to emphasize literacy development in all content areas. A mixed-method approach was used for this study. A linear regression was executed for all middle and high schools in Indiana for spring 2011, 2012, and 2013 state language arts testing results. This was used to build a predicted language arts scale score based on free and reduced lunch status for all schools. Four schools (two middle schools and two high schools) with three consecutive years of posted language arts testing results above their predicted scores were selected for a qualitative multiple case study. Teachers and administrators were interviewed and surveyed regarding their school literacy practices. This study discovered common themes regarding the literacy practices of all four high-performing schools, which included (a) high levels of teacher collaboration among the language arts teachers, (b) the incorporation of high interest reading materials while working with students on their reading comprehension skills, (c) strong levels of teacher commitment and personal responsibility among the language arts teachers to see student literacy improve, and (d) a lack of a common instructional method to improve student literacy, and none of the four schools in the study presented evidence of a developed across-the-curriculum culture for literacy development. Based on the findings, this study determined that matters of professional teaching culture such as collaboration and personal commitment may be stronger factors in student literacy development than a particular instructional approach. School leaders are reminded that the language arts teachers of a school lay the foundation of effective student literacy development. Before school leaders embark on adopting any across the curriculum approach to literacy development, it is needed to first focus on the professional functioning of the language arts staff in a school, particularly in matters of culture such as collaboration, commitment, and an interest in sharing the challenge of improving student literacy with other colleagues. Finally, each high-performing school’s language arts staff demonstrated that one particular best-practice approach to student literacy development does not work for all. It is more critical for language arts teachers to be well-versed in a variety of best practice approaches to student literacy development, and work collaboratively with teaching colleagues to employ the best-practice approaches our students need at that time to improve their reading and writing skills.
  • OUT-OF-SCHOOL SUSPENSIONS AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN INDIANA HIGH SCHOOLS

    Voelker, Joseph A. (Indiana State University, 2014-12)
    The purpose of the study was to determine whether schools that impose more days of out-ofschool suspension as a discipline consequence in Indiana high schools have a relationship with the academic results of the school. The study was conducted by administering a survey to all Indiana public high school principals. Eighty-nine principals responded to the Principal Survey on High School Discipline. The Principal Survey on High School Discipline asked respondents the number of days a student would be suspended out of school for first time offenses to 18 common discipline infractions. The sum of out-of-school suspension days (called the suspension composite score) for each high school was then compared to each high school’s scores for the 2013 sophomore cohort on Indiana’s End of Course Assessments following the completion of English 10 and Algebra I coursework. Also analyzed in the study were whether there was a difference in the suspension composite score and the school’s size; whether there was a difference in the suspension composite score and the school’s location; whether principal demographics of age, years of experience, or years in education affected the suspension composite score; if out of school suspension makes students less likely to misbehave; and if zero-tolerance policies made an impactful contribution in maintaining order at their schools. Data were analyzed through one-way ANOVA and linear regression testing and the null hypotheses were tested at the .05 probability level or better. The data analysis did not display significant findings for any of the research questions. Some of the findings when analyzing the demographic data were urban schools were more likely to suspend but less likely to expel a student for issues such as drug possession or transmission and alcohol possession or transmission. Rural schools were the exact opposite. They were less likely to suspend but more likely to expel a student for those infractions. Small schools versus large schools followed the same pattern, but the data were not as pronounced. The principals were split as to whether zero tolerance policies make an impactful contribution in maintaining order at their schools. When zero tolerance policies were broken down by school size, small schools disagreed that it helped maintain order, but medium- and large-sized high schools had nearly 60% agreeing to 40% disagreeing.
  • A COMPARISON OF TEACHER PERCEPTIONS OF PRINCIPAL LEADERSHIP ACTIONS IN HIGHLY EFFECTIVE SCHOOLS AS MEASURED BY THE AUDIT OF PRINCIPAL EFFECTIVENESS

    Stephens, Michael (Indiana State University, 2014-09)
    The role of the principal has never been as multi-faceted or as scrutinized as it is in today’s schools. Principals are looked to for leadership and guidance in the processes, communications, relationships, instructions, and curriculum of today’s schools. Marzano (2013) listed 21 responsibilities of the principal of today. Principals of today wear many hats and are looked to have knowledge and skills beyond the scope of leaders in many other professions. The purpose of the quantitative study was to examine the perceptions of the teachers in Indiana high schools pertaining to their principal’s level of effectiveness as measured by the Audit of Principal Effectiveness. The results of this study can be beneficial to principals of all schools. Regardless of the grade assigned to the school, the study suggests the value of building relationships with administrative colleagues, the interaction with students, and the setting of high professional goals for all involved.
  • AN EXAMINATION OF PRINCIPALS IN EFFECTIVE HIGH-POVERTY MIDDLE SCHOOLS WITH HIGH ACHIEVEMENT

    Mull, Rhonda J. (Indiana State University, 2014-12)
    The purpose of this qualitative, multi-site case study was to observe and examine the strategies, techniques, and leadership styles of principals in effective middle schools with high poverty and high achievement. This study focused on defining a core of specific strategies utilized by staff members in these schools. Two high-poverty middle schools in Indiana that have done an exemplary job of attaining high scores on the state's standardized test were examined. Data for this research was collected via interviews of the school's principal, leadership team, and teachers. Classroom observations and teacher department meetings were also conducted. After the staff interviews and observations were completed, all notes and tape recordings reviewed, and all obtained infonnation was processed and analyzed, five themes emerged. These themes included the following: principal leadership, student scheduling, staff scheduling, building culture, and cmTiculum and professional development. Within these themes, some of the detailed strategies and techniques were similar at both schools and some were different. Based on the significant findings of the data analysis within the five themes, the following seven strategies were utilized by both principals and seemed to play a critical role in the high achievement of the students in both schools: (a) there was a strategic system in place to address the academic core; (b) the daily schedule was developed for student needs; (c) collaboration for teaching staff was invaluable and they wanted more time together; (d) teacher-led professional development was utilized; (e) data was used in a meaningful way; (f) though principal leadership styles differed, creating a strong team of teacher leaders was essential; (f) and the staff created a relational learning environment. These five themes and seven strategies appear to be critical and essential components that could hold true value for other schools attempting to make gains in their students' academic achievement.
  • CIRCLING THE WAGONS AND SHOOTING INWARD”: UNDERSTANDING HOW NURSING ADMINISTRATORS APPROACH THE POLICY PROCESS

    Moore, Jill M. (Indiana State University, 2014-12)
    The purpose of this qualitative study was to develop an understanding of factors that nursing education executives in higher education believe are essential to influencing and implementing sound policy decisions. This study sought to answer the following: (a) what characteristics and skills do nurse administrators in higher education believe are essential to positively influencing the policy-making process, and (b) what organizational features do these nurse executives believe impede or facilitate their ability to influence policy processes? This study utilized an exploratory qualitative design representing a collective case study. The sample selection was purposive and included in-depth interviews with nurse educators who had at least two years’ experience as nursing education executives. Themes emerging from the narrative data were that a collaboration leadership style, effective communication, and political awareness were considered essential skills for successfully navigating the policy process. The theme of complexity created by institutions and stakeholders involved in policy was observed. Implications of the study included (a) the complexity of higher education institutions regarding the need to interface with multiple internal and external stakeholders acts as a barrier to policy process, (b) lack of formal preparation to manage policy can be a barrier for nurse leaders who typically lack such preparation, and (c) collaboration is at the center of how these nurse leaders drive and implement policy in their educational institutions. Recommendations made for future research include, (a) complexity and nursing education, (b) preparation of nurse education for policy-making, and (c) understanding policy experiences of a more diverse group of nurse educators.
  • THE ESSENCE OF A GENTLEMAN: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF HONOR AND MASCULINITY IN WABASH COLLEGE’S GENTLEMAN’S RULE

    Isaacs, Jacob (Indiana State University, 2014-12)
    This dissertation examined how college men at Wabash College understand good behavior and masculinity while living under a subjective honor code: the Gentleman’s Rule. This included how students learned about and talk about the honor code and particular behaviors that students would identify as exemplifying the Gentleman’s Rule in action. To unearth this information, 12 current Wabash students were each individually interviewed for roughly an hour. Contributions from respondents were subjected to a phenomenological analysis to determine the essence of students’ experiences related to the Gentleman’s Rule. The study found that students typically learned about the Gentleman’s Rule as prospective students still in high school, and had formative conversations only up to the end of freshman orientation. Students also understood masculinity to be complex and not something to be narrowly defined. Most understandings of masculinity were entwined with their understandings of good character or gentlemanliness, with little agreement of any characteristics of masculinity that fell outside of gentlemanliness related to the Gentleman’s Rule. Meta-themes that emerged as connected to gentlemanly behavior included personal responsibility, respect for others, reasoned discussion, and self-awareness. This conflicted with negative stereotypes of hegemonic masculinity that college men are subjected to by society at large. These results inform higher education institutions about the ideals that college men associate with masculinity and good behavior/gentlemanliness and how those factor into the effectiveness of a subjective honor code. New modes of addressing and working with college men are called for to benefit college men and improve engagement and retention rates among men. Ideas for implementation of a subjective honor code are also given as well as opportunities for further study.
  • IDENTIFYING, CULTIVATING, AND UTILIZING ELEMENTARY TEACHER LEADERS

    Holder, April (Indiana State University, 2014-12)
    The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate how elementary principals identify, cultivate, and utilize teacher leaders within high-growth elementary schools. For the purpose of this study, high-growth schools are schools that surpassed the state average of high growth for the bottom 25% and top 75% in English/language arts and math for two consecutive years based on the Indiana Department of Education A-F Accountability Report Card. Through this qualitative study, the roles of the principals in three similar Indiana elementary schools were analyzed in regard to the commonalities of the identification of teacher leaders, cultivating talent and leadership, and the utilization of teacher leaders to improve student achievement.
  • THE BALANCED APPROACH TO LITERACY INSTRUCTION IN MIDDLE SCHOOLS

    Helmberger, Tenicia Rae (Indiana State University, 2014-12)
    The purpose of this study was to determine if the frequency with which middle school teachers implement research-based literacy strategies serves as a predictor of success on the English/language arts portion of ISTEP+. The study looked at research-based strategies in fluency, comprehension, and vocabulary. Teachers of English, language arts, social studies, science, and a combination of the above subjects were surveyed. Seven questions from each area were posed relating to the frequency of implementation per quarter. The study was split into two groups, high-poverty schools and low-poverty schools. Of those teachers surveyed, teachers in low-achieving, low-poverty schools reported using research-based fluency strategies more often than those in high-achieving, low-poverty schools. However, there was no significant difference between the frequency of implementation of research-based fluency strategies in high-achieving, high-poverty schools and low-achieving, high-poverty schools. Statistical significance was found with the reported implementation of research-based comprehension strategies among lowachieving schools compared to high-achieving schools among the high-poverty schools in this study. There was no significant difference in the frequency of implementation of comprehension strategies in low-achieving, low-poverty schools compared to high-achieving, low-poverty schools. The reported implementation of research-based vocabulary strategies was not significant among low-achieving schools compared to high-achieving schools among the lowpoverty schools in this study. Likewise, the reported implementation of research-based vocabulary strategies was not significant among low-achieving schools compared to high-achieving schools among the high-poverty schools in this study. It was predicted that the ELA ISTEP+ pass rate decreased by .509 for every one percentage increase in the free and reduced lunch percentage while holding all other variables constant.
  • HOW HIGH ACHIEVING ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS IMPROVE STRUGGLING READERS

    Hartlage, Kimberly C. (Indiana State University, 2014-12)
    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore educational elements that explain how high-achieving elementary schools improve struggling readers. The perceptions of the principals and teachers in three high achieving elementary schools were investigated in three areas of interest: (a) student achievement as it relates to literacy instruction, (b) early intervention leading to success, and (c) the role of school leaders who build a culture for success through change. All three schools that participated in the study were located in the state of Indiana. The topics of the related literature reviewed included a connection of reading instruction to student achievement as it relates to early literacy intervention and the dynamics of the school leadership and building a culture for success. In this study, findings of contributing factors of the manner in which high performing elementary schools improve struggling readers included data driven instruction, reflective practice, 90-minute literacy block with strong core instruction, planning and collaboration, and highly effective people. Aspects that emerged from the topic of early intervention revealed establishing a literacy framework of tiered instruction beginning in kindergarten, conducting benchmark assessments, analyzing data to identify sub skill deficits, developing and implementing an intervention plan, and monitoring student progress. In studying the role of school leadership in achieving success, three aspects surfaced: maintaining high expectations, trust, and respect; support for materials and resources; and strategic scheduling. Understanding obtained from this study should assist teachers and school leaders in their attempts to improve the overall academic achievement of elementary students who struggle in the area of reading.
  • USE OF SOCIAL MEDIA BY INDIANA PRINCIPALS AND SUPERINTENDENTS

    Griffin, Robert Stephen, Jr. (Indiana State University, 2014-12)
    The purpose of this study was to examine the use of social media by Indiana K-12 principals and superintendents. The use of social media has become prevalent both as a social and professional tool. The social media movement has evolved quickly over the past five years; however, schools and school districts have been slow to effectively utilize this tool out of fear, apprehension, and ignorance. The opportunity to explore social media as a professional tool by educational leaders was opportune and timely as this tool becomes a multi-purpose tool in today’s society. Descriptive statistics, independent sample t test, and one-way ANOVAs were used to analyze and disseminate the data collected for this study. This study was conducted by administering an electronic survey to all public school K-12 principals and superintendents throughout Indiana. I created a 16-item Social Media Survey to quantitatively measure the opinions and perceptions of principals and superintendents as to the frequency, preference, and reasons for using social media as a professional tool. A total of 263 principals and 94 superintendents submitted responses to the Social Media Survey. Statistical analysis of the data included descriptive analysis for selected items as well as inferential analysis that included independent sample t tests and one-way ANOVAs. A composite score was tabulated from the survey that helped to determine if significant differences existed among dependent variables that included position type, locality, years of experience in the field of education, socioeconomic level, and grade letter received from the Indiana Department of Education. The composite score was determined by collecting the responses of principals and superintendents as they related to social media as an effective professional tool in the areas of communication, professional development, recruitment, networking, and transparency. An independent sample t test found no significant difference between position type (principals and superintendents) composite score responses on the Social Media Survey. A one-way ANOVA found no statistically significant differences between locality (urban, suburban, rural), years of experience in the field of education (0-10, 11- 20, 21-30, over 30 years), socioeconomic level (0-25%, 26-50%, 51-75%, 76-100%), or letter grade received by the Indiana Department of Education (A, B, C, D, F) and the social media composite score.
  • A STUDY OF EFFECTIVE CHARACTERISTICS MOST VALUED IN SUPERINTENDENTS BY PRINCIPALS

    Goldman, Camille (Indiana State University, 2014-12)
    The purpose of this study was to examine the effective characteristics of superintendents through the principal’s perception. The perceptions of principals were compared to those of superintendents. A one-way ANOVA was used to interpret and analyze the data for this study. All superintendents and principals in public schools in Indiana were invited to participate in this study. This study was conducted by administering a survey to public school district superintendents and principals in Indiana. The Effective Characteristics of Superintendents survey was developed by me to quantitatively measure the perceptions of superintendents and principals with research from the ISLLC standards, theorists, educational paradigms, and research of best practices. Superintendents’ and principals’ perceptions were measured on how likely they agreed with the practice. A total of 119 superintendents and 256 principals submitted complete responses to the Effective Characteristics survey. Other variables measured were demographic location and population size of the school district. Data were analyzed through one-way ANOVA testing and the null hypotheses were tested at the .05 probability level or better. As a result of the research and subsequent data analysis, the following conclusions are proposed. For the descriptive data both superintendents and principals rated the three most frequent responses for vision as trust, implementation and development, and setting high goals. The highest rated three responses for management placed higher value on making genuine decisions, analyzing data, and inspiring others to follow goals. Highest rated responses for collaboration were working with the principal, communicating with stakeholders, and creating a collaboration culture. The three highest ratings for instructional leadership skills were professional development, develop skills to be globally competitive, and challenge staff members as the highest rated characteristics for instructional leadership skills. Principals’ perceptions were different with the descriptive data in the area of vision. Principals perceived setting high goals and expectations as higher, whereas superintendents rated a safe learning environment. Both perceived implementation and development and trust as effective characteristics of superintendents. Significant differences existed in Research Question 2 and 11 for vision and instructional leadership skills with location. The examination of the results of the one-way ANOVA on the whole sample population determined that significant differences with the model existed with the location types. Rural locations scored the importance of vision and instructional leadership skills significantly lower than urban and suburban respondents. There were no differences in position type on principals and superintendent’s perceptions on the effective characteristics for vision, collaboration, and instructional leadership skills. No significant difference was found in the independent sample t test regarding effective characteristics for superintendents in these three areas based on position type. The examination of the results of the one-way ANOVA determined that no significant differences regarding effective characteristics for superintendents in the area of collaboration and management. These results suggest that principals did not perceive any differences from superintendents among these effective characteristics in the areas of vision, management, collaboration, and instructional leadership skills.
  • TEACHERS’ PERCEPTIONS OF TECHNOLOGY EFFECTIVENESS IN HIGH SCHOOL

    Gianfagna, Heather L. (Indiana State University, 2014-12)
    The purpose of this study was to examine high school teachers’ perceptions of technology in the classroom, including technology access, usage, and effectiveness. This study was conducted by administering a survey to high school teachers, Grades 9 through 12, in Indiana. The survey, entitled Teachers’ Perceptions of Technology Effectiveness in High Schools was used with high school teachers’ to determine their perceptions of technology access, usage, and effectiveness in classrooms. A total of 343 teachers submitted complete responses to the Teachers’ Perceptions of Technology Effectiveness in High Schools. I developed a survey to quantitatively measure the perceptions of teachers on current technology usage patterns in the state of Indiana. Data were analyzed using a Pearson correlation test, a one-way ANOVA test, and a multiple regression test. The data analysis showed a significant correlation between teacher software and equipment utilization with perceived effectiveness. Also, significant differences were noted in teachers’ perceptions and usage of technology based on age. Last, significant differences were found in perceptions and usage of technology based on teaching position. Based on the above results the following conclusion was proposed: An effective professional development or training program should be implemented for teachers when implementing technology. School corporations need to offer a comprehensive program over a period of time in order for teachers to acclimate themselves to various capabilities of said technology. Within this comprehensive program, there would also be time for on-going professional development, time to collaborate with peers, administrative support, reflection and goal setting, and even additional summer opportunities for further learning.
  • THE EXPERIENCES OF GAY AND LESBIAN COLLEGE ATHLETES

    Barbour, Channell (Indiana State University, 2014-12)
    The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of gay and lesbian college student athletes. Participants of the study were given an opportunity to share their stories about their lived experiences on college campuses as gay or lesbian student athletes. The primary research question explored was, What are the experiences of gay and lesbian college student athletes on college campuses? Other questions that guided this study included, What impact does self-disclosing as gay or lesbian have on student athletes’ sport participation? How does the larger campus environment impact gay and lesbian student athletes’ overall collegiate experiences? Furthermore, this research extended the body of knowledge relating to gay and lesbian students’ experiences on college campuses and hopefully will inform institutional policy, especially as it relates to persistence and graduation.
  • DEFINING STUDENT SUCCESS AND IDENTIFYING THE RHETORICAL APPEALS THAT COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES USE TO ENGAGE STUDENTS IN THE PURSUIT OF HIGHER EDUCATION DEGREES

    Baker, Michael J. (Indiana State University, 2014-12)
    The purposes of the study included examining how four-year institutions of higher education define student success, measuring student success, and examining how words associated with student success were used to appeal to people interested in college degree attainment. Information from the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education was used to obtain a sample of 30 academic institutions with similar attributes to Indiana State University. Websites from Academic Affairs, Office of the President, and Student Affairs were examined for mentions of student success. Burke’s work with rhetorical appeals and the dramatistic pentad was used to analyze and interpret the mentions of student success. Student success was not clearly defined or measured at the institutions sampled for the study. Figures of speech were used on college and university websites that created the impression of a parental environment in relation to the lives of college students.
  • THE ROLE OF TUSKEGEE INSTITUTE IN THE ESTABLISHMENT OF A HIGHER EDUCATION PIPELINE FOR BLACK STUDENTS: THE CASE OF SNOW HILL INSTITUTE

    Brooks, Barbara J. Aaron (Indiana State University, 2014-12)
    The purpose of this study was to understand the role of collegiate Black women in the establishment and development of rural industrial education in the post-Civil War and segregated south. Black women’s voices and experiences have generally been excluded from the narrative of Black education and thus excluded from the larger conversation on Black education progression. This study, therefore, focused on Black women in this process. This study was important because it presented an examination of Black women’s experiences in rural industrial education, while attempting to chronicle the rich history of Snow Hill Institute. The institute served as a continuum toward the establishment of a higher education pipeline for African American students. An historical analysis approach was used in this qualitative study, with effort focused on the case study technique. Participants were invited to participate in the study if they met at least one of five criteria. Seven African American women ranging in age from 48 to 92 were selected to be interviewed. Using semi-structured interview questions, participants were asked about their experiences in rural industrial education institutions. Analysis of collected data revealed three emergent themes: (a) the influence of women at Snow Hill, (b) close family ties visible throughout the school’s history, and (c) the higher education pipeline for Black students. Findings of the study showed that the presence of Black women in rural industrial education helped to create and develop the higher education pipeline continuum for Black students, which necessitated the growth and expansion of historically Black colleges and universities. Implications to higher education suggest that administrative leaders of institutions of higher learning, particularly those institutions that seek to recruit African American students and other students of color, might find it useful to hire African American women in leadership positions in order to improve recruitment and retention outcomes of minority students, faculty, and staff.

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