• EFFECTS OF AUTONOMY-SUPPORTED LEARNING ON ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN INDIANA SCHOOLS

      Singer, Nicole L. (Indiana State University, 2013-12)
      The purpose of this quantitative study was to determine whether there are significant differences among the five indicators of autonomy (assessment, expectations, instruction, learning environment, and relationships) based on school type (elementary or junior high) and if there are differences among the indicators between Title I schools and non-Title I schools. This study also examined if the five indicators of autonomy are able to predict academic achievement as measured by ISTEP+ scores for mathematics and language arts. Based on the findings, this study determined instruction is an area of autonomy that significantly impacts academic performance as measured by language arts ISTEP+ and mathematics ISTEP+. Instruction is the area of autonomy where a significant difference between elementary and middle/junior high schools was found.
    • DIFFERENCE DOES NOT MEAN DEFICIENT: THE CULTURAL AND HIGHER EDUCATION EXPERIENCES OF APPALACHIAN WOMEN

      Welch, Andrea D. (Indiana State University, 2013-12)
      The link between women in poverty and higher education is important because it reflects inequities in access and resources that exist in the Mid-Atlantic Appalachian region. Two main questions guided the research of women in poverty in regard to postsecondary access and attainment. First, what are the experiences of Mid-Atlantic Appalachian-born women as students in postsecondary institutions? Second, how do the experiences of Mid-Atlantic Appalachian women help provide a better understanding pertaining to college/university practices that would enable these women to engage in institutions of higher learning and become successful? In order to understand the experiences of economically poor women’s higher education opportunities, a qualitative approach was implemented. After performing semistructured interviews, themes captured the landscape of oppression, human capital levels, and identity formation for Mid-Atlantic Appalachian women in order to examine how they were able to be successful with degree attainment. Main themes were found regarding the Appalachian culture for women, identity development of the participants, and elements of access and success during their college experience. Implications that were found as a result of this study included (a) the student culture impact on services at colleges/universities, (b) the importance of colleges to provide an ethic of care, (c) the need for better post-secondary outreach and resources for Appalachian communities and (d) exposure of the oppressive social structures that still exist for this population of women. Recommendations were made regarding higher education practices and future research in the areas of poverty and the generational cycles of women in Appalachia.
    • THE PRINCIPAL’S ROLE IN INCREASING TEACHER IMPLEMENTATION OF EFFECTIVE INSTRUCTIONAL PRACTICES IN MARION COUNTY, INDIANA: AN ANALYSIS OF KEY STRATEGIES FOR PRINCIPALS IN SUSTAINING SCHOOL CHANGE

      Law, Nicole V. (Indiana State University, 2013-12)
      The attributes of an urban principal that make them successful against all odds, in spite of pressure, limited funding, and other dynamics of urban schools, are characteristics that hold true to those who focus their role as instructional leaders. Improvement has been traditionally more difficult to achieve in this day of high-stakes testing and accountability, especially in urban schools. Teachers’ perceptions of their principals influence the implementation of school improvement initiatives, which, in turn, influence student achievement and school improvement. This quantitative study examined principals’ and teachers’ perceptions of leadership actions that increase the implementation of school improvement initiatives in five school improvement categories. The five school improvement categories—school improvement, principal as instructional leader, creating a culture for learning, professional development and teacher supervision, and sustaining school improvement—were established as a result of discovered themes from current research on factors impacting school improvement. The sample comprised 206 teachers and 56 principals in five school districts in Marion County, Indiana. A Leadership Action Survey was created using an accumulation of existing surveys in order to measure the perceptions on the importance of leadership actions on school improvement by teachers and principals. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to analyze the research questions. The study determined that there were minimal differences that exist between the perceptions of principals and teachers on the leadership actions that increase teachers’ implementation of school improvement initiates. When the teacher group was separated, the analysis found that there were significant differences among novice teachers, experienced teachers, and principals in their perceptions regarding the leadership actions that increase teachers’ implementation of school improvement initiatives in each of the five school improvement categories. In all school improvement categories, the principals rated the role of the principal significantly higher than the experienced teachers.
    • EDUCATOR PERCEPTIONS OF THE OPITIMAL PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT EXPERIENCE

      Pettet, Kent Lloyd (Indiana State University, 2013-12)
      The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the educator’s perception of the optimal professional development experience. Research studies have concluded that the biggest indicator to predict student achievement is teacher effectiveness (Aaronson, Barrow, & Sander, 2007; Marzano, 2003; Sanders & Horn, 1998; Wong 2001). Guskey (2000) stated, “Never before in the history of education has greater importance been attached to the professional development of educators” (p. 3). School districts continue to face reduced budgets and continue to expend resources on professional development. In addition, states such as Indiana have recently changed their evaluation system to encourage more professional development at the school and district level. A survey was created to analyze educator perceptions of professional development in five Midwest states: Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Ohio, and Kentucky. The survey collected basic teacher demographic data: gender (male/female), licensure (elementary K–5, secondary 6– 12), years of experience (0–5, 6–10, 11–15, 16–20, and 20 or more), and position type (teacher/principal). The survey consisted of 35 questions that focused on educator perceptions of professional development. In all, 396 educators from 18 school districts across five Midwest states responded to the survey instrument. A statistical analysis of the responses provided composite mean scores and standard deviations. A factorial ANOVA was used to test the first hypothesis. An independent samples t-test was used to test the second, fourth, and fifth hypotheses. A one-way ANOVA was used to test the third hypothesis. There was a significant6–12) on their perceptions of professional development. Principals responded with a higher perception of professional development than teachers. Elementary licensure, K–5th grade teachers, also responded with a higher perception of professional development. There was no significant difference between gender (male/female) and years of experience (0–5, 6–10, 11–15, 16–20, and 20 or more). Educators responded that their perception of the most effective forms of professional development were having more time to work with colleagues (86.6%), using a professional learning community model (85.7%), and attending conferences and workshops (84.9%). In addition, educators had a higher perception of the effectiveness of professional development at the school level versus the district level. difference between position type (teacher/principal) and licensure (elementary K–5, secondary
    • PSYCHOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF THE APPRECIATIVE ADVISING INVENTORY

      Crone, Nancy J. (Indiana State University, 2013-12)
      The Appreciative Advising Inventory is an instrument created for use in academic advising. The inventory helps the advisor get to know and understand the student, which in turn allows the advisor to better assist the student. This research provides a psychometric analysis of the Appreciative Advising Inventory to measure its validity and reliability and recommends alterations to the inventory based on the results of these analyses.
    • TO LIFT THE LEADEN-EYED: ERNEST BOYER’S CAREER IN HIGHER EDUCATION

      Moser, Drew (Indiana State University, 2013-12)
      This study examined Ernest L. Boyer’s life (1928-1995), career, and influence on higher education. Scholar, administrator, education reformer, devoted Christian, husband and parent, Boyer was acknowledged by some as one of the most influential leaders in higher education of the twentieth century (Bradley & Smith, 1995; Carnegie Foundation, 1996; Coye, 1997, Reid-Wallace, n.d.). Ernest Boyer held prominent positions of educational leadership spanning three decades. As former chancellor of the State University of New York System (1971-1977), United States Commissioner of Education during the Carter administration (1977-1979), and President of the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching (1979-1995), Boyer’s career was devoted to public education in America, yet little scholarship has focused on the historical impact of his influence, especially in the context of higher education.
    • INFRASTRUCTURE, HUMAN RESOURCE, AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTEXT FACTOR EFFECTS ON FEDERAL R&D FUNDING AT STATE COMPREHENSIVE UNIVERSITIES

      Wetherholt, Michael Shawn (Indiana State University, 2013-12)
      This study sought to add to the limited scholarship on factors that affect federal research and development (R&D) funding activities at state comprehensive universities (SCUs). Second, the study sought to inform R&D policy and practice at SCUs in assisting this scale of institutions in maximizing their federal award streams. This study examined 216 masters-level large and medium institutions, and doctoral universities that were members of the American Association of State Colleges and Universities. Four statistical models were developed and tested whereby a set of predictor variables were regressed to view their association with a set of R&D performance measures of interest to SCUs. As determined from the four models, previous success in securing federal R&D funding carried the most weight in predicting future success, ceteris paribus. Other significant predictors were the level of institutional funds channeled to R&D activities, number of sponsored program staff members, and the number of research universities in a state. Policy implications identified were that the federal government should continue to invest resources in the Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research and in other programs as the National Institutes of Health Academic Research Enhancement Award. Such programs assist SCUs in securing federal R&D funds and many such institutions serve as gateways for underrepresented groups and individuals from low-socioeconomic backgrounds to access higher education. A policy implication for states established was that states should continue to invest in SCUs as these institutions educate the largest number of college students and many are open access institutions attracting students who may not have had a chance to matriculate at more selective research institutions. Institutional policy implications identified were that if SCUs wish to enter the highly competitive federal R&D funding arena, they should first conduct a thorough analysis of the campus mission and determine if there are enough institutional resources and desire to pursue federal R&D funding grant awards. Other arguably more attainable avenues of federal funding that SCUs could explore are science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education projects and programs that train the future workforce. In addition, SCUs may also serve as flow-through subaward recipients from research institutions that may subcontract appropriate portions of larger federal R&D awards to the smaller SCUs. Such subawards can increase an SCU’s external funding portfolio and also provide undergraduate research opportunities at such institutions.
    • THE APPROPRIATENESS OF CONSOLIDATION IN ILLINOIS: A STUDY OF THE IMPACT OF POVERTY, DISTRICT TYPE, AND SIZE ON EXPENDITURES AND ACHIEVEMENT

      Dunlap, James (Indiana State University, 2013-12)
      This study examined whether or not enrollment, poverty rate, and district type could be used to predict cost and achievement, as measured on the Illinois Standards Achievement Test and Prairie State Achievement Exam, at the building and district levels within the state of Illinois. This study provides quantitative data that will aid educational leaders and policy makers in making decisions related to the appropriateness of consolidation as related to the factors of enrollment, poverty rate, and district type. This study revealed that these factors have varying relationships with the outcomes. All were significant predictors at some level. The most influential predictor, however, was always poverty rate in outcomes where it was a significant predictor, which included all outcomes related to student achievement. Enrollment, in cases where it was a significant predictor, was typically the predictor that had the least impact on the outcome. District type was often a significant predictor, with an indicated increase of scores in elementary districts as opposed to unit districts and an increased cost for elementary and high school districts as opposed to unit districts.
    • ANALYSIS OF STAKEHOLDER EXPECTATIONS OF EFFECTIVE INDIANA HIGH SCHOOLS

      Miller, Doug (Indiana State University, 2013-12)
      The primary purpose of this study was to analyze expectations and perceptions from various groups concerning qualities of effective high schools. This study examined commonalities among groups of people in terms of their relationship to high schools. Stakeholders from Indiana surveyed during this study included: high school parents, high school educators, and state-level lawmakers, both senators and representatives. A total of 329 respondents participated in the study. After an extensive literature review of high school outcomes, characteristics, and purposes, I developed the Quality School Survey to collect the needed data. The instrument gathered data by asking respondents to indicate the level of importance on a four-point scale regarding multiple statements about high schools. The survey also presented the respondents with a list of 12 aspects of high schools and asked them to identify the top three priorities within that list. The data were collected and descriptive statistics were run to describe the level of importance placed on certain items by the overall sample and also the individual stakeholder groups. Frequency of selection within the prioritizing section was also described for the individual groups as well. Finally the data were put through an analysis of variance (ANOVA) to determine significant difference between the groups. The variation among the expectations of the different stakeholder groups was tested at the alpha level of .01. Based on the results and significant findings of the data analysis of the research, the following conclusions were drawn. There was an alignment between groups and a high level of expectation with regards to the teaching of basic skills, the teaching of problem-solving skills, the development of a safeenvironment, the promotion of work ethic, the development of citizenship, and community responsibility. Also, there was significant difference among groups and a high level of expectation with regards to preparing students for skilled employment upon graduation, using a variety of instructional strategies to accommodate individual learning styles, and developing social skills within students. An alignment and a low level of importance was placed on high schools being small in size to ensure a sense of belonging. Lawmakers had a significantly lower expectation level than parents with regards to developing social skills within students and ensuring emotional health of students. Lawmakers had a significantly lower expectation level than educators when it came to positive home–school relationships, having a vision and mission statement to guide decision-making, and teaching an appreciation of the arts within high schools. The highest priority among all groups when asked to select three from the list was promotion of work ethic within high school students. Finally, the lowest priority among all groups when asked to select three from the list was that the high school should have high standardized test scores.
    • THE LIVED CAREER EXPERIENCES OF PROFESSIONAL ACADEMIC ADVISORS WHO WENT ON TO EARN DOCTORAL DEGREES IN HIGHER EDUCATION ADMINISTRATION

      Rynearson, Alison K. (Indiana State University, 2014-08)
      The purpose of this study is to examine the lived career experiences of professional academic advisors who went on to earn a doctoral degree in higher education administration. When undergraduate students consider various majors, they often wonder “What can I do with a major in this area? What are my career options?” Such is the case with professional academic advisors who are considering a doctoral degree in higher education administration. Because of a lack of literature, advisors considering the doctoral option may seek out or may be referred to others like them who have accomplished this goal. A connection with role models may be beneficial when making this type of career decision. Unfortunately, it may be that persons considering such an educational pursuit do not have access to potential career and doctoral role models who had an academic advising background. To help address the gap in knowledge, this study documents the career experiences of those academic advisors who had completed a doctorate in order to understand the decision-making process and outcomes. This study examines the stories of 13 professionals who were academic advisors at the time of application into their doctoral programs and have since completed those terminal degrees. A maximum variation technique was used to form the sample such that they are diverse in key domains. In regards to professional context, study participants vary based on the year their doctorates were earned, current career fields, and titles. Personal demographics also vary by ethnicity, family status, and their means for paying for their doctoral education. Participant demographics also vary with regard to relevance of their doctoral degrees to their post-degree positions, years in position, and subsequent positions, if any. An analysis of the participants’ experiences results in several themes: doctoral required or preferred, financial support and families, career goals, use of mentors, and personality for administration. These personal career stories inform current and future professional academic advisors as they contemplate this particular career path. Additionally, a greater understanding of these career processes serves to enlighten the National Academic Advising Association membership and influence its research agenda as the profession of academic advising further evolves. Finally, the results of this study add to the body of literature regarding socialization to the profession of academic advising, student affairs, and higher education often taught in associated graduate programs.
    • THE EFFECTS OF INSTRUCTIONAL SCHEDULE TYPE ON STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT, ATTENDANCE, AND GRADUATION AT THE HIGH SCHOOL LEVEL

      Freeman, Andrew S. (Indiana State University, 2014-08)
      The primary purpose of this quantitative study was to analyze the effects of instructional scheduling type on student achievement and school outcomes. This study specifically analyzed the differences between traditional schedules and block schedules on the six dependent variables of Algebra I End-of-Course Assessment scores, English 10 End-of-Course Assessment scores, Biology I End-of-Course Assessment scores, attendance rates, graduation rates, and college and career readiness rates and controlling for socioeconomic status, school size, and average years of experience of faculty. Data from all Indiana public high schools from the 2012-2013 school year were obtained from the Indiana Department of Education. A sample of 202 schools, which included 101 traditional schedule schools and 101 block-schedule schools, was derived from the total populations of 452 public high schools. Correlation results indicated a significant negative correlation between the socioeconomic status and the six dependent variables; however, school size and average years of experience of faculty were not correlated to the six dependent variables. ANCOVAs revealed socioeconomic status was statistically significant on all six dependent variables; however, there were not statistically significant differences among the two groups on five out of six of the dependent variables. College and career readiness rate was the only dependent variable that had statistically significant results. These results suggested that scheduling type (traditional vs. block) has no significant effect on the five student and school outcomes of Algebra I End-of-Course Assessment scores, English 10 End-of-Course Assessment scores, Biology I End-of-Course Assessment scores, attendance rates, and graduation rates; however, schedule type may affect college and career readiness rates. Furthermore, socioeconomic status was significantly related to student achievement and school outcomes and school size and average age of experience of faculty were not.
    • PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO A CHILD’S EDUCATIONAL SUCCESS

      Oliver, Abbigail Suzanne (Indiana State University, 2014-08)
      There were three primary purposes of this study. One purpose of the study was to increase the understanding and awareness of parental involvement with regard to their children’s education. The second purpose of the study was to analyze two schools’ poverty levels in regard to their students’ academic goals. Last, the study was to analyze and understand parental involvement in regard to the academic goals parents have for their children. Demographic data regarding two schools’ level of poverty were collected from the Indiana Department of Education. The study was to add more information to the existing data in regard to parental involvement. Evidence was provided from a literature review and the responses from 158 parental surveys. The surveys were mailed directly to the parents and returned anonymously to me. Each respondent was asked to answer five questions. The study sample included two Indiana public schools, one with a poverty rate of 65.5% and the other 16.8% poverty. The data was analyzed using Chi-square, t test, and single ANOVA to the test the null hypotheses. The data supported there was a relationship between the educational level of the parents and the educational goals for their children. In addition, the data supported a significant difference between the amount of time a female parent spent and the mean amount of time a male parent spent assisting with schoolwork.
    • AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE TRAITS OF AND STRATEGIES USED BY HIGHLY EFFECTIVE TEACHERS

      Ciolli-Stewart, Stephanie J. (Indiana State University, 2014-08)
      The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate the traits of and strategies used by highly effective teachers. Two research questions were presented in this study: What are the traits of highly effective teachers? and What strategies are used by highly effective teachers? Elementary school principals in the Evansville-Vanderburgh School Corporation in Evansville, Indiana, were asked to recommend one to two highly effective teachers. After a thorough review of principal recommendations, participants were considered based upon gender, years of experience, and grade level or subject area taught. Once the participant selection process concluded, dates for six onsite classroom observations and teacher interviews were determined. The classroom observation began at the start of the teacher work day and ended at the time identified by each participant. This study generated a collection of personality traits commonly demonstrated by six highly effective teachers. Additionally, this study simultaneously identified and presented instructional strategies that were commonly used among the participants. Common themes emerged from the data providing insight as to the personality traits of and strategies used by the highly effective teachers. Specifically, 16 traits were presented in this study and grouped into four categories: work ethic, instructional demeanor, disposition, and attitude. Additionally, several instructional strategies were observed during this study; instructional strategies commonly used by the six highly effective teachers were presented in four themes that included preventative maintenance and classroom design, engagement, differentiation, and delivery of instruction. The data gathered from this study will serve many purposes including the hiring of teachers, a guide for teachers to improve performance, and a guide for school district leaders as they plan professional development opportunities.
    • EDUCATOR PERCEPTIONS OF THE IMPORTANCE OF USING STRATEGIES FOR AT-RISK STUDENTS IN INDIANA ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS

      Gremaux, Teresa (Indiana State University, 2014-08)
      The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine if there are significant differences in perceptions regarding the importance of strategies/programs for at-risk students according to employment position, geographic location, and percentage of free- and reduced-lunch population within the school. This study also examined alternative education strategies/programming currently being implemented in Indiana elementary schools. This study had a concentrated focus on a specific population of at-risk students. Is there a significant difference on the perceived importance of at-risk strategies and programming for elementary students based on employment position? Is there a significant difference on the perceived importance of at-risk strategies and programming for elementary students based on demographic location? Is there a significant difference on the perceived importance of at-risk strategies and programming for elementary students based on a school’s free- and reduced-lunch percentage? The outcome of this study found a significant difference in how educators perceived the importance of using specific strategies/programs in working with at-risk students in the 0-25% free- and reduced lunchpercentage participants and the 26-50% free- and reduced-lunch participants. The 0-25% participants found using specific strategies for at-risk students to be more important than those in the 26%-50% range. It also found the participants in the 51-75% range also perceived strategies for at-risk students significantly more important than those in the 26-50% category. There were no significant differences in how educators perceived the importance of using strategies for atrisk students based on employment position or school location. However, this study did reveal an overwhelming need for elementary alternative programming. Only 16% of the respondents reported having an active alternative program to support their elementary at-risk students, but 100% of the participants conveyed a need for this type of programming. This study reports an 84% gap in the need versus current alternative school offerings.
    • A STUDY ON WHAT FACTORS INFLUENCE TEACHERS TO REMAIN IN THE TEACHING PROFESSION

      Jensen, Louis S. Jr. (Indiana State University, 2014-08)
      The purpose of this study was to examine the employment factors that schools have control over and how teachers and administrators perceive these factors to have the most effect in influencing teachers to remain in the profession. This study was conducted by administering a survey to public school building administrators and public school teachers in Indiana. Teachers’ and administrators’ perceptions were measured on what reasons a teacher (hypothetically) might leave the profession. A total of 2,219 teachers and 208 building administrators submitted complete responses to the Teacher Retention Survey. The Teacher Retention Survey was developed by this researcher to quantitatively measure the perceptions of teachers and administrators on how the external and employment factors influence teachers to remain in the teaching profession. The list of external employment factors and reasons why a teacher might leave the profession was developed from the review of literature from similar research studies. Data were analyzed through one-way ANOVA testing and the null hypotheses were tested at the .05 probability level or better. The data analysis showed that a supportive school administration was an important factor that influences teachers to remain in the profession. Based on the perception that a supportive school administration keeps teachers in the profession, the following conclusion is proposed: School corporations need to offer a comprehensive induction program conducted over a three- to five-year period. An effective induction program consists of the following five: on-going professional development, time to collaborate with peers, administrative support through empowerment, a high quality mentoring program, and effective feedback on teacher observations and evaluations.
    • THE MOMENT I CAME IN IT GOT MUCH EASIER . . . I SHOULD COME HERE MORE”: STUDENT EXPERIENCES AT THREE MIDWESTERN LGBT RESOURCE CENTERS

      Hartman, Burr Dyral, II (Indiana State University, 2014-08)
      Although LGBT resource centers have been fixtures on college and university campuses for more than 40 years, there is only limited research about these resource centers. To date no empirical evidence exists that supports the impact of LGBT resource centers in the experiences of undergraduate students who make use of these centers. This qualitative study examines the role LGBT resource centers play in the experiences of LGBT students at three Midwestern universities. The qualitative research methods employed for the study were case study and ethnography. Using semi-structured interview data and field observations, five major themes surfaced: (a) perceptions of campus climate, (b) first impressions, (c) the role of LGBT resource centers, (d) what are students taking away, and (e) importance of LGBT resource centers. As a result of these themes, eight key findings emerged for discussion: (a) LGBT resource centers fulfill a number of roles for LGBT students; (b) LGBT resource centers enhance the experiences of LGBT students who seek out their services, resources, and programming; (c) the staff of LGBT resource centers influence the ways in which students interpret and understand their experiences with the centers; (d) LGBT resource centers provide a sense of visibility and voice on campus; (e) LGBT resource centers reinforce LGBT student identity; (f) the location of and community associated with the center impact the atmosphere of the LGBT resource center; (g) despite their presence on campuses some LGBT students have no or only limited involvement with LGBT resource centers; and (h) the placement of LGBT resource centers within larger multicultural centers may impact how centers are utilized and perceived. Based on these findings recommendations for institutions with LGBT resource centers and student affairs practitioners as well implications for future research are provided.
    • A QUALITATIVE STUDY OF STAKEHOLDERS‘ BELIEFS ABOUT THE ELEMENTS OF TEACHER INDUCTION PROGRAMS MOST EFFECTIVE IN INCREASING TEACHER COMPETENCE

      Simmers, Lynn Pretorius (Indiana State University, 2014-08)
      ―The ultimate purpose of any school is the success and achievement of its students‖ (Wong, 2004a, p. 41). As studies confirm ―teacher and teaching quality [as one of] the most powerful predictors of student success‖ (Wong, 2004a, p. 41) in an educational setting, research about the experiences of beginning teachers and teacher induction programs continues to emerge. Consequently, as induction programs continue to grow and change to meet the various needs of beginning teachers across our nation, efforts to determine if desired results are being achieved must be considered. Therefore, the beliefs and perceptions of various stakeholders concerning the elements of induction programs and induction practices that are considered to be the most effective in increasing teacher competence are of great importance. This qualitative case study described beginning teachers‘, mentors‘, building-level administrators‘, and program coordinators‘ beliefs about the elements of induction programs and induction practices perceived to be the most effective for increasing teacher competence. More specifically, it examined their beliefs regarding the importance of a comprehensive induction program that embodies the key components of a ―lifelong professional development program to keep [all] teachers improving toward increasing their effectiveness‖ (Wong, 2004a, p. 42). Through the use of individual interviews, insight was gained about the views and opinions of stakeholders concerning teacher induction programs in two school districts located in Indiana. In the analysis of data, five distinct themes emerged from this case study. Not surprisingly, induction programs varied across school districts, but they also shared common characteristics, practices, and goals. The role of the mentoring process is to provide support to new or beginning teachers. In addition, the mentoring process is perceived to be one of the most effective components of new teacher induction programs. Stakeholders believed professional development offered through induction programs builds skills that result in student achievement. Finally, teacher induction programs help districts prepare, support, and retain new teachers.
    • FINDING THE CORRECT FIT OR QUICKLY FINDING AN EXIT FOR SCHOOL SUPERINTENDENTS: PERCEPTIONS FROM THOSE WHO PLACED THEM OR ARE COMMISSIONED TO REPLACE THEM

      Hoffert, David Andrew (Indiana State University, 2014-08)
      The purpose of this study was to gain an essence and understanding of the phenomenon of short superintendency tenure through the qualitative lenses of superintendent search agents. Research questions included the roles of educational preparation, leadership qualities, and contextual factors in superintendent tenure. Superintendent search agents matching the criteria boundaries of working for an agency with at least 10 years of search experience and also the firm’s nonprofit status were chosen for this research work. These criteria were used to reduce bias due to financial reward and lack of institutional or association experience. Two semi-structured interviews were conducted with superintendent search agents to gain an understanding of the phenomenon of school superintendent short tenure. Observations included a job shadowing experience and geographical observation of the agents’ descriptive locations of the phenomenon as described in the interview. A focus group of current and former practicing school superintendents was used to assist in the triangulation of data. Emerging themes included understanding the role of the superintendent, preparation for the role of superintendent, leadership traits, and contextual factors impacting superintendent tenure. Additional sub-areas of study included job complexity, school boards, stepping-stone jobs, impact of search agencies, non-traditional hiring, occupational pipeline, trust, ego, mentorship, community, applicant pools, rural and urban settings, career and place-bound superintendencies, and diversity. Findings included relationships, communication, trust, correct fit, impact of school boards, and finding the correct fit. Implications include identifying success in the position role and the impact of career versus place-bound superintendencies.
    • A COMPARISON OF TEACHER PERCEPTIONS OF PRINCIPAL LEADERSHIP ACTIONS IN HIGHLY EFFECTIVE SCHOOLS AS MEASURED BY THE AUDIT OF PRINCIPAL EFFECTIVENESS

      Stephens, Michael (Indiana State University, 2014-09)
      The role of the principal has never been as multi-faceted or as scrutinized as it is in today’s schools. Principals are looked to for leadership and guidance in the processes, communications, relationships, instructions, and curriculum of today’s schools. Marzano (2013) listed 21 responsibilities of the principal of today. Principals of today wear many hats and are looked to have knowledge and skills beyond the scope of leaders in many other professions. The purpose of the quantitative study was to examine the perceptions of the teachers in Indiana high schools pertaining to their principal’s level of effectiveness as measured by the Audit of Principal Effectiveness. The results of this study can be beneficial to principals of all schools. Regardless of the grade assigned to the school, the study suggests the value of building relationships with administrative colleagues, the interaction with students, and the setting of high professional goals for all involved.
    • THE ROLE OF TUSKEGEE INSTITUTE IN THE ESTABLISHMENT OF A HIGHER EDUCATION PIPELINE FOR BLACK STUDENTS: THE CASE OF SNOW HILL INSTITUTE

      Brooks, Barbara J. Aaron (Indiana State University, 2014-12)
      The purpose of this study was to understand the role of collegiate Black women in the establishment and development of rural industrial education in the post-Civil War and segregated south. Black women’s voices and experiences have generally been excluded from the narrative of Black education and thus excluded from the larger conversation on Black education progression. This study, therefore, focused on Black women in this process. This study was important because it presented an examination of Black women’s experiences in rural industrial education, while attempting to chronicle the rich history of Snow Hill Institute. The institute served as a continuum toward the establishment of a higher education pipeline for African American students. An historical analysis approach was used in this qualitative study, with effort focused on the case study technique. Participants were invited to participate in the study if they met at least one of five criteria. Seven African American women ranging in age from 48 to 92 were selected to be interviewed. Using semi-structured interview questions, participants were asked about their experiences in rural industrial education institutions. Analysis of collected data revealed three emergent themes: (a) the influence of women at Snow Hill, (b) close family ties visible throughout the school’s history, and (c) the higher education pipeline for Black students. Findings of the study showed that the presence of Black women in rural industrial education helped to create and develop the higher education pipeline continuum for Black students, which necessitated the growth and expansion of historically Black colleges and universities. Implications to higher education suggest that administrative leaders of institutions of higher learning, particularly those institutions that seek to recruit African American students and other students of color, might find it useful to hire African American women in leadership positions in order to improve recruitment and retention outcomes of minority students, faculty, and staff.