• A collaborative approach to school leadership in improvement

      Greiner, Shawn Edwin
      The primary purpose of this quantitative study was to determine whether collaborative leadership and teacher collaboration predict student achievement. Specifically, the study sought to discover if there is a significant relationship between collaborative leadership and student achievement and if there is a significant relationship between teacher collaboration and student achievement. Descriptive statistics and linear regression were used to interpret and analyze the data for the study. There were 342 respondents who participated in the study. Respondents included 245 elementary and 97 middle school participants. Respondents were invited to complete the cultural survey developed at the Middle Level Leadership Center, University of Missouri (Gruenert & Valentine, 1998). The survey provided information pertaining to shared values/beliefs in the school. Growth model data were collected from each participating school in the areas of English/language arts and math. An average growth model average for two years (2010 and 2011 school years) was used for both English/language arts and math. Data were analyzed through linear regression. Based on the significant findings of the data analysis of the research, the following conclusions were made. There was an extremely small relationship between collaborative leadership and English/language arts. Based on the results, collaborative leadership cannot serve as a predictor of students’ English/language arts achievement. There was an extremely small relationship between collaborative leadership and math growth model average scores which means that based on the results of this study, collaborative leadership cannot serve as a predictor of students’ math achievement. It was determined there was a small relationship between teacher collaboration and English/language arts scores. This linear regression revealed that the predictor (teacher collaboration) may have the ability to predict English/language arts growth model scores. There was an extremely small relationship between teacher collaboration and math growth model average scores. Based on this study this linear regression revealed that the predictor (teacher collaboration) does not have the ability to predict math growth model scores.
    • “A Great Opportunity”: Persistence and Performance of Hoosier Link Students

      Handy, Lori B.
      Nationally, students who begin at two-year institutions who desire a bachelor’s degree struggle with the realization of their goal. Indiana is striving to make higher education more accessible, seamless, and cost effective. The partnership transfer program between Indiana University Bloomington (IUB) and Ivy Tech Community College Bloomington called Hoosier Link is a unique program that began in 2006 to enhance transfer student success through co-enrollment of a select group of students. This research study determined whether or not the Hoosier Link program had a positive impact on transfer student persistence and performance. Results found that while dependent variables did not show significance for persistence and performance, there was a correlation between students’ pre-transfer GPA and post-transfer GPA. Additionally, an astounding 72% of the Hoosier Link students saw their first term post-transfer GPA dip. This is classified as “transfer shock” (Hills, 1965, p. 1). These students did recover from their shock and actually one of the Hoosier Link cohorts persisted better than other IUB transfer students. Astin’s (1993) I-E-O theory was utilized in this study. The environmental aspect of this theory proved critical to Hoosier Link student success. Recommendations include: Hoosier Link peer and faculty mentors, living/learning residential community, and positive promotion of the program. Further study opportunities include: academic major evaluation, graduation longitudinal study, qualitative study of Hoosier Link students, other Hoosier Link cohorts, and a review of non-IUB transfer students from the Hoosier Link program.
    • A problem book for prospective superintendents

      Hanna, Paul Mitchell
      Not Available.
    • A qualitative study of participation of students in online discussion in mathematics

      Seo, Daeryong
      Despite many recent developm ents in technology, there are still many people who are not fully utilizing advanced technologies to enhance learning. This issue has an impact on K-12 schools as well as higher education and makes a case for the development of better distance education programs, which can assist students in studying more effectively both in and out of the classroom. In particular, online discussion in distance education can encourage students who are having difficulty in solving mathematical word problems on tests. The purpose of this study was to understand the behavior, motivation, and interests of teacher education students who need remediation by means of online discussion in mathematics. In addition, this study aimed at investigating the benefits and drawbacks of online discussion boards when teacher education students participate in online discussions for math remediation as well as the degree to which an expert facilitator impacted the online remediation. For this study, 12 students participated in an online discussion forum related to mathematics word problems, and six students participated in virtual focus group interviews. The participants were divided into two groups: one with an online expert facilitator and one without. The results showed the importance of an online facilitator and social interaction in the online discussion board. Students posted and shared new ideas and opinions and enjoyed their online discussion activities. The reported advantages of the online discussion were no-time and space limitations and the improvement of critical thinking ability, and the reported disadvantages of the online discussion were time lag, only text -based settings, and unfami liar interface as well as the possibility of plagiarism of others’ ideas and opinions. This study took place over a period of one week for online discussion in mathematics word problems. It is hoped that the results of this study will have implications for educators working with distance education settings.
    • A Study of How Predominantly White Institutions of Higher Education in Indiana Address Retention and Graduation Rates of African American Students

      Smith, Shawn A.
      This primary purpose of this study was to examine practices of Predominantly White Institutions (PWI) of higher education in Indiana that focus on the retention and graduation of African American students. This study was guided by the following research question, are there effective practices found in the K-12 and HBCU literature that can be identified in PWIs in Indiana that positively affect the retention and graduation of African American students? For this study, a qualitative method was used. A review of the literature on K-12 and HBCUs strategies assisted the researcher in developing interview questions that were used to identify practices in retaining and graduating African American students in PWIs in the Midwest. Ten participants from PWIs participated in the telephone interviews to identify common and /or unique practices as compared to the literature. Based on the interviews the following themes were identified: 1. Supportive Environment – All attempt to provide supportive environments. 2. Remediation - The ability to remediate and support students in need of academic help. 3. Faculty - Caring faculty members who are committed to teaching. 4. The Presence of a Racially Diverse Staff - An environment that does not shout “White”. After careful review of the literature and data from this research, it was clear that hiring a caring, diverse staff may be the major difference between HBCUs and PWIs. It must be noted that differences among PWIs also exist as it relates to the retention and graduation rates of African American students.
    • A study of student perceptions of exemplary instruction and servant leader behavioral qualities

      Setliff, Richard C. Jr.
      This study examined students' perceptions of certain servant leader behaviors associated with either typical or outstanding instruction. F ive servant leadership dimensions were considered: altruistic calling, emotional healing, wisdom, persuasive mapping, and organizational stewardship . Two groups of 3 00 students attending a midsized university located in the M idwest participated in the survey. The instrument used was based upon the Servan t Leadership Questionnaire developed by Barbuto and Wheeler (2006). Four of five servant leader qualities: altruistic calling, wisdom, organizational stewardship, and persuasive mapping had some measure of explanatory power. A low participation rate by students adversely affected observed statistical power and was a limitation to this study.
    • A Study of the Perceptions of Administrators and Faculty Regarding the Relevancy and Frequency of Effective Characteristics of Alternative Schools in Indiana

      Edsell, Timothy Owen
      The purpose of this study was to conclude if there is a difference in the perceptions between alternative school directors and alternative school teachers with regards to the extent of existence of effective characteristics and the importance of effective characteristics in their alternative education programs throughout the state of Indiana. Lead directors and teachers were asked to rate the existence of 40 alternative school characteristics and the importance of these same characteristics in their respective alternative schools. Each characteristic was classified into one of seven categories: (1) School Climate, (2) Student Needs, (3) Instruction/Curriculum, (4) Student Services, (5) Faculty Needs, (6) Community Support, and (7) Leadership. The formation of these seven composite variables originated from the Perceptions of Alternative Schools Survey, in which 40 research-based questions were categorized into these seven ubiquitous elements that make the greatest impact upon the effectiveness of successful alternative schools. Demographic data about each school and biographic data on each lead director and teacher were also collected. The research instrument, Perceptions of Alternative Schools Survey, was emailed to 141 lead directors. The directors were responsible for one or more alternative education programs that filed an annual program profile with the Indiana Department of Education. Upon completion the director electronically forwarded the same survey to three certified teachers, where applicable, who were employed in their respective alternative schools. Forty-three percent of the lead directors returned the survey; while, approximately 20% of the teachers responded to the survey. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) was used for all statistical analysis. Frequencies and percentages were calculated for biographic and demographic data. Means and standard deviations were calculated for perceptions of existence and importance of the effective alternative school characteristics for both lead directors and certified teachers. Two MANOVA tests, one for existence and the other for importance, were conducted with the alternative school positions of lead directors and certified teachers as the two different levels of the independent variable and the mean scores of their perceptions of the seven composite alternative school characteristics as the dependent variables. After a multivariate effect was performed, follow-up ANOVA tests were conducted to compare lead directors with teachers on the existence and importance of each composite variable. If a significant univariate effect was discovered, then additional ANOVA tests were conducted to compare lead directors with teachers on the existence and on the importance of each subset of questions within the significant composite variable(s). Both lead directors and teachers reported strong agreement that 83% of the research-based characteristics existed in their alternative schools; while, both groups agreed 95% of these characteristics were very important. With respect to existence and importance, significance was not found between the perceptions of lead directors and teachers across the seven composite alternative school characteristics. However, there existed perceptional differences between lead directors and teachers in the area of school climate, especially with class size and student conduct. Additionally, there were perceptional differences of importance between lead directors and teachers in the area of instruction/curriculum, especially with high student-teacher academic expectations and individualized student instruction.
    • A Thorough and Efficient Education: School Funding, Student Achievement and Productivity

      Many school districts are facing stagnant or reduced funding (input) concurrent with demands for improved student achievement (output). In other words, there is pressure for all schools, even those schools with student populations of low socioeconomic status, to improve academic results (accountability for output) without a directly proportionate increase in resources (adequacy of input); in essence, to improve productivity. This study a) examined the productivity of Indiana school districts, b) analyzed the effect of student populations of low socioeconomic status on district productivity, and c) explored the change in district productivity since the passage of accountability legislation. In Research Question #1, archival data on the expenditures and student performance of 292 Indiana public school districts was mined and analyzed. Productivity indicators were developed, revealing in 2008 13.9 students demonstrated mastery of Indiana academic standards on ISTEP+ for every $100,000 of General Fund expenditures. However, the range of productivity indicators between districts varied greatly, even among districts of similar socioeconomic status, calling into question whether demography was as critical a productivity predictor as it was generally argued to be. In Research Question #2, regression analysis revealed a statistically significant negative relationship between the socioeconomic status of its student population and its productivity on an overall basis, however a disaggregated analysis of socioeconomic quartiles revealed the relationship between socioeconomic status and productivity at some levels to be statistically insignificant. Such a finding seemed to indicate again that the predictive value of socioeconomic status to learning results was less reliable than generally suggested. Finally, in Research Question #3 analysis of variance of district productivity revealed that productivity declined steadily in years prior to enactment of the No Child Left Behind and began to improve the year the accountability legislation was enacted, suggesting that accountability measures may have changed educator behavior in a way that resulted in an increase of students able to demonstrate proficiency at state academic standards without a proportionate increase of expenditures.
    • Advanced Accreditation Impact Regarding the Achievement Gap between Schools of Poverty and Schools of Affluence for Secondary Education in a Five-State Region

      Langevin, Michael John
      The purpose of this quantitative study was to determine whether there are significant differences among AdvancED accredited middle and high schools that consist of those with high poverty populations and those affluent accredited schools regarding school effectiveness. This study examined whether there was a significant difference between schools of poverty and affluent schools on reading and mathematics state assessments. This study also examined which AdvancED school effectiveness accreditation standards predict student achievement success through standardized test performance in both reading and mathematics. Is there a significant difference between accredited schools of poverty and accredited affluent schools in the seven AdvancED school effectiveness accreditation standards? Is there a significant difference between AdvancED accredited schools of poverty and accredited affluent schools in state achievement scores in reading? Is there a significant difference between AdvancED accredited schools of poverty and accredited affluent schools in state achievement scores in mathematics? Are the AdvancED school accreditation standards predictors of success on student achievement through standardized test performance in the area of reading? Are the AdvancED school accreditation standards predictors of success on student achievement through standardized test performance in the area of mathematics? Based on the findings, this study determined schools of poverty were being rated significantly lower than schools of poverty in the following standards: governance and leadership, teaching and learning, resources and support programs, as well as stakeholder communication and relationships. Schools of poverty that enter the accreditation process still lag behind accredited schools of affluence, but a significant difference was determined when the accredited schools of poverty were compared to non-accredited schools of poverty. When school effectiveness accreditation scores for each standard were examined a relationship was significant between how affluent schools were scored in documenting and using results, as well as stakeholder communication and relationships and their success on standardized tests in reading and mathematics. When school effectiveness accreditation scores for each standard within schools of poverty a significant relationship between the following standards was determined in regard to standardized testing for reading and mathematics: teaching and learning, documenting and using results, as well as resources and support programs. A negative relationship was determined for schools of poverty between the test results in reading and mathematics and their rating on the commitment to continuous improvement standard.

      Turner, LaTonya M. (Cunningham Memorial library, Terre Haute,Indiana State University, 2017-12)
      This study looked at high school African American students’ perceptions of their college counseling experiences. Much research has been done to highlight the views and/or perceptions of various stakeholders regarding college counseling with respect to African American students (Cabrera & La Nasa, 2000; Hossler & Stage, 1992; Ng, Wolf-Wendel, & Lomardi, 2014). A few examples of stakeholders are administrators, teachers, parents or guardians, and college-going organizations. However, little research exists on the views and or perceptions of college counseling from the student’s perspective (Howard, 2003). Knowing the perceptions of students provides a better understanding of how African American students in urban settings perceive the college counseling provided to them.
    • An analysis of indiana schools implementing alternative teacher evaluation systems.

      Austin, Corey Wade
      The purpose of this content analysis research project was to determine if there were predictive qualities of the demographic groupings; student population, free and reduced percentage, and geographic setting on the teacher evaluation tools that are an alternative to the Indiana RISE model. This study surveyed Indiana superintendents regarding their anticipated 2012-13 evaluation tool. The schools that designated they would be using an alternative teacher evaluation tool were then asked to make available their research of their document for comparison to a research-based template. The research-based template is a derivative of the work of Danielson (2007), Marshall (2005), and Marzano (2004). It contains 12 elements that were commonalities among the researchers with emphasis on instruction. The alternative evaluation tools were scored and then multiple regression analysis was performed in the three predictor areas of demographics. The research indicated there were some elements from the demographics that did significantly influence the dependent variables. Some of the influence was positive where some of the influence was negative. This research can be used to explore the differences among variables and assist education programs in understanding which areas to pursue because of the positive influence and which areas to reduce because of its negative influence on the criterion variables. The predictor of free and reduced percentage was the demographic that had the influence on four of the elements (criterion variables). Free and reduced percentage had a positive significance with the elements of application. The three elements that were also significant, but negative, were connections/questions, clarity, and homework/feedback. The remaining eight elements showed no significant value. .