• Barriers to Implementation of RTI at the Secondary Level

      Holsapple, Nancy Jane
      The purpose of the study was to determine if there are differences among building administrators, guidance counselors, and special education directors on a perceived level of implementation of Response to Intervention (RTI) at the secondary level. The study also examined whether or not RTI serves as a predictor of students identified in special education. This study did not find a significant difference between perceptions of Indiana high school counselors, Indiana high school administrators and Indiana special education directors. The study also revealed the six indicators of RTI do not serve as predictors for students who are identified in special education. Of the three groups surveyed, one indicator was consistently identified as being fully knowledgeable in this model; the RTI administers curriculum-based measurements for progress monitoring easily and efficiently.
    • Barriers to Implementation of RTI at the Secondary Level

      Holsapple, Nancy Jane
      The purpose of the study was to determine if there are differences among building administrators, guidance counselors, and special education directors on a perceived level of implementation of Response to Intervention (RTI) at the secondary level. The study also examined whether or not RTI serves as a predictor of students identified in special education. This study did not find a significant difference between perceptions of Indiana high school counselors, Indiana high school administrators and Indiana special education directors. The study also revealed the six indicators of RTI do not serve as predictors for students who are identified in special education. Of the three groups surveyed, one indicator was consistently identified as being fully knowledgeable in this model; the RTI administers curriculum-based measurements for progress monitoring easily and efficiently.
    • CAD associate degree programs in public post-secondary eduaction.

      Duan, Xin-Ran
      This study investigated what community colleges were teaching in CAD associate degree programs in manufacturing and construction fields, and what knowledge and skills were required to empower CAD students to become successful in the workplace. In order to better meet business and industry needs, a model curriculum for CAD associate degree programs was developed and presented. This model curriculum could more effectively prepare students with the required knowledge and skills for successful employment.A three-round Delphi technique was used to collect data from CAD professors at community colleges and experts in industry. A total of 32 members in the Panel of Institution Experts, and a total of 30 members in the Panel of Industry Experts were selected from 29 states in four regions of the United States using a stratified random sampling method. The analysis of demographic data revealed geographic representation, professional background, and rich experience for the members of the two panels. The study found that AutoCAD was dominant in industry for CAD applications, and AutoCAD was the primary software used for CAD programs at community colleges.Also, the study found that all the surveyed colleges were accredited by six major regional accreditation agencies, and all the colleges were satisfied with program outcomes.In addition, alist of forty-seven items of required knowledge and skills were identified by the two panels, which should be included in the model curriculum as key elements.As a result of the study, a model curriculum, containing a core curriculum with 24 courses in four categories plus suggested general eduaction courses, was validated by the two panels. Thsi ideal curriculum for CAD associate degree programs provided a commbination of solid theoretical foundation, classroom studies, and laboratory practice. To make it deliverable at community colleges, adjustment may be necessary to accommodate general education courses and the core curriculum courses for an individual college.
    • Campus Environment Influence on Women’s Leadership Development at Small Private Institutions

      Weina, Kasie
      The purpose of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of women’s leadership and the important influential factors that impact women’s leadership development. Campus environmental factors and gender socialization were examined in an effort to understand women’s leadership identity and development and the potential influences on that development. Data were collected in a semi-structured interview with seven students from two different institutions. Both institutions were private and located in a Midwestern city. One institution had an entire on-campus population of women and the other institution had an on-campus population of 21% women. This study supported the existence of a connection between women’s leadership development, the campus environment, and gender socialization. Perceptions of their leadership were influenced by external factors such as role models, adult and peer affirmation, and the perceptions of others and internal factors such as confidence and initiative. The themes that emerged regarding the campus environmental differences were (a) self-perceptions through language, (b) demonstration of worth, (c) gender versus environment, and (d) expectations for behavior. Overall, the all-women’s institutional environment was perceived as more flexible and less dependent on gender socialization than the male-dominated institutional environment, which supports that the campus environment is an influential factor in how women perceive leadership.
    • Capacities facilitating school change involving project-based learning at the middle school level

      Browder, Lee Shane
      With schools continuing to fall short of No Child Left Behind standards and with future challenges just around the corner, educators must identify and make positive changes in schools. Researchers must work to recognize and exhibit how student achievement is fostered and inform educators of options on how to move in a positive direction according to research. The purpose of this qualitative, multiple-site case study was to examine what capacity-building factors were in middle schools identified as successfully implementing project-based learning. This study focused on the capacities that are consistently implemented leading to successful school change with the Schools to Watch®. The Schools to Watch® sample of three schools was purposefully selected with respect to this designation itself, as membership in that group served as a quality-assurance mechanism that participating schools strove to be high-performing, challenging to all students, infused with rigorous curriculum, imbued with rich instruction, and staffed with teachers who were trained at the highest levels with outstanding supports. These schools had completed rigorous training and development to achieve the status of being a School to Watch® member for the 2012-2013 school year. The sample schools had all addressed the issues of change as they implemented project-based learning during the past few years, since this is a focus of the Schools to Watch® program. The enrollments of these schools ranged from 255 to 915 and included Grades 5 through 8. This study focused on the capacity-building initiatives that occur within the building as a component when implementing school change. In doing so, it strived to answer the question, “What components of capacity building are essential when implementing selected school change?” Sub-questions included the following: 1.What capacities are needed to implement project-based learning at the middle school level? 2.What leadership characteristics are valuable to building capacities in implementing project-based learning at the middle school level? 3.What are the keys to sustaining successful change after implementation of project-based learning at the middle school level? This study focused on the use of interviews, observations, and document analysis to examine school capacity at the middle school level. This process created consistent results that indicated that these schools consistently focused on the personal sphere through a “we-centeredness,” through an interpersonal sphere with respect to coaching, and through the organizational sphere with respect to data, which worked together in the context of high-level school functioning.In the three conclusions, the focus was on creating better relationships that could enhance and expand upon a we-centered approach, using talent scouting and teambuilding to further the notion of leader-as-coach in school operation, and reconceptualizing the structures and operations of schools to maximize the opportunity to use data to increase the professional capacities within a school.
    • Chinese international student orientation to a U.S. public institution of higher education

      Lin, Yi
      The purpose of the present study was to gather information that would inform international student advisors about ways to create a new international student orientation program that would facilitate a successful cultural transition from Chinese culture to U.S. culture. Different language, different culture, different educational philosophy, different educational system s, different requir ement s , and different expectation s challenge Chinese international students in academic study and personal development dur ing their time as an international student in the United States. Cultural surprise and culture shock in the host environment confront them as they work to understand and operate within the values and norms of U.S. culture. Making a successful cross - cultura l transition in the classroom and in the wider society promotes the ultimate goal of attaining skills needed to lead the future of the world community. With targeted orientation activities and educational interventions, Chinese international students can i ncrease their self - awareness and intercultural sensitivity, and reduce the time needed for successful adjustment in the host culture. Developing skills in intercultural sensitivity promotes student development in personality, attitudes, and beliefs . Chines e international students can recognize, respect, accept, and appreciate the value of cultural differences to their advantage. A successful study abroad experience helps them increase their intercultural competence and enables them to flourish in the vibran t U.S. campus culture. Interacting with culturally confident Chinese international students, U.S. students can also increase their multicultural competence
    • Communication Satisfaction and its Relationship to Organizational Commitment Among Secondary Teachers in Kuwait

      Alanezi, Ahmad Salamah
      The purposes of the study were to examine the level of communication satisfaction and to investigate the relationship between communication satisfaction and four teachers’ demographic variables; gender, nationally, years of experience, and school district. Moreover, the study aimed to detect the relationship between communication satisfaction factors and organizational commitment among secondary teachers in the state of Kuwait. The applied instruments were Communication Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ) and Downs’s Commitment Scale (2008). Data for this study was collected from 465 secondary teachers who successfully completed the instruments. Descriptive data revealed that the majority of the sample was satisfied with communication within their schools. Also, t-test analysis revealed that there was no obvious difference between male and female teachers in their communication satisfaction. However, there was a significant difference between Kuwaiti and Non-Kuwaiti teachers. Furthermore, a one-way ANOVA test did not show a significant relationship between communication satisfaction, and both years of experience, and school district. Finally, a Multiple Regression analysis exposed that the following communication factors were the best to predict commitment; supervisor communication, media quality, horizontal communication, and communication with subordinates in addition to a strong predictable relationship between the overall scores of communication satisfaction and commitment was identified.
    • County superintendency in Indiana

      Fox, Crawford
      Not Available.
    • Culture in Successful Title I Middle Schools

      Lautenschlager, Bruce C.
      The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate the culture of successful Indiana public Title I middle schools. This study examined differences in similar schools of poverty achieving adequate yearly progress as defined by No Child Left Behind. The study explored the cultural differences that allow for student success using middle schools with student populations from urban and rural areas. Schools at the middle level showing student success and growth as defined by adequate yearly progress should exhibit a school culture with a high degree of collaboration among the school staff. Schools showing little student growth or no student growth should show a somewhat negative relationship among staff which, to a degree, defines the school’s culture. Common themes which emerged from this study were  clean and well-maintained building and grounds,  school pride,  school community trusts school,  minimal turnover,  traditions passed to younger staff,  trust among staff,  data guides instruction, and  Title I not a label.
    • Cyberbullying and How It Impacts Schools

      Choucalas, Vida Zoe
      With all of its many benefits to humanity, one of the consequences of the Internet age is a far more pervasive and potentially damaging version of bullying called cyberbullying, which can also be referred to as ebullying, electronic bullying, cyberviolence, digital bullying, electronic harassment, and online harassment. Cyberbullying is being cruel to others by sending or posting harmful material or engaging in other forms of social cruelty using digital technologies. Because most children and young adults are computer literate and have access to a range of digital communication tools, cyberbullying has the potential to have more severe consequences than traditional bullying. This potential means that schools must find comprehensive approaches to combat the effects of cyberbullying, as it also undermines school climate and the safe and supportive environment that fosters student learning. The purpose of this research study was to gain a better understanding of the differing perceptions of cyberbullying based on the views of students, parents, educators, and school administrators. An Internet survey was used to gather information from groups of students, parents, and school staff of varying age groups, backgrounds, and locations. It was adapted from previously conducted surveys with several questions added for this specific project (Hinduja et al., 2009; Rogers, 2010; Trolley & Hanel, 2010; Willard, 2007b). The results of the study indicated that the perceptions of students, parents, educators, and administrators varied significantly in many issues. The most significant variations between subgroups occurred when looking at students’ willingness to talk to any adult when they or others are being cyberbullied. Another significant variation was seen between administrators and the other subgroups when looking at training of all stakeholders pertaining to cyberbullying and a school staff’s ability to identify and appropriately address cyberbullying. Results indicated that even school staff seemed to be in the dark about what, if any, policy or process their school district had in place to handle cyberbullying. As authority figures who are in the trenches with the students day after day, educators might have a better handle even than parents on students’ school personae, social hierarchies, and the ever-changing affiliations that bloom and wilt before their eyes in classrooms and hallways. This makes it imperative that they know what is in place to help them take care of their students and help keep the school environment safe.
    • Daddy, can we play Beatles rock band? The lived experiences of a married student with children in a cohort-based education doctoral program

      Thomas, Tony J.
      The purpose of this research is to understand more clearly the lived experiences of married doctoral students with children who are enrolled in a cohort - based program. Attempting to maintain a strong family relationship, balance a career, enr oll in a doctoral program, and provide for a family is an avalanche of emotion and pressure on all members of the family. All facets of family relationships that have been strained need to be relieved of stressors and more focus needs to be on the family during each semester. With the time commitment caused by classes, studying, and through the dissertation process, family relationships can be torn apart by the lack of attention to the family. The ability of a doctoral student to survive the outside stra ins of life is increasingly difficult (Gardner, 2009; Madrey, 1983) . This qualitative, phenomenological study examined the lived experiences of married studen ts with children under 18 years old, in a cohort - based doctoral program at a Midwestern research university. Data were collected from a purposeful sample of 10 participants who had bee n students in a doctoral cohort - based program between 1998 and 2009. The chosen participants were enrolled in th e cohort based doctoral program but did not need to hav e graduated. An analysis of the data elicited five themes: support — “can I do this alone?” the effect of a doctoral program on the marital relationship, walkin’ the tightrope: balancing it all, filling the gender gap, and advice for present and future doc toral students who are married with children . This study recognized challenges and opportunities to better understand married doctoral students with children. It also recognized that with communication, cooperation, and compassion, the married doctoral student with children can have a successful academic a career and maintain a strong family relationship. The findings of this study aim to serve as a guide not only for married doctoral students with children but also for spouses, families, mentor s, program faculty, dissertation chairs, friends, and coworkers. The experiences of married doctoral students with children are not only unique, they are also inspirational. It is vital more research on this topic should occur and subsequent finding s are discovered to allow similar students to persist toward their educational endeavors and allow for their family relationships to remain strong and thrive.
    • Development of an Instrument to Measure Faculty Adherence to the Norms Of Science

      Motycka, Eric D.
      The norms of science of Communalism, Universalism, Disinterestedness, and Organized Skepticism provide a framework for understanding and examining faculty activity related to the triple helix of university, industry, and government relations. Despite the increase in scholarship regarding faculty and the norms of science, there is a lack of research focused on measuring faculty adherence to the norms that is psychometrically valid and reliable. The goal of this dissertation was to contribute to the literature by developing and testing such an instrument. This instrument differentiates among the norms of Organized Skepticism, Universalism, Commercialism, and Scientific Puritanism, the latter two being refined labels that captured the questions involved with those scales. The instrument‘s psychometric properties demonstrated both construct validity and internal reliability via field testing with 290 faculty at United States Midwestern research universities.
    • Educational Referendum Voting in Ohio Based on District Size, Socio-Economic Status, and Median Income

      Galovic IV, Thomas A.
      The purpose of this study was to identify the successful tax levy votes for capital project referendums in Ohio over the past 17 elections and correlate those with the socio-economic level, median income, and district enrollment in which the votes took place. This will serve as a guide to predict what school districts in Indiana would have successful capital project referendum votes based on the Ohio results. The study used data provided directly from the Ohio Department of Education in regards to the levy votes and the poverty level of the school districts over the past 17 elections from school years spanning 2004-2009. Once data were compiled, a threshold was developed of the frequency of success rates of the votes relative to poverty level, median income, and enrollment.
    • Effect of Urine Agitation on Measurements of Hydration Status.

      Adams, Heather
      Hypohydration can have significant implications on physiological functions of the body and has the potential to decrease level of performance. In addition to performance decrements, hypohydration can also lead to increased thermal and cardiovascular strain. As a preventative measure athletic trainers are commonly required to attain urine specimen samples to assess athlete hydration status for weight checks and monitoring body mass losses. Unfortunately, immediate examination of urine samples is not always possible. As the urine sample sits, sedimentation develops. No current literature addresses the sedimentation of urine samples and what procedures should be performed to ensure an accurate hydration assessment. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to determine if agitation of urine samples is comparable to the criterion measure, urine osmolality measured within two hours of collection. DESIGN: We used a descriptive diagnostic validity test design to investigate the effects of agitation of urine samples on the measure of hydration status. SETTING: Biochemical Research Laboratory at Indiana State University. PARTICIPANTS: Seventy-five healthy participants (41 males, 34 females; mean age=22±5years; mean self-reported height=172±23cm and mass=77±17kg) recruited from a university campus provided one or more samples (total samples=81). INTERVENTION: The independent variable was agitation type with 3 levels: vortex mixed, hand shaken, and no agitation. Following recruitment, participants completed the informed consent and a short health questionnaire to rule out any exclusion criteria such as kidney disease, diabetes, etc. Participants were provided with a clean specimen cup and were asked to provide a sample. Large samples were encouraged as they were then split evenly into three cups and labeled according to participant number and agitation type. Hand shaken samples were shaken 10 times in an hourglass fashion, from right side up to up side down. Vortex samples were placed on the vortex mixer for 10 seconds. Non-agitation samples were not disturbed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Urine osmolality, as measured by a freezing point depression osmometer was used to determine hydration status within two hours of specimen collection and again after 48 hours. Agitation was only performed prior to the second measurement of hydration status, after 48 hours had passed. A one-way ANOVA was performed to compare the two methods of agitation against the criterion control. RESULTS: No significant differences were identified (F3,316 = 0.00027, p =0.99, 1-β=1.00) between the no agitation (mean=724±262), hand shaken(mean=723±263) and vortex (mean=724±263) methods when compared to the criterion control(mean=723±262). CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study demonstrated no differences in hydration status measurements between the two agitation methods and the control. For practitioners who are unable to immediately measure the hydration status of urine samples, agitation of the urine specimen is not necessary in order to obtain a valid measure of hydration status using an osmometer.
    • Effective Educational Leadership Attributes of Indiana High School Principals

      Perry, Bryan A.
      The purpose of this study was to gain insight about high school principals who are considered effective by organizations and institutions in the state of Indiana. Through a qualitative study, five Indiana high school principals participated in an interview with 26 structured questions. The participants were selected based on recommendations from major Indiana universities granting administrative licensure and the Indiana Association of School Principals. The participants could serve in rural, urban, or suburban districts in Indiana. Gender, race, or ethnic differences were not considered. State and federal test results were not a deciding factor for selection. There were five conclusions as a result of this study: 1. The preparation program establishes a solid base for aspiring principals regardless of program or internship. In addition, new principals benefit from an informal mentor. 2. Increased accountability is seen as a positive rather than a negative by effective principals. 3. Effective Indiana high school principals adapt their leadership skills to meet the demands necessary to lead successful schools. 4. Effective Indiana high school principals are optimistic people. 5. Stress is an accepted part of the job for Indiana high school principals.
    • Effects of Monetary Incentives on Academic Performance of Fourth-Grade Students from Low Socioeconomic Status

      Dafiaghor, Sandra O.
      Scientific investigations of monetary incentives on students‘ academic achievement have not explored effects on performance of students from low socioeconomic status (SES), nor has there been exploration of teachers‘ perceptions of how monetary incentives impact academic performance of students from low socioeconomic status. The present study explored how low SES students perceive their academic performances being impacted by extrinsic monetary incentives. The study also explored the fourth-grade teachers‘ beliefs about the impact of monetary incentive on students‘ academic performance. The study found that students believe monetary incentives will increase academic performance, depending on the size of the cash incentive. The results were mixed for teachers. The findings from this study suggest that there is a need to delve deeper into the concept of cash for grades because of unanswered questions: What amount of money is sufficient, and why are teachers‘ beliefs incongruent with their students‘ beliefs?
    • THE EFFECTS OF SECONDARY SCHOOL ACCOUNTABILITY GRADES ON COLLEGE AND UNIVERSITY TRANSFER

      Robinson Kramer, Jill (Cunningham Memorial Library, Terre Haute, Indiana State University., 2017-12)
      Workforce projections indicate that a majority of jobs to be created in the U.S. economy will require some form of postsecondary education (Cappelli, 2015; Carnevale, Smith, & Strohl, 2010). At the same time, colleges and universities are being held accountable for completion and graduation of their students (The Commission, 2014) and secondary schools are being graded under changing accountability systems (Center for Education Policy, 2008; Dee & Jacobs, 2011, Figlio & Ladd, 2008). This study looked at the longer-term implications of high school accountability grades, A–F, and the impact on student transfer, associate’s degree completion, and time to associate’s degree among Twenty-First Century Scholars students who attended Ivy Tech Community College, Indiana’s community college system. There were statistically significant differences in long-term education outcomes, earning associate’s degrees in 11 elapsed terms from the first fall term of enrollment and in transferring out with or without a degree during the same time-period, based on the accountability grade of the high school from which the students came, using two separate chi square tests for independence. However, among graduates, there was no statistically significant difference in the time it took students to complete associate’s degrees between students from A- and F-rated high schools, using an independent samples t-test.
    • ELEMENTARY SCHOOL INCLUSION FOR STUDENTS WITH AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER: ATTITUDES OF GENERAL EDUCATION TEACHERS

      Wareham, Sarah (Cunningham Memorial library, Terre Haute,Indiana State University, 2017-12)
      The emphasis on teaching all students in the general education setting requires school personnel to reimagine the delivery of service for students with disabilities, including those with autism spectrum disorder (autism). This delivery of service relies heavily on the general education teacher’s ability to meet the varying learning needs of his or her students. This study explored if the general education teacher’s attitude toward students with autism in his or her classroom is related to participation of students with autism in the general education classroom as well as collaboration between the general education and special education teacher. These variables and their relationships were studied by administering an electronic survey to general education teachers in Indiana elementary schools. The findings of this study show that there is a relationship between attitude and participation and collaboration.
    • Entrance Criteria for Nursing Programs

      Primrose, Pamela B.
      The acute nursing shortage across the nation is compounded by underrepresented minorities in health care in light of the growing diversity of America‟s citizenry. These issues are converging into a major debate in higher education regarding admission policies and practices to ensure entry of most qualified students to meet the growing demand for nurses. While nursing programs have been charged with increasing the diversity of students admitted into their programs, it has not yet come to fruition. This investigation evaluates entrance criteria for RN associate of science degree nursing programs (ASN) at two-year institutions using an ex post facto design to determine if nurse entrance criteria provide for equal opportunity for admission or results in de facto discrimination. The research examines the effect of nurse entrance criteria of overall Total Quality Points (TQP) for non-science, non-math, math, and science courses, and nurse entrance exam scores, specifically the Test of Academic Assessment Skills (TEAS) to determine how they impact the admission of minority students, specifically African American students, into the nursing program. Admissions criteria of TEAS only, TEAS plus TQP, TEAS and TQP separately, and TQP only are assessed to determine which criteria maximize the admission rate of minority students into nursing programs along with regression studies to identify which demographics or characteristics significantly impact the success of African American students‟ performance on the TEAS test or to determine if de facto discrimination is present. Identification of various stages of elimination of students from the applicant pool as it is narrowed down will aid in determining which levels of the admissions criteria may require intervention during the pre-nursing preparation phase. This study will investigate the role of standardized tests as a barrier to minority enrollment. Data analyses revealed discrimination against African American students seeking entrance into the ASN program at three community colleges. The TEAS test was a serious barrier to African American student inclusion in the final applicant pool and consideration for admission into the ASN program. Students who did not pass all TEAS subsets did not move forward for inclusion in the final applicant pool. Those African American students in the applicant pool were also negatively impacted by the TEAS test as well as TQP after controlling for first generation status, age, high school rank, and high school rigor. Thus, the admission process for the ASN program using TEAS as an admission criterion is discriminatory against African American students.
    • Examination of Quality Indicators in Public and Private Pre-Kindergarten Classrooms in Indiana

      Peterson, Rhonda M.
      The purpose of this study was to examine the current state of pre-kindergarten classrooms in the state of Indiana through the perspectives of public and private pre-kindergarten program directors. Survey results revealed a high concentration of female pre-kindergarten directors within the state of Indiana. Although directors rated their teaching staffs with a high level of early education background, they themselves felt less confident about their backgrounds in this field. Descriptive data also revealed that private student–teacher ratios are smaller, their instructional days are longer, their programs have been established for longer periods of time, and their directors have had longer tenures than their public counterparts. Statistical testing found that directors of public urban schools reported a higher quality rating than suburban and rural pre-kindergarten programs, based on the quality composite score. It was determined that student–teacher ratio and school type (public, private) both served as significant predictors of the quality composite score. It was revealed that as student–teacher ratio increases, the perceived pre-kindergarten quality decreases. Results also showed that pre-kindergarten directors’ perceived quality is less within the private setting than in the public setting, based on the composite quality score. The overarching purpose of this study was to provide an awareness of the potential benefits that quality pre-kindergarten programming could yield for the future citizens of Indiana as a whole and if perceived quality exists to some degree.