• Daddy, can we play Beatles rock band? The lived experiences of a married student with children in a cohort-based education doctoral program

      Thomas, Tony J.
      The purpose of this research is to understand more clearly the lived experiences of married doctoral students with children who are enrolled in a cohort - based program. Attempting to maintain a strong family relationship, balance a career, enr oll in a doctoral program, and provide for a family is an avalanche of emotion and pressure on all members of the family. All facets of family relationships that have been strained need to be relieved of stressors and more focus needs to be on the family during each semester. With the time commitment caused by classes, studying, and through the dissertation process, family relationships can be torn apart by the lack of attention to the family. The ability of a doctoral student to survive the outside stra ins of life is increasingly difficult (Gardner, 2009; Madrey, 1983) . This qualitative, phenomenological study examined the lived experiences of married studen ts with children under 18 years old, in a cohort - based doctoral program at a Midwestern research university. Data were collected from a purposeful sample of 10 participants who had bee n students in a doctoral cohort - based program between 1998 and 2009. The chosen participants were enrolled in th e cohort based doctoral program but did not need to hav e graduated. An analysis of the data elicited five themes: support — “can I do this alone?” the effect of a doctoral program on the marital relationship, walkin’ the tightrope: balancing it all, filling the gender gap, and advice for present and future doc toral students who are married with children . This study recognized challenges and opportunities to better understand married doctoral students with children. It also recognized that with communication, cooperation, and compassion, the married doctoral student with children can have a successful academic a career and maintain a strong family relationship. The findings of this study aim to serve as a guide not only for married doctoral students with children but also for spouses, families, mentor s, program faculty, dissertation chairs, friends, and coworkers. The experiences of married doctoral students with children are not only unique, they are also inspirational. It is vital more research on this topic should occur and subsequent finding s are discovered to allow similar students to persist toward their educational endeavors and allow for their family relationships to remain strong and thrive.
    • Development of an Instrument to Measure Faculty Adherence to the Norms Of Science

      Motycka, Eric D.
      The norms of science of Communalism, Universalism, Disinterestedness, and Organized Skepticism provide a framework for understanding and examining faculty activity related to the triple helix of university, industry, and government relations. Despite the increase in scholarship regarding faculty and the norms of science, there is a lack of research focused on measuring faculty adherence to the norms that is psychometrically valid and reliable. The goal of this dissertation was to contribute to the literature by developing and testing such an instrument. This instrument differentiates among the norms of Organized Skepticism, Universalism, Commercialism, and Scientific Puritanism, the latter two being refined labels that captured the questions involved with those scales. The instrument‘s psychometric properties demonstrated both construct validity and internal reliability via field testing with 290 faculty at United States Midwestern research universities.
    • Educational Referendum Voting in Ohio Based on District Size, Socio-Economic Status, and Median Income

      Galovic IV, Thomas A.
      The purpose of this study was to identify the successful tax levy votes for capital project referendums in Ohio over the past 17 elections and correlate those with the socio-economic level, median income, and district enrollment in which the votes took place. This will serve as a guide to predict what school districts in Indiana would have successful capital project referendum votes based on the Ohio results. The study used data provided directly from the Ohio Department of Education in regards to the levy votes and the poverty level of the school districts over the past 17 elections from school years spanning 2004-2009. Once data were compiled, a threshold was developed of the frequency of success rates of the votes relative to poverty level, median income, and enrollment.
    • Effect of Urine Agitation on Measurements of Hydration Status.

      Adams, Heather
      Hypohydration can have significant implications on physiological functions of the body and has the potential to decrease level of performance. In addition to performance decrements, hypohydration can also lead to increased thermal and cardiovascular strain. As a preventative measure athletic trainers are commonly required to attain urine specimen samples to assess athlete hydration status for weight checks and monitoring body mass losses. Unfortunately, immediate examination of urine samples is not always possible. As the urine sample sits, sedimentation develops. No current literature addresses the sedimentation of urine samples and what procedures should be performed to ensure an accurate hydration assessment. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to determine if agitation of urine samples is comparable to the criterion measure, urine osmolality measured within two hours of collection. DESIGN: We used a descriptive diagnostic validity test design to investigate the effects of agitation of urine samples on the measure of hydration status. SETTING: Biochemical Research Laboratory at Indiana State University. PARTICIPANTS: Seventy-five healthy participants (41 males, 34 females; mean age=22±5years; mean self-reported height=172±23cm and mass=77±17kg) recruited from a university campus provided one or more samples (total samples=81). INTERVENTION: The independent variable was agitation type with 3 levels: vortex mixed, hand shaken, and no agitation. Following recruitment, participants completed the informed consent and a short health questionnaire to rule out any exclusion criteria such as kidney disease, diabetes, etc. Participants were provided with a clean specimen cup and were asked to provide a sample. Large samples were encouraged as they were then split evenly into three cups and labeled according to participant number and agitation type. Hand shaken samples were shaken 10 times in an hourglass fashion, from right side up to up side down. Vortex samples were placed on the vortex mixer for 10 seconds. Non-agitation samples were not disturbed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Urine osmolality, as measured by a freezing point depression osmometer was used to determine hydration status within two hours of specimen collection and again after 48 hours. Agitation was only performed prior to the second measurement of hydration status, after 48 hours had passed. A one-way ANOVA was performed to compare the two methods of agitation against the criterion control. RESULTS: No significant differences were identified (F3,316 = 0.00027, p =0.99, 1-β=1.00) between the no agitation (mean=724±262), hand shaken(mean=723±263) and vortex (mean=724±263) methods when compared to the criterion control(mean=723±262). CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study demonstrated no differences in hydration status measurements between the two agitation methods and the control. For practitioners who are unable to immediately measure the hydration status of urine samples, agitation of the urine specimen is not necessary in order to obtain a valid measure of hydration status using an osmometer.
    • Effective Educational Leadership Attributes of Indiana High School Principals

      Perry, Bryan A.
      The purpose of this study was to gain insight about high school principals who are considered effective by organizations and institutions in the state of Indiana. Through a qualitative study, five Indiana high school principals participated in an interview with 26 structured questions. The participants were selected based on recommendations from major Indiana universities granting administrative licensure and the Indiana Association of School Principals. The participants could serve in rural, urban, or suburban districts in Indiana. Gender, race, or ethnic differences were not considered. State and federal test results were not a deciding factor for selection. There were five conclusions as a result of this study: 1. The preparation program establishes a solid base for aspiring principals regardless of program or internship. In addition, new principals benefit from an informal mentor. 2. Increased accountability is seen as a positive rather than a negative by effective principals. 3. Effective Indiana high school principals adapt their leadership skills to meet the demands necessary to lead successful schools. 4. Effective Indiana high school principals are optimistic people. 5. Stress is an accepted part of the job for Indiana high school principals.
    • Effects of Monetary Incentives on Academic Performance of Fourth-Grade Students from Low Socioeconomic Status

      Dafiaghor, Sandra O.
      Scientific investigations of monetary incentives on students‘ academic achievement have not explored effects on performance of students from low socioeconomic status (SES), nor has there been exploration of teachers‘ perceptions of how monetary incentives impact academic performance of students from low socioeconomic status. The present study explored how low SES students perceive their academic performances being impacted by extrinsic monetary incentives. The study also explored the fourth-grade teachers‘ beliefs about the impact of monetary incentive on students‘ academic performance. The study found that students believe monetary incentives will increase academic performance, depending on the size of the cash incentive. The results were mixed for teachers. The findings from this study suggest that there is a need to delve deeper into the concept of cash for grades because of unanswered questions: What amount of money is sufficient, and why are teachers‘ beliefs incongruent with their students‘ beliefs?
    • THE EFFECTS OF SECONDARY SCHOOL ACCOUNTABILITY GRADES ON COLLEGE AND UNIVERSITY TRANSFER

      Robinson Kramer, Jill (Cunningham Memorial Library, Terre Haute, Indiana State University., 2017-12)
      Workforce projections indicate that a majority of jobs to be created in the U.S. economy will require some form of postsecondary education (Cappelli, 2015; Carnevale, Smith, & Strohl, 2010). At the same time, colleges and universities are being held accountable for completion and graduation of their students (The Commission, 2014) and secondary schools are being graded under changing accountability systems (Center for Education Policy, 2008; Dee & Jacobs, 2011, Figlio & Ladd, 2008). This study looked at the longer-term implications of high school accountability grades, A–F, and the impact on student transfer, associate’s degree completion, and time to associate’s degree among Twenty-First Century Scholars students who attended Ivy Tech Community College, Indiana’s community college system. There were statistically significant differences in long-term education outcomes, earning associate’s degrees in 11 elapsed terms from the first fall term of enrollment and in transferring out with or without a degree during the same time-period, based on the accountability grade of the high school from which the students came, using two separate chi square tests for independence. However, among graduates, there was no statistically significant difference in the time it took students to complete associate’s degrees between students from A- and F-rated high schools, using an independent samples t-test.
    • ELEMENTARY SCHOOL INCLUSION FOR STUDENTS WITH AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER: ATTITUDES OF GENERAL EDUCATION TEACHERS

      Wareham, Sarah (Cunningham Memorial library, Terre Haute,Indiana State University, 2017-12)
      The emphasis on teaching all students in the general education setting requires school personnel to reimagine the delivery of service for students with disabilities, including those with autism spectrum disorder (autism). This delivery of service relies heavily on the general education teacher’s ability to meet the varying learning needs of his or her students. This study explored if the general education teacher’s attitude toward students with autism in his or her classroom is related to participation of students with autism in the general education classroom as well as collaboration between the general education and special education teacher. These variables and their relationships were studied by administering an electronic survey to general education teachers in Indiana elementary schools. The findings of this study show that there is a relationship between attitude and participation and collaboration.
    • Entrance Criteria for Nursing Programs

      Primrose, Pamela B.
      The acute nursing shortage across the nation is compounded by underrepresented minorities in health care in light of the growing diversity of America‟s citizenry. These issues are converging into a major debate in higher education regarding admission policies and practices to ensure entry of most qualified students to meet the growing demand for nurses. While nursing programs have been charged with increasing the diversity of students admitted into their programs, it has not yet come to fruition. This investigation evaluates entrance criteria for RN associate of science degree nursing programs (ASN) at two-year institutions using an ex post facto design to determine if nurse entrance criteria provide for equal opportunity for admission or results in de facto discrimination. The research examines the effect of nurse entrance criteria of overall Total Quality Points (TQP) for non-science, non-math, math, and science courses, and nurse entrance exam scores, specifically the Test of Academic Assessment Skills (TEAS) to determine how they impact the admission of minority students, specifically African American students, into the nursing program. Admissions criteria of TEAS only, TEAS plus TQP, TEAS and TQP separately, and TQP only are assessed to determine which criteria maximize the admission rate of minority students into nursing programs along with regression studies to identify which demographics or characteristics significantly impact the success of African American students‟ performance on the TEAS test or to determine if de facto discrimination is present. Identification of various stages of elimination of students from the applicant pool as it is narrowed down will aid in determining which levels of the admissions criteria may require intervention during the pre-nursing preparation phase. This study will investigate the role of standardized tests as a barrier to minority enrollment. Data analyses revealed discrimination against African American students seeking entrance into the ASN program at three community colleges. The TEAS test was a serious barrier to African American student inclusion in the final applicant pool and consideration for admission into the ASN program. Students who did not pass all TEAS subsets did not move forward for inclusion in the final applicant pool. Those African American students in the applicant pool were also negatively impacted by the TEAS test as well as TQP after controlling for first generation status, age, high school rank, and high school rigor. Thus, the admission process for the ASN program using TEAS as an admission criterion is discriminatory against African American students.
    • Examination of Quality Indicators in Public and Private Pre-Kindergarten Classrooms in Indiana

      Peterson, Rhonda M.
      The purpose of this study was to examine the current state of pre-kindergarten classrooms in the state of Indiana through the perspectives of public and private pre-kindergarten program directors. Survey results revealed a high concentration of female pre-kindergarten directors within the state of Indiana. Although directors rated their teaching staffs with a high level of early education background, they themselves felt less confident about their backgrounds in this field. Descriptive data also revealed that private student–teacher ratios are smaller, their instructional days are longer, their programs have been established for longer periods of time, and their directors have had longer tenures than their public counterparts. Statistical testing found that directors of public urban schools reported a higher quality rating than suburban and rural pre-kindergarten programs, based on the quality composite score. It was determined that student–teacher ratio and school type (public, private) both served as significant predictors of the quality composite score. It was revealed that as student–teacher ratio increases, the perceived pre-kindergarten quality decreases. Results also showed that pre-kindergarten directors’ perceived quality is less within the private setting than in the public setting, based on the composite quality score. The overarching purpose of this study was to provide an awareness of the potential benefits that quality pre-kindergarten programming could yield for the future citizens of Indiana as a whole and if perceived quality exists to some degree.
    • Examining the Decision Making Process of a Literacy Coach for Literacy Implementation in a Secondary School Setting

      Wilson, Sandra J.
      The purpose of this study was to understand the role and responsibilities in the decision making strategies and actions of a literacy coach while implementing literacy practices within secondary school setting. The influence of these decisions upon instructional practice within the school setting through professional development was also explored. The qualitative study utilized a case study theory methodology in the process of data collection and analysis. Purposeful sampling was used to select four secondary schools defined as post-primary grade, including middle school that was currently implementing a coaching model with active literacy coaches. Data was gathered through on-site, semi-structured one-on-one interviews conducted in the school setting where the literacy coach and corresponding teacher worked. Teachers and coaches responded to a series of four questions that explored the coach’s roles and responsibilities impacting student learning at the school level, literacy coaching decisions made focusing on literacy practices at the school setting, how decisions are enacted, and the influence decisions had on school staff’s instructional practices regarding whether they impeded or enabled the practices. Field observations were conducted and examination of school demographic and achievement data were reviewed for each site. As a result of the study, the researcher developed ten themes from the secondary school settings: data collection and analysis is utilized to inform instruction, training provided by coaches gives teachers new knowledge to help struggling readers, coaching techniques enhance teacher responsiveness and student engagement, principal support provides a positive coaching environment, collaborative atmosphere accelerates coaching ability to develop and improve literacy practices, trust and relationships with coach building foundation for professional growth, district level decisions impact schools, communication maintains consistency for all stakeholders, coaching decisions enable purposeful instructional practices, coaching decisions may impede instructional practices in the school setting.
    • Examining the Impact Parental Educational Attainment Has on Students' Perceptions of Residence Hall Living

      Lawrie, Joshua D.
      The current study sought to examine the impact parental educational attainment had on how students perceived their residence hall environment. This multi-campus study utilized the University Residence Environment Scale, along with a demographic form to gather data. The study occurred on three campuses during the Spring 2012 semester and had 347 participants. The findings suggest there were no differences in how parental educational attainment impacted participants’ perspectives of the residence hall. Parental educational attainment was a significant factor when coded only as two options (i.e. college degree, no college degree). Additional results were that gender and ethnicity played a role in how students perceived their residence halls.
    • Experiences That Impact the Recruitment and Retention of International (Non-Native Speaker of English) Student-Athletes in NCAA Division I Institutions

      Kontaxakis, Evangelos
      International student-athletes as a group are a unique population in any institution because they bring together three characteristics that are challenging through the educational process. Among the challenges for someone who chooses to study in a different country include facing issues such as the language barrier as well as problems in adjusting to the new culture. Moreover, balancing the role as a student and as an athlete is another challenge that international student-athletes face. Earlier research leaves gaps as it is related to international (non-native speaker of English) student-athletes and their experiences, which impact their decision to study in the United States and their adjustment in the new environment. The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences that impact the recruitment and retention of international (non-native speaker of English) student-athletes in NCAA Division I institutions. More specifically, the student-athlete experiences in high school were examined which influenced their decision to move to the U.S. and the challenges they faced in the new environment. The goal of this study was to create a model that could be helpful for institutions and international student-athletes to be more prepared before making the decision to study as student-athletes in the United States. This study used a qualitative research design involving narrative, phenomenological, and grounded theory approaches. First, the life stories of the participants were examined, then the essence of these experiences was developed, and finally common themes that built a theory were established.The findings of this study suggest that the experiences that impact decision-making are (a) the U.S. educational system combines education and sport, (b) the U.S. system supports student-athletes and provides financial security through the scholarship system, and (c) international student-athletes want to live a new experience in life. Moreover, this study suggests that the experiences that impact retention are (a) the difficulties in English language, (b) the adjustment in the cultural differences, (c) homesickness, and (d) the time management involving the balance between the two roles (being a student and athlete).
    • AN EXPLORATION OF JOB SATISFACTION LEVELS, PATHWAYS INTO EDUCATION, AND RECRUITING BEHAVIORS OF TEACHERS IN INDIANA

      Johnson, Tricia (Cunningham Memorial library, Terre Haute,Indiana State University, 2017-12)
      Teacher retention and recruitment has been studied from many different perspectives, but there is limited research on the issue from the perspectives of current teachers. The purpose of this quantitative study was to gather data to fill a gap in the research concerning teacher recruiting behaviors by asking teachers if they were likely to encourage different categories of people (friend or relative, community member, current student, other students, recent high school graduate, and their own child) to enter the field of education as a profession. Analysis of the data from 2,083 current Indiana teachers found multiple statistically significant differences in the recruiting behaviors of those teachers with differing demographics, certification pathways, future plans, and job satisfaction levels. In addition, multiple variables (gender, age, years of experience, area of the school, future plans, and job satisfaction level) were found to be significant predictors of recruiting behaviors of teachers. Many teachers were not recruiting others into the profession even if they were satisfied with their jobs. Teachers noted low and stagnant salaries, increased workload and expectations, current legislation that has negatively impacted the profession, and a lack of respect from legislators and the community as reasons for not recruiting. Teacher recruiting levels were lowest for those groups closest to them—friend or relative and own child. The more experience teachers had, the less likely they were to recruit which could indicate mounting frustration with the changes to the professions. Younger teachers were most likely to recruit possibly due to their fresh perspective of the profession. Teachers certified through programs other than a traditional v 4-year degree program were more likely to recruit which could indicate that experience beyond the education field and different motivations could allow for a more positive perspective of the profession. Teachers were more satisfied with support and encouragement from administration and working conditions at the building level but frustrated by issues with the larger education structure including salary, increasing expectations, and lack of respect from those outside the field. Even through their frustrations, teachers were passionate about their profession and were willing to contribute to the conversation by not only completing the survey but articulating their views by answering optional open-ended questions as well. The data indicated that legislators, teacher preparation programs, and teacher organizations could benefit from exploring teacher recruiting behaviors and the factors that contribute to those behaviors. The study provided data to contribute to the research and illustrated that teacher recruiting behavior is a viable topic for further research.
    • Exploring the Essence of Student-Athlete Spirituality: a Phenomenological Investigation of NCAA Division I Athletes

      Raikes, Mark H.
      The purpose of this phenomenological qualitative study was to explore the essence of eight NCAA Division I student-athletes‘ experiences related to spirituality while participating in intercollegiate athletics. Discussions of NCAA Division I athletes often reveal ideas and misunderstandings of the student-athlete experience. There exists an increase in contemporary conversations about spirituality in higher education, and with that a need to better understand the student-athlete experience related to this complex construct. This study examined the experiences of student-athletes and how their spirituality, differentiated from religion, influenced how they utilized their athletic abilities. Through semi-structured, face-to-face in-depth interviews which were digitally recorded and analyzed, qualitative data revealed the emergence of four themes: (a) defining spirituality; (b) inseparability of spiritual, student, and athlete; (c) responsibility; and (d) influence on others. The Moustakas (1994) phenomenological research method revealed the essence of the student-athlete spiritual experience. The findings resulted in implications for those who concern themselves with the holistic education and development of college student-athletes, as well as recommendations for future practice and research.
    • Exploring the Lived Experiences of Rural African American Millennials at Predominantly White Institutions

      Guyton, Corey
      The purpose of this study was to explore the lived experiences of rural African American Millennials attending predominantly White institutions (PWIs) and how they make meaning of these experiences. In-depth interviews were conducted with six students (graduate and undergraduate) who identified as being from a rural area, African American (or Black), and a Millennial. Seven major themes emerged from the study: the presence of college aspirations, desire to attend a historically Black college or university (HBCU), experiencing culture shock, lack of academic preparation, experiencing microaggressions, lack of parental involvement, and no desire to return home after graduation. Some major themes had sub-themes. Leaving their rural hometowns and moving to a new location presented various challenges for the research participants. All of the participants had transitional issues with either their new cities or their new college environments. In their new cities, participants struggled with a number of challenges such as traffic and diversity, and on their college campuses they struggled to fit in with other students, were not academically prepared, and did not know how to deal with autonomy. Recommendations for practice include intentional recruitment strategies designed specifically for rural African American Millennials, providing transitional resources for rural African American Millennials, and more training for faculty and staff about this student population.
    • Exploring the Principal's Role in High Poverty Schools with High Literacy Achievement

      Jay, Jill E.
      The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore educational aspects which help explain high early-literacy acquisition in high-poverty elementary schools. Through this qualitative study, the perceptions of key staff members, including the principal, in four high achieving, high-poverty schools were explored in three areas: 1) contributing aspects of highlevel, early-literacy achievement in their particular school setting; 2) role of the principal in a high-poverty school that attains a high level of early-literacy achievement; and 3) how high early-literacy achievement occurred in their particular school setting. The schools in the study were located in multiple states that the researcher had access to and met the study criteria. The topics of the related literature reviewed included early-literacy and student achievement, as well as the role of the principal in effective early-literacy intervention. In this study, findings of contributing aspects of high-level, early-literacy achievement included collaboration, reflective practice, a system of progress monitoring that improved the students’ meta-cognition, a resident literacy expert, a positive climate of trust and respect, and distributed leadership. In exploring the principal’s role, three elements emerged; establishment of a tiered system of literacy, creation of a schedule that ensured tiered instruction and collaboration, and releasing ineffective teachers. Elements that emerged from the topic of how early-literacy achievement occurred were high expectations for all students, and over-arching district and/or school-wide literacy goals. Insight gained from this study should assist schools in their endeavor to create a safety net of best practices to meet the goal of literacy acquisition for all students.
    • Factors Affecting Retention in Online Courses

      Berling, Victoria L.
      The purpose of this study was to expand what is known regarding the factors that relate to successful completion of online, undergraduate college courses. It addressed 13 student factors available through archival data at Northern Kentucky University based on 1,493 students enrolled in fully online courses in fall 2008. It included programmatic membership as the fourteenth variable. The study employed both logistic regression analysis and multiple regression analysis. The dependent variable for the logistic regression analysis was dichotomous based on completion of all online courses with a grade of ―D‖ or better (yes or no). The dependent variable for the multiple regression analysis was a continuous variable, percentage of online courses completed. The following variables were found to have a positive relationship to successful completion of online courses: applying for financial assistance, GPA, senior year in college, major in health and human sciences, major in a STEM field, and tuition residency of metro rate. The following variables were found to have a negative relationship to successful completion of online courses: race of Black and freshman year in college. The freshman year in college only showed as a significant variable in the multiple regression analysis.
    • Factors That Impact the Perceived Confidence of Indiana Public School Principals in the Area of Special Education Practices

      Rinehart, Tara L.
      The purpose of this quantitative study was to identify factors that impact the perceived confidence of Indiana school principals in the area of special education practices. This study utilized a web-based survey to assess Indiana principals‘ perceptions about their confidence related to special education practices. The variables tested included the role prior to becoming an administrator, the years of experience as an administrator, the highest degree attained by an administrator, whether an administrator has ever participated in college coursework in the preparation program related to educating students with disabilities, and whether an administrator has ever participated in any training outside of their preparation program related to educating students with disabilities.
    • FAMILY LITERACY BAGS: A RURAL-APPALACHIAN APPROACH FOR PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT AND EDUCATION

      Good Overton, Ashley (Cunningham Memorial Library, Terre Haute, Indiana State University., 2017-12)
      The purpose of this concurrent, mixed-methods study was to investigate the implementation of the non-presumptuous literacy bag program as a critical component of increasing parental involvement in rural Appalachia schools related to student literacy achievement. The program was designed to increase parental involvement in book readings and related activities. The intent of the program was to encourage parents to become actively involved in their children’s literacy and to assist children to develop stronger literacy skills. In an effort to better understand parental involvement in a rural Appalachian community, I conducted a pre-program, parental involvement questionnaire in order to gain a greater insight into their own perception of parental involvement. During the implementation of the Family Literacy Bag program, weekly surveys were collected in the form of quantitative data from parents and the teacher who participated in the research study. After the program was concluded, post-program interviews with parent participants occurred to gain a better understanding of their perceptions on how the Family Literacy Bags impacted their parental involvement at home. Overarching themes emerged from the pre-program, parental involvement questionnaires and the post-program parent interviews. The themes included; (a) parental involvement is contingent on the parents’ enjoyment about their schools and communities, (b) parents’ involvement suggested that schools be conscientious of scheduling of events and time, and (c) parents provided ideas for schools to increase attendance at parental involvement events. Additional sub-themes included the following: school leaders need to be conscientious of event times in order to coordinate with surrounding schools to plan activities, schools need to offer v different event times so that working parents can attend, and schools could offer door prizes and food to help working families. Analysis of the post-program data suggested three key themes. These themes included (a) enjoyment levels of the Family Literacy bags were contingent on activities, (b) reading strategies that were provided in the Family Literacy Bags assisted parents in their children’s reading, and (c) parents felt comfortable using the Family Literacy Bag, but constricted due to the amount of time needed to complete. Subthemes included the following: weekly bags caused fatigue with parents and students, and since the Family Literacy bags were separate from curriculum, families did not see the bags as important. The weekly parent and teacher surveys provided support for the original research questions I presented. Quantitative data collection occurred through weekly parent and weekly teacher surveys. The parent and teacher surveys sought to provide answers to the following research questions: Does a passive program such as a Literacy Bag Lending Library promote a connection between schools and home? Does an intrinsically motivated parental participation program provide parents self-efficacy in helping their children succeed in school? Would a supplementary program including reading strategies intrinsically motivate parents to assist in children’s reading education? Lastly, do school stakeholders see the literacy bag program as a worthwhile tool to increase students’ academic confidence and parental involvement? A descriptive analysis evidenced that the majority of respondents felt that the Family Literacy Bags provided a connection between home and school whereas students were encourage to participate in the reading activities with their parents. Family Literacy Bags intrinsically motivated parental participation due to the excitement that their children had for the Family Literacy Bags. The Family Literacy Bags provided parents with weekly reading skills vi and guides to assist them while working with their children. The descriptive analysis evidenced that reading guides proved to be very helpful to parents. Teacher’s thought the Family Literacy Bags were somewhat effective as a worthwhile tool to increase students’ academic confidence and parental involvement. Parents suggested the literacy bags were an effective, worthwhile tool to increase students’ academic confidence and parental involvement. Implications are also included in Chapter 5 giving school leaders ideas to increase involvement from parents and what contributes to their parental involvement in the home and at school, as well as implications for future research related to this study topic.