• Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Spirituality: An Intersectional Identity Study

      Birch, Zachary G
      With college students becoming more interested in the spiritual dimensions of their lives (Astin, 2004; Lindholm, 2007), gay, lesbian, and bisexual (GLB) students may have a harder time finding the support to navigate their spiritual selves. Because of this, the intersection of spiritual identity and GLB identity was investigated. Specifically, this study sought to see if students‟ GLB identities affect their spiritual identities, if their spiritual identities affect their GLB identities, and if there was a connection and intersection between the two. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with eight students. This study showed that there could be a relationship between the formation of GLB and spiritual identity. Themes from the interviews were (a) intrapersonal identity, (b) judgments, (c) life changing crises, and (d) moving from independence to interdependence. Additionally, the interviews were connected to Parks‟ (2000) model of young adult faith formation and Fassinger‟s (1998) model of sexual minority identity formation. This research‟s findings offer implications for student affairs and higher educational practice with GLB and spiritual students, as well as potential for further research on spiritual GLB students.
    • Gender differences and retention characteristics for first generation college students.

      Manuel, Ralph Stephen
      The purpose of this study were to determine if any significant differences existed between:a)the retention rate of first generation men and first generation women,b)first generation males and first generation females as measured by the SIQ,c)first generation men who persisted and first generation men who did not persist as measured by the SIQ.d)first generation women who persisted and first generation women who did not persist as measured by the SIQ.The participants of the study were 1026 first generation students who were enrolled at a midwest public university and completed a questionnaire.Additional information was supplied by the university research and testing office.A chi-squared analysis determined there was no difference in retention rates for first generation women and men.A stepwise discriminant analysis was used for the remaining hypotheses.Results showed First generation women and men attend college for different reasons,and men are more tied to financial,occupational and economic goals.Differences existed in what men women viewed as what college is supposed to help you accomplish.The single best predictor of whether a student would be retained or not retained for both the male and female groups was the high school grade point average.
    • Gender Self Concept and Sexual Behavior of Students in Greek-Letter Organizations

      Arthur, Julianne E.
      Originally designed as "gendered clubs" (DeSantis, 2007, p. 19) that reinforce traditional gender roles, modern-day fraternities and sororities create a world where Greek students are exploring what it means to be a sexual being while still maintaining the traditional expectations of what it means to be a man and a woman. "Hooking up" is a common tool that knits Greek sexual behaviors together, allowing for varied perceived levels of promiscuity. Aided by alcohol, expectations from their environment, and their own sex drive, Greek students engage in high-risk sexual behaviors, leading to emotional consequences, increased risk of contracting a sexually transmitted disease (STD), or even sexual assault. The conclusion of this research is that students are not conscious of and do not reflect on their gender roles and are therefore subject to engaging in traditional gender roles by default. However, the development of their sexual identities and the social implications thereof seem to play a much more significant role in the lives of Greek students. The social interpretation of sexual behavior influences how students engage in sexual behavior and how they view themselves because of their sexual behavior. Based upon these findings, student affairs professionals may have a more full understanding of how to educate and program for Greek students in regards to healthy relationship development and sexual behavior.
    • Graduation Success: Identifying and Overcoming Challenging Demographic Factors to Reduce High School Dropouts

      Schultz, Robert W.
      The importance of students completing high school with a diploma is the focus of increasing social, economic, and political attention across the United States. Posing a strong challenge to efforts to increase graduation rates are several key demographic factors. This study examines, through a case study, an Indiana high school that overcame the challenge of negative demographic factors to achieve a graduation rate above the state average for four consecutive years (2006-2009). Researching databases maintained by the Indiana Department of Education revealed specific demographic factors that had a strong correlation to graduation rates in Indiana. The four demographic factors with the strongest negative correlation to graduation rates were percent of students on free lunch, percent of students from single parent families, percent of children in district with at risk mothers, and percent of families in district below the poverty level. The high school examined, through the case study in this project, exhibited student numbers at or above the state average in each of those four negative demographic factors and also achieved a graduation rate at or above the state average for the four consecutive years studied. To overcome the challenges of those negative factors, the high school maintains a child-centered focus that seeks to address both affective and academic needs of students. Seizing every opportunity every day to help every child is not only a stated goal, but a pervasive attitude. Two alternative schools, a vocational career center, online classes for credit recovery, smaller classes targeted for at-risk freshmen, after school tutoring programs, and involvement of community resources are some of the programs employed by the school to reduce dropouts. Staff members of the school work cohesively in support of both students and each other. The demonstrated successes of this high school provide models for other high schools to emulate.
    • High School Principals‟ Attitudes toward the Implementation of E-administration in Kuwait‟s Public Schools

      AlShammari, Iqbal Abeid
      The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes of high school principals toward the implementation of electronic administration (E-administration) in public schools in Kuwait. To collect data, the researcher used a questionnaire and employed a quantitative technique. The researcher distributed 135 surveys to all high school principals in public schools in Kuwait. The response rate reached 83.7%. Both descriptive statistics and inferential statistics were conducted to analyze data. For each variable frequency and percentages were calculated. For all Likert-type scale variables, means and standard deviations were calculated. There was no statistically significant difference between respondents regarding all variables. However, the MANOVA analysis in the current study reported only one significant positive interaction between gender (male and female) and having ICDL (p-value= 0.028). Positive response rates in terms of the advantages, the most important factors enabling the implementation and the main obstacles facing the implementation of E-administration were generally high and may reflect the readiness to implement E-administration. Results from this study may provide baseline information for implementing E-administration in Kuwait and the Middle East. This study suggests that governments and policy makers gradually implement E-administration through a well organized plan. Therefore, a well organized plan should include all factors that enable the implementation. Furthermore, the study recommends that policy makers should offer rich professional development regarding E-administration in order to raise the awareness and acceptance of E-administration implementation. Also, it is recommended that governments provide support, financial aid and more decentralization.
    • High-Fidelity Manikin-Based Simulation: A Study of Implications for Interprofessional Healthcare Practitioner Education at the Associate Degree Level of Study

      Fowler, Luster
      Healthcare practitioner training programs, specifically at the associate degree level of study, have historically focused practitioner training efforts on discipline-specific programming and curricula. However, these institutions have now begun to examine the utility and efficacy of incorporating interprofessional experiences into their programs. One of the current pedagogical approaches being investigated is the use of high-fidelity manikin-based simulation in the training of their healthcare students. This study examined the use of interprofessional high-fidelity versus low-fidelity simulation within associate degree-granting institutions and examined potential differences in self-efficacy and learning outcomes of participants incorporating a preand post-assessment. A convenience sample of 75 students participated in this study, which included associate degree-seeking nursing students (n = 36) and associate degree-seeking respiratory care students (n = 39). Participants were divided into two groups: a high-fidelity group (n = 52) and a lowfidelity group (n = 23). Each group was composed of both nursing and respiratory care students. A subsequent assessment of pre-intervention and post-intervention self-efficacy and learning outcomes was also performed that examined students by course of study, identified as either nursing students or respiratory care students. Differences in self-efficacy between the high-and low-fidelity groups were not significant on pre-assessment or post-assessment, p = .529 and p = .246. Additionally, differences between nursing and respiratory care students were not significant on pre-assessment or post- assessment, p = .079 and p = .779 respectively. Differences in perceived learning outcomes between the high-and low-fidelity groups were not significant on pre-assessment or post-assessment, p = .747 and p = .219. Additionally, differences between nursing and respiratory care students were not significant on pre or postassessment,p = .408 and p = .611 respectively.
    • Hope and Spirituality and Their Relationship to The Overall Quality of Life in Cancer Patients

      Burt, Nathaniel
      In this study, hope, spirituality, stage of cancer, age, and gender were explored as predictors of the quality of life perceived by 100 cancer patients. The instruments used were the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy—Spirituality Well-Being, the Herth Hope Index, and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy. The patients were being treated at two oncology medical centers in the mid-western region of the United States. The main findings indicated a predictive relationship between spirituality, hope, stage of cancer, age, gender, and quality of life. A simultaneous multiple regression analysis, using quality of life as a dependent variable and spirituality, hope, stage of cancer, age, and gender as independent variables, indicated that patients with a high level of hope and spirituality and an earlier cancer stage reported having a greater quality of life. Age and gender had no significant predictive relationship with patient quality of life. Further findings indicated that spirituality and hope were positively correlated. Hope and stage of cancer, as well as spirituality and stage of cancer were found not to be significantly related, suggesting that neither hope nor spirituality significantly change as a result of the stage of cancer. The results of this study have implications concerning the relevance of hope and spirituality in the treatment of cancer patients and the impact of hope and spirituality on cancer patients' perceived quality of life.
    • How a principal's knowledge and experience impact literacy achievement for English language learners

      Hardy, Pamela S.
      The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the impact of the knowledge and experience of elementary principals in the area of best practice in literacy instruction for English language learners (ELLs) and the potential impact on student achievement of ELLs. This study explored the principals’experience in education as a predictor of the principals’ knowledge of best practice in literacy instruction for ELLs and found it was not a predictor. Additionally, this study examined the principals’ experience as a building leader as a predictor of the level of implementation of best practice in literacy instruction for ELLs and found it was not a predictor. This study also examined the relationship between principals’ knowledge of best practice in literacy instruction for ELLs and the level of implementation of these same best practices in literacy instruction for ELLs in the principals' schools. Using a Pearson’s correlation, this study found a strong correlation between the principals’ knowledge of best practice in literacy instruction for ELLs and the schools’ level of implementation of this same best practice. Finally, this study examined the impact of the principals’ experience in education, the principals’ experience as a principal, the principal’s experience in the current school, the level of the principal’s knowledge of best practice in literacy instruction for ELLs, and the level of implementation of these best practices in literacy instruction for ELLs on ELL achievement, as measured with the Grade 3 Indiana Reading Evaluation and Determination (I-READ-3) statewide reading assessment. This study found no impact of these factors on student achievement as measured with the I-READ-3 assessment. This study provides additional information to principals who serve student populations with ELLs. It contributes to the growing body of research in identifying factors of principal characteristics that contribute to student learning and achievement. This research provides additional information to educators about the significance of principals being instructional leaders who serve all students.
    • How do Principals' Behaviors Facilitate or Inhibit the Development of a Culturally Relevant Learning Community?

      Kelley, Gwendolyn Julia
      The primary purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the question: “How do principals facilitate or inhibit the development of a culturally responsive learning environment?” A second question asked, “What is the principal’s role in developing a culturally relevant learning community?” The criteria for purposely selecting the 12 principals chosen for the study included finding principals who served in schools with a 50% or greater non-White population and who also had served a minimum of three years as the school’s leader at the time of the study. Additionally, the schools chosen from various districts around the state showed an upward trend in student performance and growth model data for all of their ethnic groups. Based on a literature review, which provided a cursory view of topics related to understanding cultural competency, questions were formulated that explored what creating a culturally responsive learning community looked like. The interviews revealed many practices that described effective schools and what effective principals do. Five themes emerged in the findings. Linked to each of the findings is a range of five to 11 subthemes. With varying degrees of understanding and implementation, principals in the study demonstrated practices that included (a) having high expectations for all, (b) developing a sense of community, (c) using analysis of data and monitoring/evaluation of staff, (d) providing professional development that addressed cultural competency issues, and (e) promoting awareness and knowledge about cultural proficiency practices. Noting their current progress, all of the principals expressed their desire for their staffs to have more training to increase their levels of cultural proficiency.
    • I AM COMMANDED TO LOVE YOU: THE JOURNEY OF THREE WOMEN COLLEGE PRESIDENTS

      Monroe, Carey (Cunningham Memorial Library, Terre Haute, Indiana State University., 2017-12)
      This was a phenomenological study of the lived experiences of women who serve as college presidents. Three women, who serve as current college presidents, participated in this study. The first was a president at a two-year community college in the upper Midwest for twelve years and served as president in another Midwestern community college for nine years prior. The second woman was a first-time president who had served for three years at a Catholic four-year college established to provide nurses for a health system. The third was a first-time president who served at a Research I institution in the upper Midwest and had been president for 13 years. Semi-structured, 90-minute interviews, observations, and curriculum vitae were used in the data collection process to represent how a woman constructs meaning for her position as president. Themes that emerged from this data analysis may be used to inform women who are potential candidates for presidential positions or women who aspire to become presidents. The information may also be used to provide context into the lived experiences of women who serve as college presidents for hiring committee members, campus constituents, and stakeholders. Women who have recently accepted their first presidential position may find this information helpful while they seek to create a leadership style for themselves and develop relationships with faculty, staff, and students. Moreover, women who possess a tendency to be leaders in their departments but may have never considered applying for promotion or considered a higher-ranking position may be informed and empowered to do so. The stories of these women presidents provide context for women becoming successful leaders in the academy.
    • I Don‘T Know Who I Am—Considering Where I Came from: First-Generation Working-Class College Graduates Describe Their Journeys to Baccalaureate Degrees

      Weirick, Janet K.
      This phenomenological study explored recent memories of some of the struggles and joys that first-generation students faced in their college experiences as they successfully completed four-year degrees at a private liberal arts college in the Midwest. These lived experiences included personal and structural issues of individual identity, class identity, first-generation observations, campus experiences, and family relationships. Their stories will inform research and provide insights for professionals working to improve levels of college retention and student growth. First-generation college students are retained and graduate at a lower rate than second-generation college students and are consequently at risk for dropping out or stopping out of college before graduation. Current retention programs for first-generation students have been only somewhat effective in increasing their completion rate. This qualitative exploration of the lives of successful first-generation college graduates gives insights into how these students achieved their goals of a college degree, in spite of the great odds against them. These graduates were expressly aware of those odds as they negotiated systems of complex bureaucracies and formed relationships in various social settings. While meeting and maintaining academic standards, they needed to learn new middle-class languages, system codes, and geography.
    • Indiana's township high school principal

      Churchill, Paul K.
      Not Available.
    • Intellectual backgrounds of the humanitarian concerns of the 'Clapham sect': a study in the history of ideas.

      Railsback, Rick.D
      The Clapham Sect was a group of Anglican Evangelicels of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries associated in numerous humanitarian endeavours, most notably the campaigns which resulted in the abolition of the Slave Trade in 1807 and of slavery itself, in the British Empire, in 1833.The Clamphamites were a fellowship of like-minded collegues, most of whom resided in the London suburb of Clapham.Among the Clamphamites were busniessmen,bankers,Cambridge professors, and Members of Parliament.On issues of public concern addressed by the Sect leadership was provided by William Wilberforce,Henry Thornton,Thomas Clarkson,James Stephen Sr.,Granville Sharp, and Zachary Macaulay.The thesis examines several of the concepts which spurred the Claphamites to moral concern and unstinted humanitarian labor. Claphamite unity was rooted in shared Evangelical commitments, yet other Evangelicals of their time had no similar interest in humanitarianism. The uniqueness of the Claphamites was dependent on the ideas they held.The Claphamites saw Britain as chosen by god to be a "Light to the Nations". This responsebility involved the practise of justice in all spheres. A clear violation in the Slave Trade-- so the Sect reminded the nation--was the casting aside of biblical prohibitions against "murder and rapine".Concern with the human rights was magnified by Claphamite belief in the equality of men. They were convinced that the Scriptures taught egalitarianism and the corollary that men have infinite personal worth because they possess souls. The Claphamites saw as their duty the eradication of oppresive conditions which impeded equality and human development.In the accomplishment of such tasks, the Claphamites believed they were merely carrying out their "calling in their sphere of "usefulness". An aspect of that "calling" was the restoration of men to their natural rights. While talk to the rights of men earned the Claphamites the opprobrium of Jacobins, they were convinced that injustice could never be rationalized as "politic".The Sect therefore relentlessly researched to demonstrate to those holding the purse strings of commerce, and to those with the power to enact laws, the impolicy of injustice.
    • AN INVESTIGATION OF PRINCIPAL LEADERSHIP BEHAVIORS AND IMPLEMENTATION OF ADULT LEARNING STRATEGIES ON THE PROFESSIONAL LEARNING ENVIRONMENT OF A K-12 SCHOOL

      Larson, Christina (Cunningham Memorial Library, Terre Haute, Indiana State University., 2017-12)
      The purpose of this quantitative study was to explore the influence of principal leadership behaviors and potential of utilizing adult learning strategies on the development of a school’s professional learning environment (PLE). The intention was also to determine if principals considered themselves prepared to develop and sustain such an environment. Research shows that principals and teachers perceive professional development needs and results differently. To obtain perspective from both groups, two separate surveys were administered. The results from this dissertation came from 262 principals and 433 teachers employed in K-12 public schools in Indiana. With the survey completed by principals, the focus was to determine if principals considered themselves prepared to be leaders of adult learners and well adept at developing a school PLE. Efficacy in developing and sustaining a PLE as well as efficacy in andragogical practices were analyzed to determine if they could result in a variance in a school’s professional learning environment. The survey completed by teachers focused on teacher perception of principal leadership behaviors and the use of adult learning strategies. The impact of a principal’s leadership behaviors and use of adult learning strategies were analyzed to determine if the two variables could result in the variance in a school’s professional learning environment. Results of the study found that there is a perceived need for additional training for principals in developing a PLE as well as understanding more about adult learning theory. Additionally, this research suggests that efficacy in professional learning environment and efficacy in adult learning strategies influence a school’s professional learning environment. iv Upon analysis of data provided by teachers, this dissertation concludes that principal leadership behaviors and implementation of adult learning strategies also influences a school’s professional learning environment. The purpose of this research is to provide possible insight into specific behaviors and practices that may support the development and sustainability of a professional learning environment and that this information can also be used to encourage and support future principal development.
    • Juggling Toddlers, Teens, and Tenure: The Personal and Professional Realities of Women on the Tenure Track with Children

      Sipes, Jennifer Lynn Baker
      The purpose of this study was to understand the personal and professional experiences of women faculty on the tenure track with children. Despite more than 30 years of conversation about gender equity since the passage of Title IX as part of the Education Amendments of 1972, an inverse relationship persists between the prestige of an academic rank and the percentage of women in that rank. Recent research has drawn attention to differences in marital and family status between men and women faculty in higher education, suggesting that childrearing may serve as an impediment to the career advancement of women faculty in higher education. Discovering and understanding the lived experiences of women on the tenure track with children is critical to the recruitment and retention of talented women faculty. Utilizing a qualitative phenomenological approach, this study examined the unique stories of eight purposefully selected women faculty with children under the age of 18. Participants were selected from three Midwestern universities. Participant demographics varied by institutional type, academic rank, academic field, relationship status, age of children, and ethnicity/nationality. An analysis of the experiences of the participants in this study yielded five themes: enjoying it all…with some compromises, departmental support, sharing 50/50 at home, outside support systems, and challenges. This study recognized challenges for mothers in academia, but emphasized that mothers can be both successful and happy in the academy. The findings of this study serve as an encouragement to women who desire motherhood and a career in academia. Though some personal and professional decisions of academic mothers may need to be purposeful, the academy potentially offers a positive environment for balancing career and family. Because of the challenges faced by the participants in this study, the findings may also be used to influence institutional and departmental policies related to work and family.
    • Language Arts Achievement and Reading Instructional Strategies in Indiana Elementary Schools with High Percentages of Increasing and Declining Enrollments

      McMahon, Maryanne B.
      The focus of this quantitative study was to identify third grade ISTEP+ data from the top 10 increasing and declining enrollment public school districts in the state of Indiana to determine if communities experiencing high percentages of increasing or declining enrollments have significantly different achievement in language arts. This data was disaggregated to examine the subgroups of English Language Learners and Socio-economic Status. Additionally, the study determined if teachers in these schools were informed about scientific, research-based reading instructional strategies and to what degree SRBI was utilized in reading instruction to meet the needs of students. School corporations experiencing high percentages of student enrollment gains had a higher mean on the language arts portion of the ISTEP+ for third grade students, and the subgroups of free and reduced lunch, and English Language Learners. These findings have practical significance in demonstrating if third grade students attending increasing enrollment schools outperformed students attending declining enrollment schools academically in language arts. This data has implications for both state and federal legislation regarding school improvement categories. The second part of the study focused on teacher survey data to determine utilization and source of knowledge regarding scientific, research-based instruction in reading. As a result, teachers believe they were utilizing scientific, research-based instruction to meet the needs of their changing student populations; however, there is no evidence teachers learned SRBI in pre-service programs.
    • Mentors’ perceptions of a university–school partnership through a student African American mentoring initiative

      Gilman, Amanda
      The participants in this study were 10 African American male college mentors at Indiana State University who participated in the Indiana State University Student African American Male Mentor Program, one school counselor, and two members of the Student African American Brotherhood administration. The study examined potential benefits to mentors, such as an enhanced feeling of connection and motivation, alleviation of feelings of alienation or isolation, counteracting of negative peer impact, and increased attachment to the university. All participants took part in semi-structured interviews and three mentors took part in a focus group. Grounded theory was used to analyze the data and create a description of the experiences and perceptions of the mentors. Several themes emerged from the data collected. The findings were that being a mentor held significant personal meaning for the mentors. Being a mentor did provide the mentors with a sense of belonging to the university. Mentoring also served to help the mentors stand out as role models and helped them create connections to campus leaders. Sharing experiences and making connections with those that were mentored was a valuable experience for the mentors. Black men’s issues, such as lacking role models, feeling stuck and feeling excluded, and acting White, were themes that were discussed extensively by the mentors. Overall, the participants in this study used their role as mentor to serve the younger generation of African American men they were mentoring. The young African American mentors in this study were not hindered by the stereotypes and negative expectations that have historically plagued them.
    • Multicultural Competence of Student Affairs Administrators at Member Institutions of the Council for Christian Colleges and Universities

      Porter, Paul Lawrence
      The purpose of this study was to determine if statistically significant relationships existed between multicultural competence and a series of independent variables among select student affairs administrators at member institutions of the Council for Christian Colleges and Universities. Specifically, this study sought to examine personal and institutional variables such as race, age, gender, professional level in student affairs, years’ experience, location of current institution, levels of diversity training, and the existence of diversity-based resources, such as an office of diversity, a chief diversity officer, or a diversity/multicultural mission statement. Participants were administered the Multicultural Competence in Student Affairs-Preliminary 2 (MCSA-P2) instrument (Pope & Mueller, 2000) and a participant questionnaire created by the researcher. Participants for this study included 115 student affairs administrators among 33 Christian colleges and universities in 17 states. A simple linear regression was conducted to determine relationships among multicultural competence and eight independent variables. The analysis determined that three variables--race, diversity training, and professional level were significantly linked to multicultural competence (p < .05). The variables of age and years’ experience were not significantly related. Additionally, although not significantly related to multicultural competence, the variables of gender (p = .075) and geographic location (p = .063) approached significance.
    • Nontraditional-age women graduates from a distance program: contributors to choosing psychology as a major

      Fischer, Jackie
      The purpose of this qualitative research study was to identify the contributing factors that led nontraditional-age female college students studying in a distance format to choose psychology as a major. Data were gathered through semi-structured interviews, as well as short essays and demographic questionnaires completed by the participants. The results were examined within the context of Lent and Brown’s (2013) social cognitive career theory (SCCT). The application of SCCT led to the examination of how the women overcame real and perceived barriers to degree attainment. Data analysis using the lens of liberal feminist theory exposed some of the social constructs that existed as the p articipants pursued their bachelor’s degrees. The following primary themes were identified: (a) a sense of benevolence leads nontraditional-age female college students to choose psychology as a major, (b) family and community support is critical for degree attainment for nontraditional-age women who study in a distance format, (c)nontraditional-age women choose a distance program because of its practicality and flexibility, (d) specific skills and traits contribute to the success of nontraditional-age female college students, and (e) nontraditional-age women who completed their degrees in psychology in a distance program experience personal and professional transformation. Implications for theory, practice, and research are also presented.