• Mentors’ perceptions of a university–school partnership through a student African American mentoring initiative

      Gilman, Amanda
      The participants in this study were 10 African American male college mentors at Indiana State University who participated in the Indiana State University Student African American Male Mentor Program, one school counselor, and two members of the Student African American Brotherhood administration. The study examined potential benefits to mentors, such as an enhanced feeling of connection and motivation, alleviation of feelings of alienation or isolation, counteracting of negative peer impact, and increased attachment to the university. All participants took part in semi-structured interviews and three mentors took part in a focus group. Grounded theory was used to analyze the data and create a description of the experiences and perceptions of the mentors. Several themes emerged from the data collected. The findings were that being a mentor held significant personal meaning for the mentors. Being a mentor did provide the mentors with a sense of belonging to the university. Mentoring also served to help the mentors stand out as role models and helped them create connections to campus leaders. Sharing experiences and making connections with those that were mentored was a valuable experience for the mentors. Black men’s issues, such as lacking role models, feeling stuck and feeling excluded, and acting White, were themes that were discussed extensively by the mentors. Overall, the participants in this study used their role as mentor to serve the younger generation of African American men they were mentoring. The young African American mentors in this study were not hindered by the stereotypes and negative expectations that have historically plagued them.
    • Multicultural Competence of Student Affairs Administrators at Member Institutions of the Council for Christian Colleges and Universities

      Porter, Paul Lawrence
      The purpose of this study was to determine if statistically significant relationships existed between multicultural competence and a series of independent variables among select student affairs administrators at member institutions of the Council for Christian Colleges and Universities. Specifically, this study sought to examine personal and institutional variables such as race, age, gender, professional level in student affairs, years’ experience, location of current institution, levels of diversity training, and the existence of diversity-based resources, such as an office of diversity, a chief diversity officer, or a diversity/multicultural mission statement. Participants were administered the Multicultural Competence in Student Affairs-Preliminary 2 (MCSA-P2) instrument (Pope & Mueller, 2000) and a participant questionnaire created by the researcher. Participants for this study included 115 student affairs administrators among 33 Christian colleges and universities in 17 states. A simple linear regression was conducted to determine relationships among multicultural competence and eight independent variables. The analysis determined that three variables--race, diversity training, and professional level were significantly linked to multicultural competence (p < .05). The variables of age and years’ experience were not significantly related. Additionally, although not significantly related to multicultural competence, the variables of gender (p = .075) and geographic location (p = .063) approached significance.
    • Nontraditional-age women graduates from a distance program: contributors to choosing psychology as a major

      Fischer, Jackie
      The purpose of this qualitative research study was to identify the contributing factors that led nontraditional-age female college students studying in a distance format to choose psychology as a major. Data were gathered through semi-structured interviews, as well as short essays and demographic questionnaires completed by the participants. The results were examined within the context of Lent and Brown’s (2013) social cognitive career theory (SCCT). The application of SCCT led to the examination of how the women overcame real and perceived barriers to degree attainment. Data analysis using the lens of liberal feminist theory exposed some of the social constructs that existed as the p articipants pursued their bachelor’s degrees. The following primary themes were identified: (a) a sense of benevolence leads nontraditional-age female college students to choose psychology as a major, (b) family and community support is critical for degree attainment for nontraditional-age women who study in a distance format, (c)nontraditional-age women choose a distance program because of its practicality and flexibility, (d) specific skills and traits contribute to the success of nontraditional-age female college students, and (e) nontraditional-age women who completed their degrees in psychology in a distance program experience personal and professional transformation. Implications for theory, practice, and research are also presented.
    • Perceptions of Teacher Efficacy in Changing Times

      Parker, Jack Lee Jr.
      The purposes of this study were twofold: determine how teacher perceptions change over time in their ability to create a desired effect on student learning and examine the differences between principal and teacher perceptions of teacher efficacy. Principals and teachers at 150 public schools, broken down as 50 from elementary schools with a grade configuration of pre-kindergarten through Grade 5, 50 from middle schools with a grade configuration of Grade 6 through Grade 8, and 50 from high schools with a grade configuration of Grade 9 through Grade 12 were selected to participate in the study. Each principal was sent the Teacher Efficacy Survey for principals and was asked to forward the Teacher Efficacy Survey for teachers to their teaching staffs. Of the 150 schools chosen from the population for participation in the study, 52 principals and 171 teachers responded to the survey. The principal return was 35%. The number of teachers in the sample population was undetermined due to the lack of knowledge regarding how many teachers actually received the instructions from their principals. Statistical analysis of the data included descriptive statistics comparing each of the 20 questions to the average scores of all questions for teacher and principal groups. A paired samples two-tailed t-test or an analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test the 10 null hypotheses. The level of significance for the analyses of variance was set at .05. Three of the 10 hypotheses were found to have a significant difference in perceptions of teacher efficacy among teachers in various grade level configurations, principals in various grade level configurations, and between male and female teachers. No significant differences were found among teachers with various experience levels, between the teachers and principals of each of the grade level configurations, among teachers in various school sizes, among teachers of different ages, and among schools in various geographical settings. Perceptions of teacher efficacy did differ among teachers in elementary school, teachers in middle school, and teachers in high school with teachers in elementary schools having the highest degree of teacher efficacy, teachers in middle school having the second highest degree of teacher efficacy, and teachers in high school with the lowest level of teacher efficacy among the three groups. These perceptions of teacher efficacy among principals in elementary schools, principals in middle schools, and principals in high schools also differed very similarly to those of teachers with elementary school principals having the highest degree of teacher efficacy, principals in middle school having the second highest degree of teacher efficacy, and principals in high school with the lowest level of teacher efficacy among these three groups. Along with the findings that female teachers have a higher degree of teacher efficacy than male teachers, this research supports that of others in that teacher efficacy is mostly formed during the student teaching and first year of employment for teachers. It is important that young teachers receive needed support and guidance as they form their perceptions of teacher efficacy through mastery experiences.
    • THE PERSPECTIVE OF EDUCATION FROM BLACK–WHITE–BIRACIAL STUDENTS IN MIDDLE AND HIGH SCHOOL

      Jackson, Eric Deville II (Cunningham Memorial library, Terre Haute,Indiana State University, 2017-12)
      The study examined middle and high school Black–White–Biracial (BWB) students’ perspectives of education. In order to accomplish this qualitative research study, the research I sought to (a) gain an understanding of how biracial students viewed themselves in secondary public school systems, (b) understand how BWB students identified within the school environment, and (c) learn how their identities affected their learning. The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to gain in-depth understanding of the overall educational viewpoints of BWB students in select rural, urban, and suburban public schools in Indiana. The design of this research included data collection from one-on-one interviews of BWB students. The one-on-one interviews included BWB students from urban, suburban, and rural areas around Indiana. Through qualitative data analysis, I sought to identify any themes that presented themselves among the responses of the participants. The responses to the interview questions were recorded, transcribed, and coded to identify common themes among their experiences as BWB students. Themes identified included the participants strong sense of being described as a regular person, wanting to know more about their biracial history, along with their current schools doing more to promote more programs toward multiracial students, acting in order to fit into the environment they were in, and the advantages and disadvantages of being biracial. The findings of this study serve as a voice for BWB students and to secondary educational institutions. v Because of the challenges faced by the participants is this study, the findings may also be used to provide secondary institution that are experiencing an increase in multiracial student population, a direction in how to provide educational environments for their multiracial students.
    • Presidential Transition: One Woman's First 120 Days

      Davis, Margaret Holzel
      This is a phenomenological study of the presidential transition of a woman who is beginning her first presidency of an independent college. The focus of the study is on the pre-transition period, from the time she accepted the position, through her first 120 days in office. Research for this study took place during the first 120 days of the new presidency. Semi-structured interviews, the president‘s calendar, as well as archival data and meeting minutes are used to construct the story of how a new woman president makes meaning of her transition. Transition preparation and the first 120 days of the presidency are keys to the success of a new president. This study can be used to inform potential candidates for a presidency, as well as search firms and boards of trustees as they plan and conduct a search. Elements of the study have implications for eventual presidential transition. Incoming presidents may find value in having an opportunity to pause and reflect on their actions as the transition progresses. In the case of the trustees, the study will also help them to consider the issues and support needed during the actual transition period.
    • Principal leadership behaviors in school operations and change implementations in elementary schools in relation to climate

      Whitaker, Margaret
      The two purposes of the study were to: (1) analyze the relationship between teacher perception of school climate and elementary principal instructional leadership behavoir, and (2) investigate the difference between the manner in which the principals of schools with more positive climates and principals of schools with less positive climates conduct school operations and implement change. Principles at 231 public elementary schools within a sixty mile redius of Terre Haute, Indiana were included in the original sample. These principals were surveyed to determine their instructional leadership behaviors. The priciples who responded to the survey were then asked to have ten teachers fill out a school climate inventory. The data from both instruments were tabulated and used to determine relationships between principals' instructional leadership behaviors and teacher perception of climate. On-site, structured interviews were conducted with three teachers and the principal in four of the elementary schools with more positive climate and four of th elementary schools with less positive climates. These interviews were used to determine the differences between the manner in which the principals of schools with more positive climates and principals of schools with less positive climates conduct school operations and implement change.Statistical analysis of the data included descriptive statistics, Stepwise regression, Independent Sample t-test, and Pearson product moment correlation. Significant correlational relationships were found between the principal's perceptions of instructional leadership behavior and teachers' perception of school climate. No significant difference were found in principals' perception of instructional leadership behaviors between principals of more positive and less positive climates. Principal instructional leadership behaviors explained a significant amount of the variance of seven of the teacher climate subscales. Also, important differences were found between the way day to day operationsl were conducted and change implemented in more positive versus less positive schools.
    • Principal Perceptions About the Implementation and Effectiveness of Online Learning in Public High Schools in Indiana

      Rayle, Timothy W.
      The purpose of this quantitative study was to determine the principal perceptions and demographic relationship of the implementation and effectiveness of online learning in non-charter Indiana public high schools. An analysis was prepared to determine whether demographic factors played a role in the principal‘s perceptions of the implementation and effectiveness of online learning. Factors examined included school location, school size, technology and support costs, principal‘s age, and principal‘s gender. Principal‘s perceptions were examined because the principal is considered to be the building level educational leader. As such, the principal has a responsibility to provide the students with a sound curriculum that meets their needs individually and collectively. The research design involved a population of 343 non-charter public high school principals serving grades of at least 10 – 12. Principal beliefs in the implementation and effectiveness of online learning were collected using a 44-item survey. Statistical analysis of the data included descriptive statistics regarding the mean, standard deviation, and frequency of selected items. A Pearson product moment correlation and multivariate analysis of variance were used to test the null hypotheses. Significance was identified at the .05 level. In all, 241 principals of non-charter public high schools in Indiana responded to the survey instrument which questioned the perceived level of effectiveness and perceived level of implementation of 15 specific uses of online learning. As a result of the analysis, significant findings were present in the overall perceptions of the implementation and effectiveness of online learning and also in the 15 individual uses of online learning. Significance was also found in one or more of the 15 uses of online learning in regards to the perceived implementation based upon gender, student enrollment, school locality, and the interactions based upon age and gender, and student enrollment and school locality. In addition, significance was found in one or more of the 15 uses of online learning in regards to the perceived effectiveness based upon student enrollment, school locality, and the interactions of enrollment and locality.
    • Priorities and Practices of Career and Technical Education Directors in Indiana

      Herrin, Cory D.
      The purpose of this quantitative study was to determine the importance and priority of practices for directors of career and technical education in the state of Indiana. An analysis was prepared to determine the rankings and correlations of importance and priorities of 50 leadership practices as well as 11 categories of practices for the career and technical education (CTE) directors. In addition, an analysis was prepared to discover the demographics factors within the director’s own leadership characteristics and the director’s district that played a role in the importance and priority. Factors examined included gender, age, years of experience in career and technical education administration, type of district served, number of school districts served, number of programs offered, total enrollment, and type of facility. Directors of career and technical education were examined because the director is considered the administrative leader of career and technical education districts for a unit of the state. As such, the director has the responsibility to provide the students, teachers, schools, and communities with appropriate career and technical education within the guidelines of sound educational practices, governmental mandates, and regional workforce need. The research design involved a population of 46 career and technical education directors serving 49 career and technical education districts in the state of Indiana. Director importance and priority of practice were collected using a 50-item survey. Statistical analysis of the data included descriptive statistics regarding mean, standard deviation, and frequency of the items. A Spearman product correlation, t-tests, and ANOVA were used to test the null hypotheses. Significance was identified at the .05 level. In all, 42 directors of career and technical education directors in the state of Indiana responded to the survey instrument, which asked them to rank the importance of practice and agreement to the priority of practice for 50 different practices that research has shown to be practices often associated with the position of director. Those 50 practices were configured into 11 categories. As a result of the analysis, significant findings were present in the correlations between 48 of the 50 practices as well as all 11 of the categories. Significance was also found in two sub-hypotheses for importance for the areas of type of district and type of facility. In addition, significance was found in six sub-hypotheses for priority for the areas of gender, age, years of experience in career and technical education administration, type of district, number of programs, and type of facility.
    • Raising African American Student Graduation Rates: A Best Practices Study of Predominantly White Liberal Arts Colleges

      Pool, Robert W.
      This qualitative study sought to explore best practices at small, private liberal arts institutions that experienced large increases in African American graduation rates. Particular focus was on institutions that enrolled less than 17% minority students whose overall enrollment fell within the middle 50% of all SAT scores and the middle 50% of institutional full time equivalent (FTE) spending. Two colleges were selected for study via one-on-one interviews of key personnel, focus groups of students, and institutional document analyses. Themes from the data which participants felt contributed to the unusually large African American graduation rate increases are discussed.
    • RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ATHLETIC IDENTITY AND CAREER DECISION-MAKING SELF-EFFICACY AMONG KOREAN COLLEGIATE STUDENT ATHLETES

      Moon, Jong Joo (Cunningham Memorial Library, Terre Haute, Indiana State University., 2017-12)
      This study explored barriers that Korean collegiate student athletes confront with regard to pursuing careers outside of professional athletics. More specifically, the purpose of the study was to identify the barriers to Korean student athletes’ career development, as well as to examine the relationships among the psychological constructs of athlete identity and career decision making self-efficacy. A total of 321 Korean student athletes participated in the study, including 263 men (81.9%) and 59 women (18.1%). Participants completed demographic information along with a parental influence questionnaire, the Athletic Identity Measurement Scale, Career Decision Making Self-Efficacy Scale Short Form, and two open-ended questions. Stepwise regression analyses were employed to examine the research questions of interest. The results showed that gender (p < .001), self-appraisal (p < .001), planning (p < .001), and goal selection (p < .001) were significant positive predictors of social identity. Gender (p < .001), type of sport (p < .05), self-appraisal (p < .01), planning (p < .001), and goal selection (p < .001) were significant positive predictors of exclusivity. Finally, gender (p < .001), planning (p < .05), and goal selection (p < .001) were significant positive predictors of negative affectivity. The study also explored Korean collegiate athletes’ needs and barriers as they impact their future careers. Korean collegiate athletes felt they needed to improve their personal capability and ability, be more committed and hardworking, have qualifications and certifications, improve their athletic skills and English skills, and obtain more financial support to pursue their future careers. Injury or slump by injury, low salaries or lack of financial support iv from their families, military service, surroundings, and English skills were also perceived barriers to their future careers. The combined findings suggest that more in-depth qualitative inquiry is needed. A deeper understanding of the Korean student experience and how national priorities for athletes interface would further extend this literature which is in its infancy in the Korean context. Nevertheless, this study represents the first of its kind to attempt a comprehensive investigation of the Korean student athlete and the intersection of athletic identity and career decision-making self-efficacy.
    • Relationship between First Year Success Programs and Second-Year Persistence

      Rupley, Elissa
      Much research has been conducted on the success and retention of first-year students. Little research has been done on second-year students and their experiences. This study was completed to understand the experience of second year students.The purpose of this research study was to explore the attitudes, perceptions, and experiences of current second-year students who participated in the Academic Opportunity Program at Indiana State University to determine if the skills gained during the program transfer to the second-year. Focus groups were conducted to collect data. The results revealed that while the Academic Opportunity Program at Indiana State University is a great opportunity for many students there are changes that could benefit many of the students. Results indicated that motivation, both intrinsic and extrinsic types of motivation, is a key factor in student success and retention.
    • Relationships Between Supervisory Behaviors and School Climate as Perceived by Secondary School Teachers in the State of Kuwait

      Alhajeri, Salem
      This study was conducted to investigate the perceptions of secondary school teachers of their principals‟ supervisory behaviors and of their schools‟ climate. Furthermore, the study examined the relationship between supervisory behaviors and school climate in Kuwaiti secondary schools. Data was collected using two surveys. Bulach, Boothe, and Michael‟s (1999) survey was used to assess supervisory behaviors of principals as perceived by teacher. The School Climate Survey, which was developed by Gruenert (2008), was used to assess school climate. The participants of the study consisted of 575 male and female secondary school teachers from six school districts. The participants were selected randomly. The study results revealed that there were significant differences in perceived supervisory behaviors based on gender and district. Female teachers‟ perceived their female principals‟ ability in supervisory behaviors to be higher than male teachers viewed their principals. Also, there were significant differences in school climate based on gender and district. Male teachers‟ perceptions were more positive toward school climate than female teachers‟ perceptions.‟ Significant correlation was found between supervisory behaviors and school climate. Implications for findings and recommendations for future research are discussed.
    • Reporting Problems in Human Subjects Research: a Comparative Study

      Underwood, Dawn F.
      The purpose of this study was to discover whether differences exist among institutional review boards (IRBs) in categorizing and reporting problems in social science research to the Office for Human Research Protections (OHRP). IRBs were grouped by institutional size and type. The study also employed an experimental design to look for differences among those who reviewed a decision chart from OHRP (experimental group) and those who did not review the decision chart (control group). From a population of 474 IRB contacts at public, four-year institutions of higher education, 187 survey responses were received. Factorial ANOVA and independent measures t-tests were conducted to look for differences in responses among groups of IRBs. Statistically significant differences were found in how IRBs of different types categorized the incident presented in the survey. IRBs that review more biomedical protocols were less likely than social/behavioral IRBs to categorize an incident as an adverse event but more likely to categorize the incident as an unanticipated problem. Analysis revealed no significant differences among groups in the decision to report the incident to OHRP. The differences between IRB types suggest that IRB experience and institutional context affect IRB decisions. Recommendations are made for revising OHRP reporting guidance, IRB training, and board management.
    • Retention As a State Policy Mandate: IRead In Indiana

      Stubbs, Velinda F.
      The interpretation of Indiana Public Law 109 and subsequent policy adopted by the Indiana Department of Education resulted in the Indiana State Board of Education mandating circumstances implemented during the 2011-2012 school year regarding grade level retention of Grade 3 students. IREAD-3, a standardized, gateway assessment, was administered to all Grade 3 students to determine eligibility to be promoted to Grade 4. Three quantitative studies analyzed the results from the initial year of assessment data for 1,712 students from one school district in Indiana to determine if there were factors that are predictive of performance on IREAD-3 and to better understand if there were effects on Grade 3 ISTEP+ performance based on the implementation of IREAD-3. Variables including chronological age, ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), gender, type of school the student attended (Title I versus non-Title I), and attendance were analyzed to determine if they were predictive of performance on IREAD-3. A logistic regression model identified three variables (low-SES, non-White, and poor attendance) that significantly increased the odds of not passing IREAD-3. The second study examined kindergarten, first grade, and second grade performance on DIBELS and TRC to determine if these assessments predicted passing IREAD-3. Based on the logistic regression model, below grade performance on both DIBELS and TRC (independently) significantly increased the odds of not passing IREAD-3. The statistically significant odds of not passing IREAD-3 were noted as early as the beginning of the kindergarten year but were noted to be more significant in later years, the middle and end of Grade 1 and beginning and middle of Grade 2. The final study examined whether there was a difference in ISTEP+ performance for Grade 3 students who also took the IREAD-3 assessment as compared to performance of Grade 3 students during the previous three years of ISTEP+ administration when those students did not take IREAD-3—2009, 2010, 2011. The results suggested that although there was a statistically significant difference in scores over the four years, the effect size was insignificant. Practically, the difference appears to represent an upward trend of scores and the statistically significant differences were not necessarily associated with implementation of IREAD-3 in 2012.
    • School Factors Related to Reading Achievement in Rural Schools with and without High Poverty

      Miller, Seth W.
      This quantitative study identified how rural schools differ on five school-level factors related to student achievement according to their performance on Grade 3 reading. Through use of a MANOVA test, it was shown that principals of high-poverty rural schools that made AYP in Grade 3 reading reported significantly higher levels of guaranteed and viable curriculum than principals of high-poverty rural schools that did not make AYP. There were no significant differences in the presence of the school-level factors in rural schools without high poverty based on the principal reports. Additionally, the study identified which school-level factors predict student achievement in rural schools with and without high poverty. Through use of a multiple regression test, it was determined that the school-level factors did not serve as significant predictors of Grade 3 reading performance in the high poverty rural schools. One factor, guaranteed and viable curriculum, was shown to predict for student achievement in rural schools without high poverty. In conducting this study, additional research questions were addressed. Through linear regression, it was demonstrated that poverty accounted for much more of the variance in reading scores in non-rural schools (58%, N = 1,761) than in rural schools (19%, N = 427). Through multivariate multiple regression testing, it was found that there was not a significant ability for either Grade 3 reading performance or poverty to predict for the school-level factors in rural schools. Finally, through multiple regression testing, it was determined that three predictors (poverty, guaranteed and viable curriculum, and safe and orderly environment) were able to significantly predict reading scores for rural schools. The results of the study provide rural school leaders a better understanding of the overall strengths and weaknesses of a particular school and the potential benefits of school improvement initiatives geared around school-level factors. This knowledge will prove useful to the overall research base on rural school effectiveness. More specifically, this knowledge will help guide the decisions of school leaders concerned with improving student achievement in rural school districts with high poverty.
    • School Size and Student Achievement

      Riggen, Vicki
      This study examined whether a relationship between high school size and student achievement exists in Illinois public high schools in reading and math, as measured by the Prairie State Achievement Exam (PSAE), which is administered to all Illinois 11th-grade students. This study also examined whether the factors of socioeconomic status, English language learners status, special education rate, mobility rate, dropout rate, class size, instructional expenditure per pupil, attendance rate, and/or school enrollment exhibited interaction effects that can be used to predict student achievement as measured by reading and mathematics performance on the PSAE. This study provides quantitative data that will aid educational leaders in school decision-making that can enhance student achievement. Findings of this study revealed a relationship does not exist between school size and student performance in reading. Of nine student and building characteristics investigated, eight had a significant ability to predict student performance on PSAE reading. Socioeconomic status was found to have the most significant effect, with student attendance having the second greatest effect. English language learner status had the third greatest impact. Findings of this study revealed a relationship does exist between school size and student performance in math. Large schools in the state of Illinois outperformed both small and medium schools in math. Of nine student and building characteristics investigated, seven had a significant ability to predict student performance on PSAE math. Socioeconomic status was found to have the most significant effect, with student attendance having the second greatest effect. Instructional expenditure per pupil had the third greatest impact. This study gives educational leaders in small, medium, and large schools access to very specific information regarding the student and building characteristics that can best predict student performance in their schools.
    • School violence and its effects on academic achievement among eighth graders.

      Myers, Kevin A
      The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of school violence on academic performance among eigth grade students.The rational for this investigation was a result of the preoccupation for safety in our educational institutions.Additionally,it investigated the relationship between three specific school violence behaviors and student background characteristics.The three behaviors are negative personal behavior,school violence victimization,and school violence perception.Background varibales included in the analysis are gender,race/ethnicity,socio-economic status,family income and school type(public,Catholic,private other religious and private non-religious).The data used to explore the effect of school violence on academic achievement was taken from the the National Crime Victimization Survey:School Crime Supplement(NCVS:SVS;U.S Departments of Education and Justice,1998).Descriptive analysis was used to describe student's background characteristics and school factors.Findings indicated that negative personal behavior had a significant relationship on student's academic performance.Also,students experiencing victimization and student's perceptions of violence in their schools had a significant relationship on student's academic performance.Also,students experiencing victimization and student's perceptions of violence in their schools had a significant relationship on academic performance.Findings also indicated that students from public and private non-religious schools show similar patterns of associations between levels of school violence and school violence behaviors.