• Teacher Evaluations: Do Classroom Observations and Evaluator Training Really Matter?

      Pies, Sarah J. (Cunningham Memorial library, Terre Haute,Indiana State University, 2017-12)
      The purpose of this study was to determine if the minimum number of observations stated in a district’s teacher evaluation plan, observation characteristics described in a district’s evaluation plan, and the characteristic of those evaluating teachers had an impact on whether a school would receive a bonus or penalty point for Indiana’s A-F accountability model. This study analyzed both math and English/language arts bonus and penalty points for all schools whose district has been implementing the new mandated teacher evaluation plan since the 2012-2013 school year. This included 3,997 schools within 215 districts in Indiana. Overall, when predicting whether a school will receive a bonus or penalty point, the findings for math were stronger than the findings for English/language arts. When considering whether a school will receive a bonus point for math, the minimum number of observations stated in the district’s evaluation plan was a significant predictor of a bonus point by itself but has a negative relationship associated with a reduction of the probability of getting a bonus point for math. Observation characteristics also had predictors in each model, both centered on the number of required observations in the plan (the actual number or just their presence in the plan). In the models using only the number of observations as a variable, the predictors were associated with an increased likelihood in a penalty and a decreased likelihood in a bonus. For the models with evaluator characteristics data, significant factors found a negative relationship with the likelihood of a school receiving a bonus point for math. When considering whether a school will receive a bonus point for English/language arts, evaluator characteristics did not serve as significant predictors nor does v the minimum number of observations stated in the district’s evaluation plan. One significant relationship was determined in that a district stating in its evaluation plan that both pre- and post-conferences are required, including goal setting, had a positive impact on the likelihood of getting a bonus point for English/language arts versus getting no bonus or penalty.
    • The Black Body as a Counterspace: The Experiences of African American Students at a Predominantly White Institution

      Jones-Malone, Dionne LaShell
      This qualitative study examines the use of counterspaces by eight upperclassman African American students at a predominantly White institution. This study sought to identify how counterspaces were used by African American students and how those counterspaces foster a sense of belonging for students. Field observations and semi-structured, in-depth interviews were utilized as the qualitative techniques for data collection. Based upon the analysis of data, four major themes emerged: (a) the participants‘ impressions of student involvement; (b) the participants‘ encounters with microaggressions; (c) the utilization of individuals as academic and social counterspaces; and (d) the participants‘ comfort with ―being yourself.‖ The findings of the study resulted in implications and recommendations for higher education. In addition, the findings generated recommendations for future research and practice.
    • The Coffee House Classroom: The Difference Between Student and Faculty Perceptions of Classroom Spatial Design in a Community College Environment

      Kent, Katherine
      With the ever increasing need for employees who are capable of problem solving, working in team-based projects, and engaging in professional discourse, it is questionable whether these activities are, or can be, supported and promoted in the typical community college classroom environment containing traditional rows of desks and computers with a professor front and center. These traditional classroom arrangements discourage participatory activities and engagements with peers and faculty due to the very nature of the inflexible and impersonal alignment of side-by-side, row seating. This study investigated the impact of the physical furnishings and the spatial arrangement of a classroom environment on its occupants‘ perceptions and behaviors. Traditional computer classroom settings were compared to a created coffee house style classroom containing a circular seating layout, a variety of seating options, and a mobile instructor‘s station to determine if the difference in furnishings and spatial configuration would produce differing perceptions of a similar academic experience. An examination of the elements of environmental psychology and design provided a background for this study and a foundation for determining the significance and influence of the physical setting in relationship to occupant behavior. This study utilized a quantitative survey instrument supplemented with a qualitative faculty interview and a classroom observation design to investigate the students‘ and faculty‘s perception of English Composition courses held in two different iv classroom settings. Three ENG111 classes were held solely in a traditional computer classroom, three ENG111 classes spent one-half of the class sessions in a traditional computer classroom, for labs, and one-half of the sessions in the coffee house style classroom for discussion and critique. The findings of this study suggests that those students in the classes held in the combination of settings incorporating both the traditional computer classroom and the coffee house classroom had a significantly higher incidence of satisfaction in two items of a seven-item instrument in the areas of Personalization, ×2(2, N = 60) = 3.31, p = 0.025, and Task, ×2(2, N = 60) = 3.01, p = 0.037, than those students who had classes meeting only in the traditional computer classroom. There was only a slightly significant student perception difference in the area of Cohesiveness, ×2(2, N = 60) = 2.36, p = 0.058, in favor of the courses held solely in the traditional computer classrooms. The faculty member teaching all six ENG111 courses reported a high degree of satisfaction with the coffee house classroom environment arrangement and results.
    • The Effects of Using PBWorks in a Hybrid Collaborative Class Environment on Students' Academic Achievement

      Ibrahim, Abdullah
      E-learning plays an important role in higher education, especially with the appearance of web 2.0. The study investigated the effects of using PBWorks, as a free web 2.0 wiki, on students’ academic achievement, and students’ attitudes toward collaborative learning. The study was designed as an experimental study. There was comparison between two groups. These groups were the PBWorks hybrid class environment, and face-to-face class environment. Both classes used collaborative learning. The participants in this study were 51 female students in Educational Communication Aids. Both classes had the same instructor and they studied the same material. This study was conducted in the college of education in Kuwait University. The results of the study showed that there was not a significant difference in the post academic achievement test. However, the PBWorks group made more progress than the face-to-face group when we consider the pre-test. On the other hand, the result of the students’ attitudes toward collaborative learning showed there was a significant difference in the post-test in all six variables, which were monitoring working procedures, participation, monitoring group progress, helping each other, giving feedback, and the need to be monitored, and the face-to-face group had higher attitudes toward collaborative learning than the PBWorks group. Finally, one of the most important advantages of this study was that both groups had a positive increase in the academic achievement test and questionnaire that assessed attitudes toward collaborative learning.
    • The Experience of Baccalaureate Degree Seeking Nursing Students Undergoing The Process of Clinical Evaluation Appraisal

      McCutchan, Judith A.
      This phenomenological qualitative study examines the experiences of nine baccalaureate nursing students undergoing the clinical evaluation process at two institutions. The clinical performance appraisal (CPA), an identified challenge for faculty and students alike, is a tool utilized for assessing nursing students‟ behaviors in the clinical setting. The national need for registered nurses that is projected to increase 22.2% by the year 2018 is cause for alarm. The importance for nursing faculty to understand and implement the clinical evaluation process is an important part of meeting this need while facilitating student learning. The lived experiences of nine student nurses were collected by way of semi-structured, digitally recorded, and in-depth interviews. Based upon the analysis of data, four major themes emerged: (a) the impact of an absent instructor; (b) all instructors are different; (c) input into the evaluation process; and (d) the evaluation process is a formality. Implications and recommendations for higher education are presented. To complete the study, recommendations for research and conclusions are made.
    • The experiences of African-born women faculty and administrators at colleges and universities in the United States

      Afoaku, Oyibo
      ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to document the experiences of African-born women faculty and administrators at colleges and universities in the United States. The study explored the factors that motivated African-born women to immigrate to and extend their stay in the United States beyond completion of their education; factors they perceive as constraint on their quest for self-empowerment and identity as foreign students, college instructors, and/or administrators, and parents; and factors that have enabled them to adapt to their host culture and achieve their educational and professional goals even though they had to contend with multiple challenges associated with living in America as Black women. Eight women who are currently or previously serving as faculty or administrators were interviewed for this study. Participants were originally from Benin, Cameroun, Congo, Ghana, Mali, Nigeria, and Tanzania. Six of them were faculty and three were administrators. Ten themes emerged from the study: family-centered cultural orientation, multicultural perspectives, dealing with transition and culture shock, preservation of cultural heritage, American higher education culture, American higher education structure, American higher education curriculum, American higher education policy, limited leadership opportunity for African-born women, and alumni loyalty. The participants expressed reservations about the status quo and want to see significant improvement in diversity policy and practices on their respective campuses that will yield substantive outcomes for all stake holders, including foreign students, foreign-born faculty and administrators. The study concluded by recommending inclusive dialogue and communication, comprehensive policy process; broad leadership structure, and wide-ranging mentoring programs as steps that can enhance the experiences of African born faculty and administrators at colleges and universities in the United States.
    • The Experiences of Working-Class College Students Who Became University Presidents

      Springer, Mary E.
      Working-class students enter college lacking necessary capital to predict their academic and personal success making college success less likely than for middle class students (Bufton, 2003; Mack, 2006; Paulsen & St. John, 2002; Rose, 1997; Wegner, 1973). This same social class origin helps to define experiences, provides context for understanding these experiences, and ultimately can be a strong motivation to succeed. With the help of personal and professional mentors, strong working-class family values, and an innate drive to succeed, the university presidents in this study have survived in a culture in which they did not have the necessary capital to naturally be academically, personally, and professionally successful. With a strong proportion of today’s first-time college students enrolling directly from high school, almost 55% nationally, and almost 40% nationally coming from working-class backgrounds, the university presidents in this study have provided a strong insight into the experiences and culture of working-class college students and those who become university presidents (U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, 2008).
    • The impact of compensation models on professional development and collaboration

      Reckard, Kathryn Margaret
      The purpose of this study was to determine whether professional developmen t a nd collaboration practices are a ffected by performance pay in schools. The study investigated the differences in perceptions of principals, veteran teachers, and beginning teachers. S ix questions and statements were posed relating to both professional development and collaboration . Based on the findings, no significant difference in perception of professional development and collaboration exists between educators currently utilizing a compensation model and those not utilizing a compensation model. Second, where a compensation model was implemented, principals were predicted to have higher levels of agreement regarding their views on professional development. Additionally, beginnin g teachers were predicted to have higher levels of agreement regarding their views on professional development than veteran teachers. Third, where a compensation model was not implemented, principals were predicted to have higher levels of agreement regar ding their views on professional development . Also , beginning teachers were predicted to have higher levels of agreement regarding professional development than veteran teachers. Fourth , where a compensation model was implemented, principals were predict ed to have higher levels of agreement regarding their views on collaboration veteran and beginning teachers. B eginning teachers also were predicted to have higher levels of agreement regarding collaboration than veteran teachers. Last, where a compensati on model w as not implemented, building type, position, or years of experience do not serve as predictors of collaboration
    • The Impact of First-, Second-, and Third-Grade Teachers on Third-Grade Student ISTEP+ Scores

      Bartley, Jane A.
      This study used existing third-grade ISTEP+ data from a cohort of Evansville Vanderburgh School Corporation students to evaluate various non-experimental methods for estimating teacher effects on student test scores. The study considered the impact that first-, second-, and third-grade teachers had on student performance as measured by the Indiana standardized test in third grade by looking for recognizable patterns of success based on teacher assignment in a cohort of 350 students. By making the assumption of randomness in assigning students to teachers and controlling for student transience, demographics, and teacher movement, the variances of mean ISTEP+ scores were examined to determine and quantify differences based on teacher links. Descriptive statistics summarized possible patterns of success based on teacher links for the cohort as a whole and each school individually by grade level. Differences among teachers by grade level were examined by using an ANOVA model. Regression analysis was used to probe patterns of achievement based on teacher combinations as well as the predictability of ISTEP+ scores based on first-, second-, or third-grade teachers.
    • The Impact of High School Schedule Type on Instructional Effectiveness and Student Achievement in Mathematics

      Hackney, Joel
      The purpose of this quantitative study was to determine the impact of high school schedule type on instructional effectiveness and student achievement in mathematics. An analysis was prepared to determine the schedule types currently used in math classes, whether significant differences exist between schedule types on the percent of students meeting or exceeding on the 2011 PSAE math test, how teachers rate the effectiveness of a schedule they currently use versus how others that use a different schedule rate the same schedule for various student outcomes in mathematics, and whether significant differences exist in the effectiveness ratings between schedule types on various student outcomes in mathematics. The research design involved a population of 350 lead math teachers or math department chairs currently teaching at a 9–12 high school in Illinois. Teachers’ beliefs on the effectiveness of the different schedule types on various student outcomes were collected using a 23-item survey. Statistical analysis of the data included descriptive analysis for selected items, means, and standard deviations. A one-way ANOVA was used to test whether significant differences existed between schedule types on the percentage of students meeting or exceeding standards on the 2011 PSAE math test, and a comparison of the mean ratings for each schedule type was used to determine how teachers rated the effectiveness of a schedule type they currently use versus how others who use a different schedule type rated the same schedule. Repeated measures one-way ANOVAs were used to determine whether significant differences existed in the effectiveness ratings between schedule types on various student outcomes in mathematics. Significance was identified at the .05 level.In all, 91 lead math teachers or math department chairs of high schools in Illinois responded to the survey instrument, which questioned the perceived level of effectiveness of the traditional schedule, AB block schedule, 4 x 4 block schedule, and trimester schedule for 11 different student outcomes in mathematics. As a result of the analysis, there were no significant differences found in the percent of students meeting or exceeding standards on the 2011 PSAE between schools on a block schedule versus those on a traditional schedule. The analysis showed that teachers currently on a traditional schedule rated the traditional schedule higher than those currently teaching on a block schedule. Teachers currently teaching on a block schedule rated the block schedule more favorably than teachers currently teaching on a traditional schedule. However, teachers currently teaching on a block schedule rated the traditional schedule as the most effective overall for most of the student outcomes. When analyzing the responses of all of the respondents, the traditional schedule was perceived to be more effective than all other schedule types for eight of the 11 student outcomes while the AB block schedule was rated most effective for only one outcome.
    • The impact of racial identity on self-esteem and academic achievement among African American adolescent female students

      Griddine, Ke'Shana Y.
      Utilizing a critical race theory perspective, I investigated how racial identity relates to self- esteem and academic achievement. The sample consisted of 100 African American female adolescents (age 13-17) who lived mostly in the Western regions of the United States. The Multidimensional Inventory of Black Identity-Teen and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale were administered to assess racial identity profiles and levels of self-esteem. Grade point averages were collected via self-report as a means of capturing academic achievement. The data were analyzed using cluster analysis with a follow-up MANOVA. The cluster analysis using the combination of hierarchical and non- hierarchical methods resulted in a viable three-cluster solution.The first cluster represented girls who held high humanist and low public regard beliefs (n =29). The second cluster group represented girls who scored higher on the centrality subscale and the nationalist sub-dimension (n = 31). The third cluster consisted of girls who have high levels of public regard and low nationalist beliefs (n = 29). The MANOVA revealed no significant relationship between the participants’ racial identity clusters and grade point average and their levels of self-esteem. The results of this study provide further understanding and evidence of multidimensionality in racial identity among female African American teenage students.
    • The Impact of Remedial Education on Nursing Student Success

      Peters, Laurie F.
      The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of remedial education on nursing student success. This quantitative, retrospective study utilized Alexander Astin’s (1993) Input-Environment-Outcomes (I-E-O) model to explore the relationship between demographic variables (inputs) and the number and type of remedial courses taken (environmental variables) on final cumulative grade point average (GPA) and first-time pass rates on the NCLEX-RN state licensure examination (outcomes). The study examined 1,678 associate degree nursing (ADN) graduates between 2004 and 2007 in a state-wide community college system. The analysis identified MAT 050/Basic Algebra as the only remedial course to have the statistical power to be included in the model as a predictor of final cumulative GPA. However, the model only accounted for .4% of the variance indicating there are other factors influencing students’ GPA besides the MAT 050 course. Results suggest that female students are less likely to need remediation in ENG 032/Reading Strategies for College II and more likely to need remediation in MAT 050/Basic Algebra. Ethnicity and age were found to be weak predictors of final cumulative GPA and pass/fail performance on the NCLEX-RN examination. Number and type of remedial courses showed no statistically significant, predictive relationships with pass/fail rates on the NCLEX-RN examination. Understanding the impact of remedial education on nursing student success can ultimately influence the number of nurses available to meet the needs of an aging population.
    • The Indiana Public School Dropout Dilemma Differences in Superintendents' Perceptions

      Adams, David Albert
      This quantitative study examined Indiana public school superintendents‘ perspectives of efficacy toward the student dropout dilemma. A survey was administered to a random sample of Indiana superintendents, and an analysis was made to investigate whether superintendents in Indiana believe that there is an internal or external locus of control (efficacy) concerning the dropout issue. Further examination was made to determine if superintendent opinions towards efficacy differ by school geographic location (rural, suburban, town, metropolitan), socioeconomic status of the community (percent of students on free and reduced lunch), or superintendents‘ age. The study also compared superintendent opinions concerning the dropout issue with those of teachers and principals as reported in Bridgeland, Dilulio, and Balfanz (2009) to see if their opinions correspond. Analysis of variance was computed for the variables of interest to identify significant difference between groups. An ANOVA was run on each research question. A factorial ANOVA was then run to determine whether significant main or interaction effects exist between the independent variables. The statistical analysis showed moderate efficacy among Indiana superintendent concerning student dropouts. The ANOVA and Factorial ANOVA showed insufficient evidence to conclude that significant differences exist between different groups of superintendents based on geographic location, free and reduced lunch populations, or age of the superintendent. The examination of superintendent responses to survey questions showed similar responses to those of teachers and principals on the national study. A general discussion is presented on the conclusions of the research with recommendations made for reducing the dropout rate and further research on the topic.
    • The Influence of a Lilly Endowment Grant To Recruit And Retain Part-Time Faculy In a Community College System

      Lepper, Charles Wilmer
      This qualitative study examines the influence of a grant from the Lilly Endowment to recruit and retain intellectual capital of part-time faculty in a community college system. Through the use of grant funds, the college used in this study developed and implemented nine college-wide initiatives. This study examined adjunct faculty members‟ awareness of the grant and the nine initiatives, as well as examined the influence the grant had on their experience. Qualitative data on the lived experiences of adjunct faculty were collected and analyzed. Based upon the analysis of data, five themes emerged in this study: (a) limited awareness of the grant; (b) limited knowledge of the nine initiatives developed and implemented under the grant; (c) lack of formal communication regarding the grant and its initiatives; (d) the adjunct faculty experience was significantly influenced by orientation to the position; and (e) mentoring had a significant influence on their experience. The findings of this study resulted in implications for institutions of higher education, as well as generated recommendations for future practice and research.
    • The life and leadership of William P. Foster: the maestro and the legend

      Walker, Richard L., Jr.
      The purpose of this study was to examine the life and leadership of William P. Foster. As an acclaimed African American band director, the history of Foster was considered a parable rather than a leader who had made important contributions to the progression of band theory, practice, and performance both nationally and abroad. This misconception is an omission within the histor y of ethnomusicology, music education, music literature, band philosophy , as well as higher education leadership. Focusing on his 52 - year tenure at Florida Agriculture and Mechanical University as director of bands as well as over 45 years as the music de partment chair allowed for a better understanding of what inspired Foster’s concepts for band leadership and development in higher education. Utilizing a qualitative case study approach, this study examined the life of Foster through the unique stories o f seven purposefully selected African American band directors with at least 25 years’ experience and direct access to Foster. Participants selected were former students of Foster and music education alumni of Florida A&M University. This provided a deepe r understanding of how the participants utilized Foster’s techniques, leadership, and teachings. An analysis of the study participants’ experiences yielded five emergent themes: highest quality character, excellence in leadership, great communicator, respe ct, and outstanding musicianship. This study used the servant leadership model, specifically the seven pillars of servant leadership, to examine Foster’s band and academic leadership experiences. The findings of this study serve as a dependable source abo ut how Foster swayed audiences to remain in the stands during halftime performances. Concomitantly, reflections of the participants in this study give credence to Foster’s ability to transform collegiate band s administratively, ethically, technically, and culturally. Moreover, the research describes Foster’s impetus to change the band ’ s marching style and appearance during a time of segregation. These findings may also be used to inspire future leaders in higher education who aspire to focus on the devel opmental needs of their constituents.
    • The Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award Process in Public Higher Education Institutions and Effects on Organizational Performance: A Historical Perspective

      Bailey, Bill D
      Public undergraduate higher education institutions face a number of seemingly intractable problems. Among those problems are cost, accountability and access. The Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award process is designed to help organization of any type address problems of organizational performance. This process has been used by manufacturing, healthcare, and educational institutions among others. The purpose of this study was to explore performance differences between award recipients and non-recipients on measures related to these three challenges in public higher education. Two major research questions were postulated, and tested using historical data. The first questions asked if award recipients performed better than non-recipients against measures related to these three challenges at the time of the award. The second question asked if the rate of change in this performance was different for award recipients and non-recipients in the time period leading up to the award. A theoretical framework was proposed, composed of the three challenges as constructs. Each construct was associated with multiple measures. The first question was tested using MANCOVA procedures to test the theoretical framework. Each construct was then tested with the same procedure. Finally, univariate results were analyzed for each of the 12 dependent variables. The same model and levels of analysis applied to the second question using repeated measures MANCOVA. Significant differences at alpha .05 were found for several spending variables, minority success, and for two year institutions, graduation rates. Support for the theoretical framework as a whole was not found. However, it was also concluded that award recipients performed better on some measures where management actions had a direct effect such as cost. Accountability measures were affected indirectly by management actions, and the results for this construct were more mixed. Finally, it was concluded that access was not responsive to management solutions, and may be more strongly affected by public policy.
    • The perception of servant leadership characteristics and job satisfaction in a church-related college

      Thompson, Robert S
      Church-related colleges are facing diverse and complex challenges.The campus leadership has found the traditional leadership approaches to be inadequate to meet these new challenges and is seeking solutions.Numerous leadership approaches offer potential solutions,but church-related institutions need an approach fitting the ethos of the institution culture as well as matching the values of the institution and allowing for the use of other leadership practices and styles.Servant leadership has been proposed as a viable leadership model for church-related college leaders.In light of the absence of scholarly research on servant leadership,this study has provided an objective and quantifiable study of servant leadership and job satisfaction at a church-related college.One hundred sixteen employees of the college were administered a combined survey consisting of Laub's Organizational Leadership Assessment(OLA)instrument and the short form of the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire(MSQ).The participants were viewed by both the administrative level(Institutional Leadership,Management,Faculty,and Technical)and the functional area(Academic Affairs and Student Services).The institution in this study was found not to be a servant organization as classified using Laub's schema.An analysis of variance was performed to see if differences existed between administrative levels and between functional areas.Surprisingly,no statistically significant differences were found to exist between administrative levels.This contradicts earlier findings.However,a statistically significant difference was found to exist between the functional areas of Academic Affairs and Student services.Confirming Laub's assertion that the perception of servant leadership positively impacts job satisfaction,a statistically significant,positive correlation was found to exist between the perceptions of job satisfaction characteristics and job satisfaction.
    • The Personal Characteristics and Professional Skills Defining Superintendent Effectiveness

      McCormick, Jennifer G.
      The intent of this study was to determine if there were differences among Indiana public high school principals, Indiana public school superintendents, and Indiana public school board presidents about the personal characteristics and professional skills that define effective superintendents. In order to effectively determine such characteristics and skills, research and literature were reviewed; input from practicing Indiana public high school principals, Indiana public school superintendents, and Indiana public school board presidents was sought; and a survey was conducted. A generalization was made from the sample to the population regarding how each of these groups defined superintendent effectiveness. Current research and literature was reviewed in order to develop a survey instrument intended to obtain the desired input from the sample. The components of the survey were divided into two categories: personal characteristics and professional skills. The content or specific items for the survey were created for the survey from the complete list of items which were identified through the current literature in three or more sources. Based on the set criteria, the current literature facilitated the production of a survey with 14 personal characteristics and 22 professional skills. Two research questions were formulated for the study. Question one and question two were analyzed statistically through Null Hypothesis One and Null Hypothesis Two. For each null hypothesis, a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine significance. The level of significance established for this study was .05. Descriptive data were also utilized to answer both research questions. Study findings showed public high school principals valued the personal characteristic of charismatic significantly higher than public school board presidents. In addition, it was concluded public high school principals valued the professional skill of serves as a child advocate significantly higher than public school board presidents, and high school principals also valued empowers/develops others significantly higher than public school board presidents. However, school board presidents valued able to meet major mandates significantly higher than high school principals in defining effective superintendents. It was also concluded that superintendents valued the professional skill of develops positive relations with board members significantly higher than public school board presidents. Yet, public school board presidents valued the professional skill of able to meet major mandates significantly higher than public school superintendents. The emerging views of leadership, along with the current unique societal, political, and economic climate demand that careful attention be placed on the personal characteristics and professional skills that define an effective superintendent. Using such information from the study for recruiting, selecting, training, and retaining effective superintendents will be important. Bringing focus to such difficult tasks as those described in the study could be very helpful in multiple ways.
    • The Pigskin and the Cross: Intercollegiate Football on the Faith-Based Campus

      Davis, Jody Michael
      This qualitative study examined the mission, role, and fit of intercollegiate football programs at two faith-based higher education institutions. This intersection of faith and football is rarely discussed, though on these campuses the football program wields considerable power due to the roster size, student makeup, and resources consumed. Further, faith-based institutions are called to evaluate each curricular and extracurricular program against the mission of the institution which is, at least in part, to serve Christ‟s kingdom. Seventeen faculty and administrator interviews and three student focus groups were conducted, as well as game day observation, document review, and archival research. Five themes emerged from the data: (a) coach as referent leader, (b) everyone loves a winner, (c) mission and values alignment, (d) disconnect with the student body, and (e) enrollment management and community relations lever. The findings resulted in implications for campus constituents who are interested in the interplay between athletics and the campus environment as well as recommendations for areas of future research.
    • The Religious Spirituality of an Indiana Public School Leader and its Influence on the School

      St.Peters,Timothy R.
      As schools expand secularization and laws limiting religious expression increase, one must not forget the religious spirituality of the individual. Individual religious spirituality is still protected under the United States Constitution. Many researchers feel that this religious spirituality should be nurtured, not discouraged in public schools. Multiple studies seen in the literature review show that spiritual and religious commitment directly leads to increased academic success and decreased risk taking behaviors in students. The school leader has the ability to encourage, foster, and enrich religious spirituality in students while following established law regarding the separation of church and state. All along, he or she must keep in mind that their own religious spirituality and the religious spirituality of the community may affect and, to some degree, direct how these laws are interpreted, implemented, and followed by the school leader. Questions then arise: How do school leaders implement these laws? Do the community‘s views on religious spirituality direct these decisions? Does current policy direct these decisions? Does the religious spirituality of the school leader play a role in decision making in this arena? The purpose of this qualitative case study was to look at the religious spirituality of a public school leader and to ascertain if it has any influence on the school. Does the religious spirituality of the school leader affect which after school programs are encouraged to flourish, which religious teachings are allowed through the doors (e.g., Campus Life, Young Life, community church youth groups, clergy programs), which classes are taught, what religious expressions are considered appropriate, how current law is interpreted related to religious spirituality, overall student morale, teacher/student personal relationships, moral growth opportunities for students, or which textbooks are purchased? Results were collected through observations, interviews, and documentation of artifacts at a predetermined school where religious spirituality was known to be present in the school leader. The study reviewed current trends and past decisions regarding religious spirituality and education, looked at research related to the benefits of religion and spirituality, examined one school where religious spirituality was known to be present in the school leader, and attempted to ascertain whether the religious spirituality of this school leader influences the school. This research was not meant to delve into the intricacies of the separation of church and state debate, but was intended to merely look at the religious spirituality of a public school leader and to ascertain if this has any influence on the school. Observation and interviews with this leader and his staff brought forth a great deal of information, but such a small sample in this qualitative case study could not permit generalizations (Patton, 2002).However, the study did find that the religious spirituality of the individual does not appear to lay dormant when said individual enters the public school doors, and the literature review showed that religious spirituality in the lives of individuals is inherent, wants to come out, and appears to have a positive impact. This study showed that the religious spirituality of a school leader can impact the school by allowing for religiously spiritual opportunities and growth. It was determined that this in turn has the possibility of enhancing the lives of students, allowing for opportunities for growth in young people in the area of their own religious spirituality and shows the real impact of how the religious spirituality of a school leader can impact the school.