• Nontraditional-age women graduates from a distance program: contributors to choosing psychology as a major

      Fischer, Jackie
      The purpose of this qualitative research study was to identify the contributing factors that led nontraditional-age female college students studying in a distance format to choose psychology as a major. Data were gathered through semi-structured interviews, as well as short essays and demographic questionnaires completed by the participants. The results were examined within the context of Lent and Brown’s (2013) social cognitive career theory (SCCT). The application of SCCT led to the examination of how the women overcame real and perceived barriers to degree attainment. Data analysis using the lens of liberal feminist theory exposed some of the social constructs that existed as the p articipants pursued their bachelor’s degrees. The following primary themes were identified: (a) a sense of benevolence leads nontraditional-age female college students to choose psychology as a major, (b) family and community support is critical for degree attainment for nontraditional-age women who study in a distance format, (c)nontraditional-age women choose a distance program because of its practicality and flexibility, (d) specific skills and traits contribute to the success of nontraditional-age female college students, and (e) nontraditional-age women who completed their degrees in psychology in a distance program experience personal and professional transformation. Implications for theory, practice, and research are also presented.

      Voelker, Joseph A. (Indiana State University, 2014-12)
      The purpose of the study was to determine whether schools that impose more days of out-ofschool suspension as a discipline consequence in Indiana high schools have a relationship with the academic results of the school. The study was conducted by administering a survey to all Indiana public high school principals. Eighty-nine principals responded to the Principal Survey on High School Discipline. The Principal Survey on High School Discipline asked respondents the number of days a student would be suspended out of school for first time offenses to 18 common discipline infractions. The sum of out-of-school suspension days (called the suspension composite score) for each high school was then compared to each high school’s scores for the 2013 sophomore cohort on Indiana’s End of Course Assessments following the completion of English 10 and Algebra I coursework. Also analyzed in the study were whether there was a difference in the suspension composite score and the school’s size; whether there was a difference in the suspension composite score and the school’s location; whether principal demographics of age, years of experience, or years in education affected the suspension composite score; if out of school suspension makes students less likely to misbehave; and if zero-tolerance policies made an impactful contribution in maintaining order at their schools. Data were analyzed through one-way ANOVA and linear regression testing and the null hypotheses were tested at the .05 probability level or better. The data analysis did not display significant findings for any of the research questions. Some of the findings when analyzing the demographic data were urban schools were more likely to suspend but less likely to expel a student for issues such as drug possession or transmission and alcohol possession or transmission. Rural schools were the exact opposite. They were less likely to suspend but more likely to expel a student for those infractions. Small schools versus large schools followed the same pattern, but the data were not as pronounced. The principals were split as to whether zero tolerance policies make an impactful contribution in maintaining order at their schools. When zero tolerance policies were broken down by school size, small schools disagreed that it helped maintain order, but medium- and large-sized high schools had nearly 60% agreeing to 40% disagreeing.

      Oliver, Abbigail Suzanne (Indiana State University, 2014-08)
      There were three primary purposes of this study. One purpose of the study was to increase the understanding and awareness of parental involvement with regard to their children’s education. The second purpose of the study was to analyze two schools’ poverty levels in regard to their students’ academic goals. Last, the study was to analyze and understand parental involvement in regard to the academic goals parents have for their children. Demographic data regarding two schools’ level of poverty were collected from the Indiana Department of Education. The study was to add more information to the existing data in regard to parental involvement. Evidence was provided from a literature review and the responses from 158 parental surveys. The surveys were mailed directly to the parents and returned anonymously to me. Each respondent was asked to answer five questions. The study sample included two Indiana public schools, one with a poverty rate of 65.5% and the other 16.8% poverty. The data was analyzed using Chi-square, t test, and single ANOVA to the test the null hypotheses. The data supported there was a relationship between the educational level of the parents and the educational goals for their children. In addition, the data supported a significant difference between the amount of time a female parent spent and the mean amount of time a male parent spent assisting with schoolwork.
    • Perceptions of Teacher Efficacy in Changing Times

      Parker, Jack Lee Jr.
      The purposes of this study were twofold: determine how teacher perceptions change over time in their ability to create a desired effect on student learning and examine the differences between principal and teacher perceptions of teacher efficacy. Principals and teachers at 150 public schools, broken down as 50 from elementary schools with a grade configuration of pre-kindergarten through Grade 5, 50 from middle schools with a grade configuration of Grade 6 through Grade 8, and 50 from high schools with a grade configuration of Grade 9 through Grade 12 were selected to participate in the study. Each principal was sent the Teacher Efficacy Survey for principals and was asked to forward the Teacher Efficacy Survey for teachers to their teaching staffs. Of the 150 schools chosen from the population for participation in the study, 52 principals and 171 teachers responded to the survey. The principal return was 35%. The number of teachers in the sample population was undetermined due to the lack of knowledge regarding how many teachers actually received the instructions from their principals. Statistical analysis of the data included descriptive statistics comparing each of the 20 questions to the average scores of all questions for teacher and principal groups. A paired samples two-tailed t-test or an analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test the 10 null hypotheses. The level of significance for the analyses of variance was set at .05. Three of the 10 hypotheses were found to have a significant difference in perceptions of teacher efficacy among teachers in various grade level configurations, principals in various grade level configurations, and between male and female teachers. No significant differences were found among teachers with various experience levels, between the teachers and principals of each of the grade level configurations, among teachers in various school sizes, among teachers of different ages, and among schools in various geographical settings. Perceptions of teacher efficacy did differ among teachers in elementary school, teachers in middle school, and teachers in high school with teachers in elementary schools having the highest degree of teacher efficacy, teachers in middle school having the second highest degree of teacher efficacy, and teachers in high school with the lowest level of teacher efficacy among the three groups. These perceptions of teacher efficacy among principals in elementary schools, principals in middle schools, and principals in high schools also differed very similarly to those of teachers with elementary school principals having the highest degree of teacher efficacy, principals in middle school having the second highest degree of teacher efficacy, and principals in high school with the lowest level of teacher efficacy among these three groups. Along with the findings that female teachers have a higher degree of teacher efficacy than male teachers, this research supports that of others in that teacher efficacy is mostly formed during the student teaching and first year of employment for teachers. It is important that young teachers receive needed support and guidance as they form their perceptions of teacher efficacy through mastery experiences.

      Fenton, Christi Anne (Indiana State University, 2015-05)
      The purpose of this qualitative case study was to identify and better understand the performance qualities that are prevalent in successful principals. Specifically, acting and leadership tools previously identified and compared by Dunklee (2000) were used to gain a better understanding of the interview process utilized to hire K-12 principals in school districts with more than 10,000 students in the state of Indiana. Arguably, the roles of the principal are much like those of an actor who must think on his or her feet in multiple situations. It is hoped that this study contributes new knowledge to assist in the selection process of principals and help in developing an interview framework to use in identifying and hiring the most effective principals by acknowledging and capitalizing on performance qualities. The following research questions framed the interviews with practicing hiring managers: 1. In what ways does acting like an effective school principal, as understood through performance qualities, result in being an effective principal? 2. What performance qualities do hiring managers perceive their successful principals utilize? A case study methodology was selected to take a more in depth look into the hiring process in five large urban school systems in Indiana. A variety of demographic data were collected about the individual school systems, with a key focus on the interview process and desirable attributes for hiring principals. The major themes and subthemes were also identified. Primary themes include the following: (a) Hiring protocols are not focused on performance qualities, (b) Performance qualities were predetermined to inform the interview process, and, (c) Districts supported professional development for both aspiring and practicing principals. The primary theme of hiring protocols included the subthemes of (a) The use of a cattlecall approach (i.e., mass interviewing) in the interview process are consistent in all districts included in the study, (b) The practice of hiring internal candidates is a prevalent practice, and (c) Current interview rubrics and questions to identify effective principals. The primary theme of nine performance qualities were maintained as subthemes in this category and later reduced in number. The primary theme of training for aspiring and practicing principals led to the subthemes of (a) Internal and (b) External use of those professional development practices.

      Jackson, Eric Deville II (Cunningham Memorial library, Terre Haute,Indiana State University, 2017-12)
      The study examined middle and high school Black–White–Biracial (BWB) students’ perspectives of education. In order to accomplish this qualitative research study, the research I sought to (a) gain an understanding of how biracial students viewed themselves in secondary public school systems, (b) understand how BWB students identified within the school environment, and (c) learn how their identities affected their learning. The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to gain in-depth understanding of the overall educational viewpoints of BWB students in select rural, urban, and suburban public schools in Indiana. The design of this research included data collection from one-on-one interviews of BWB students. The one-on-one interviews included BWB students from urban, suburban, and rural areas around Indiana. Through qualitative data analysis, I sought to identify any themes that presented themselves among the responses of the participants. The responses to the interview questions were recorded, transcribed, and coded to identify common themes among their experiences as BWB students. Themes identified included the participants strong sense of being described as a regular person, wanting to know more about their biracial history, along with their current schools doing more to promote more programs toward multiracial students, acting in order to fit into the environment they were in, and the advantages and disadvantages of being biracial. The findings of this study serve as a voice for BWB students and to secondary educational institutions. v Because of the challenges faced by the participants is this study, the findings may also be used to provide secondary institution that are experiencing an increase in multiracial student population, a direction in how to provide educational environments for their multiracial students.
    • Presidential Transition: One Woman's First 120 Days

      Davis, Margaret Holzel
      This is a phenomenological study of the presidential transition of a woman who is beginning her first presidency of an independent college. The focus of the study is on the pre-transition period, from the time she accepted the position, through her first 120 days in office. Research for this study took place during the first 120 days of the new presidency. Semi-structured interviews, the president‘s calendar, as well as archival data and meeting minutes are used to construct the story of how a new woman president makes meaning of her transition. Transition preparation and the first 120 days of the presidency are keys to the success of a new president. This study can be used to inform potential candidates for a presidency, as well as search firms and boards of trustees as they plan and conduct a search. Elements of the study have implications for eventual presidential transition. Incoming presidents may find value in having an opportunity to pause and reflect on their actions as the transition progresses. In the case of the trustees, the study will also help them to consider the issues and support needed during the actual transition period.
    • Principal leadership behaviors in school operations and change implementations in elementary schools in relation to climate

      Whitaker, Margaret
      The two purposes of the study were to: (1) analyze the relationship between teacher perception of school climate and elementary principal instructional leadership behavoir, and (2) investigate the difference between the manner in which the principals of schools with more positive climates and principals of schools with less positive climates conduct school operations and implement change. Principles at 231 public elementary schools within a sixty mile redius of Terre Haute, Indiana were included in the original sample. These principals were surveyed to determine their instructional leadership behaviors. The priciples who responded to the survey were then asked to have ten teachers fill out a school climate inventory. The data from both instruments were tabulated and used to determine relationships between principals' instructional leadership behaviors and teacher perception of climate. On-site, structured interviews were conducted with three teachers and the principal in four of the elementary schools with more positive climate and four of th elementary schools with less positive climates. These interviews were used to determine the differences between the manner in which the principals of schools with more positive climates and principals of schools with less positive climates conduct school operations and implement change.Statistical analysis of the data included descriptive statistics, Stepwise regression, Independent Sample t-test, and Pearson product moment correlation. Significant correlational relationships were found between the principal's perceptions of instructional leadership behavior and teachers' perception of school climate. No significant difference were found in principals' perception of instructional leadership behaviors between principals of more positive and less positive climates. Principal instructional leadership behaviors explained a significant amount of the variance of seven of the teacher climate subscales. Also, important differences were found between the way day to day operationsl were conducted and change implemented in more positive versus less positive schools.
    • Principal Perceptions About the Implementation and Effectiveness of Online Learning in Public High Schools in Indiana

      Rayle, Timothy W.
      The purpose of this quantitative study was to determine the principal perceptions and demographic relationship of the implementation and effectiveness of online learning in non-charter Indiana public high schools. An analysis was prepared to determine whether demographic factors played a role in the principal‘s perceptions of the implementation and effectiveness of online learning. Factors examined included school location, school size, technology and support costs, principal‘s age, and principal‘s gender. Principal‘s perceptions were examined because the principal is considered to be the building level educational leader. As such, the principal has a responsibility to provide the students with a sound curriculum that meets their needs individually and collectively. The research design involved a population of 343 non-charter public high school principals serving grades of at least 10 – 12. Principal beliefs in the implementation and effectiveness of online learning were collected using a 44-item survey. Statistical analysis of the data included descriptive statistics regarding the mean, standard deviation, and frequency of selected items. A Pearson product moment correlation and multivariate analysis of variance were used to test the null hypotheses. Significance was identified at the .05 level. In all, 241 principals of non-charter public high schools in Indiana responded to the survey instrument which questioned the perceived level of effectiveness and perceived level of implementation of 15 specific uses of online learning. As a result of the analysis, significant findings were present in the overall perceptions of the implementation and effectiveness of online learning and also in the 15 individual uses of online learning. Significance was also found in one or more of the 15 uses of online learning in regards to the perceived implementation based upon gender, student enrollment, school locality, and the interactions based upon age and gender, and student enrollment and school locality. In addition, significance was found in one or more of the 15 uses of online learning in regards to the perceived effectiveness based upon student enrollment, school locality, and the interactions of enrollment and locality.

      Law, Nicole V. (Indiana State University, 2013-12)
      The attributes of an urban principal that make them successful against all odds, in spite of pressure, limited funding, and other dynamics of urban schools, are characteristics that hold true to those who focus their role as instructional leaders. Improvement has been traditionally more difficult to achieve in this day of high-stakes testing and accountability, especially in urban schools. Teachers’ perceptions of their principals influence the implementation of school improvement initiatives, which, in turn, influence student achievement and school improvement. This quantitative study examined principals’ and teachers’ perceptions of leadership actions that increase the implementation of school improvement initiatives in five school improvement categories. The five school improvement categories—school improvement, principal as instructional leader, creating a culture for learning, professional development and teacher supervision, and sustaining school improvement—were established as a result of discovered themes from current research on factors impacting school improvement. The sample comprised 206 teachers and 56 principals in five school districts in Marion County, Indiana. A Leadership Action Survey was created using an accumulation of existing surveys in order to measure the perceptions on the importance of leadership actions on school improvement by teachers and principals. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to analyze the research questions. The study determined that there were minimal differences that exist between the perceptions of principals and teachers on the leadership actions that increase teachers’ implementation of school improvement initiates. When the teacher group was separated, the analysis found that there were significant differences among novice teachers, experienced teachers, and principals in their perceptions regarding the leadership actions that increase teachers’ implementation of school improvement initiatives in each of the five school improvement categories. In all school improvement categories, the principals rated the role of the principal significantly higher than the experienced teachers.
    • Priorities and Practices of Career and Technical Education Directors in Indiana

      Herrin, Cory D.
      The purpose of this quantitative study was to determine the importance and priority of practices for directors of career and technical education in the state of Indiana. An analysis was prepared to determine the rankings and correlations of importance and priorities of 50 leadership practices as well as 11 categories of practices for the career and technical education (CTE) directors. In addition, an analysis was prepared to discover the demographics factors within the director’s own leadership characteristics and the director’s district that played a role in the importance and priority. Factors examined included gender, age, years of experience in career and technical education administration, type of district served, number of school districts served, number of programs offered, total enrollment, and type of facility. Directors of career and technical education were examined because the director is considered the administrative leader of career and technical education districts for a unit of the state. As such, the director has the responsibility to provide the students, teachers, schools, and communities with appropriate career and technical education within the guidelines of sound educational practices, governmental mandates, and regional workforce need. The research design involved a population of 46 career and technical education directors serving 49 career and technical education districts in the state of Indiana. Director importance and priority of practice were collected using a 50-item survey. Statistical analysis of the data included descriptive statistics regarding mean, standard deviation, and frequency of the items. A Spearman product correlation, t-tests, and ANOVA were used to test the null hypotheses. Significance was identified at the .05 level. In all, 42 directors of career and technical education directors in the state of Indiana responded to the survey instrument, which asked them to rank the importance of practice and agreement to the priority of practice for 50 different practices that research has shown to be practices often associated with the position of director. Those 50 practices were configured into 11 categories. As a result of the analysis, significant findings were present in the correlations between 48 of the 50 practices as well as all 11 of the categories. Significance was also found in two sub-hypotheses for importance for the areas of type of district and type of facility. In addition, significance was found in six sub-hypotheses for priority for the areas of gender, age, years of experience in career and technical education administration, type of district, number of programs, and type of facility.

      Crone, Nancy J. (Indiana State University, 2013-12)
      The Appreciative Advising Inventory is an instrument created for use in academic advising. The inventory helps the advisor get to know and understand the student, which in turn allows the advisor to better assist the student. This research provides a psychometric analysis of the Appreciative Advising Inventory to measure its validity and reliability and recommends alterations to the inventory based on the results of these analyses.

      Simmers, Lynn Pretorius (Indiana State University, 2014-08)
      ―The ultimate purpose of any school is the success and achievement of its students‖ (Wong, 2004a, p. 41). As studies confirm ―teacher and teaching quality [as one of] the most powerful predictors of student success‖ (Wong, 2004a, p. 41) in an educational setting, research about the experiences of beginning teachers and teacher induction programs continues to emerge. Consequently, as induction programs continue to grow and change to meet the various needs of beginning teachers across our nation, efforts to determine if desired results are being achieved must be considered. Therefore, the beliefs and perceptions of various stakeholders concerning the elements of induction programs and induction practices that are considered to be the most effective in increasing teacher competence are of great importance. This qualitative case study described beginning teachers‘, mentors‘, building-level administrators‘, and program coordinators‘ beliefs about the elements of induction programs and induction practices perceived to be the most effective for increasing teacher competence. More specifically, it examined their beliefs regarding the importance of a comprehensive induction program that embodies the key components of a ―lifelong professional development program to keep [all] teachers improving toward increasing their effectiveness‖ (Wong, 2004a, p. 42). Through the use of individual interviews, insight was gained about the views and opinions of stakeholders concerning teacher induction programs in two school districts located in Indiana. In the analysis of data, five distinct themes emerged from this case study. Not surprisingly, induction programs varied across school districts, but they also shared common characteristics, practices, and goals. The role of the mentoring process is to provide support to new or beginning teachers. In addition, the mentoring process is perceived to be one of the most effective components of new teacher induction programs. Stakeholders believed professional development offered through induction programs builds skills that result in student achievement. Finally, teacher induction programs help districts prepare, support, and retain new teachers.

      Moon, Jong Joo (Cunningham Memorial Library, Terre Haute, Indiana State University., 2017-12)
      This study explored barriers that Korean collegiate student athletes confront with regard to pursuing careers outside of professional athletics. More specifically, the purpose of the study was to identify the barriers to Korean student athletes’ career development, as well as to examine the relationships among the psychological constructs of athlete identity and career decision making self-efficacy. A total of 321 Korean student athletes participated in the study, including 263 men (81.9%) and 59 women (18.1%). Participants completed demographic information along with a parental influence questionnaire, the Athletic Identity Measurement Scale, Career Decision Making Self-Efficacy Scale Short Form, and two open-ended questions. Stepwise regression analyses were employed to examine the research questions of interest. The results showed that gender (p < .001), self-appraisal (p < .001), planning (p < .001), and goal selection (p < .001) were significant positive predictors of social identity. Gender (p < .001), type of sport (p < .05), self-appraisal (p < .01), planning (p < .001), and goal selection (p < .001) were significant positive predictors of exclusivity. Finally, gender (p < .001), planning (p < .05), and goal selection (p < .001) were significant positive predictors of negative affectivity. The study also explored Korean collegiate athletes’ needs and barriers as they impact their future careers. Korean collegiate athletes felt they needed to improve their personal capability and ability, be more committed and hardworking, have qualifications and certifications, improve their athletic skills and English skills, and obtain more financial support to pursue their future careers. Injury or slump by injury, low salaries or lack of financial support iv from their families, military service, surroundings, and English skills were also perceived barriers to their future careers. The combined findings suggest that more in-depth qualitative inquiry is needed. A deeper understanding of the Korean student experience and how national priorities for athletes interface would further extend this literature which is in its infancy in the Korean context. Nevertheless, this study represents the first of its kind to attempt a comprehensive investigation of the Korean student athlete and the intersection of athletic identity and career decision-making self-efficacy.
    • Relationship between First Year Success Programs and Second-Year Persistence

      Rupley, Elissa
      Much research has been conducted on the success and retention of first-year students. Little research has been done on second-year students and their experiences. This study was completed to understand the experience of second year students.The purpose of this research study was to explore the attitudes, perceptions, and experiences of current second-year students who participated in the Academic Opportunity Program at Indiana State University to determine if the skills gained during the program transfer to the second-year. Focus groups were conducted to collect data. The results revealed that while the Academic Opportunity Program at Indiana State University is a great opportunity for many students there are changes that could benefit many of the students. Results indicated that motivation, both intrinsic and extrinsic types of motivation, is a key factor in student success and retention.
    • Relationships Between Supervisory Behaviors and School Climate as Perceived by Secondary School Teachers in the State of Kuwait

      Alhajeri, Salem
      This study was conducted to investigate the perceptions of secondary school teachers of their principals‟ supervisory behaviors and of their schools‟ climate. Furthermore, the study examined the relationship between supervisory behaviors and school climate in Kuwaiti secondary schools. Data was collected using two surveys. Bulach, Boothe, and Michael‟s (1999) survey was used to assess supervisory behaviors of principals as perceived by teacher. The School Climate Survey, which was developed by Gruenert (2008), was used to assess school climate. The participants of the study consisted of 575 male and female secondary school teachers from six school districts. The participants were selected randomly. The study results revealed that there were significant differences in perceived supervisory behaviors based on gender and district. Female teachers‟ perceived their female principals‟ ability in supervisory behaviors to be higher than male teachers viewed their principals. Also, there were significant differences in school climate based on gender and district. Male teachers‟ perceptions were more positive toward school climate than female teachers‟ perceptions.‟ Significant correlation was found between supervisory behaviors and school climate. Implications for findings and recommendations for future research are discussed.
    • Reporting Problems in Human Subjects Research: a Comparative Study

      Underwood, Dawn F.
      The purpose of this study was to discover whether differences exist among institutional review boards (IRBs) in categorizing and reporting problems in social science research to the Office for Human Research Protections (OHRP). IRBs were grouped by institutional size and type. The study also employed an experimental design to look for differences among those who reviewed a decision chart from OHRP (experimental group) and those who did not review the decision chart (control group). From a population of 474 IRB contacts at public, four-year institutions of higher education, 187 survey responses were received. Factorial ANOVA and independent measures t-tests were conducted to look for differences in responses among groups of IRBs. Statistically significant differences were found in how IRBs of different types categorized the incident presented in the survey. IRBs that review more biomedical protocols were less likely than social/behavioral IRBs to categorize an incident as an adverse event but more likely to categorize the incident as an unanticipated problem. Analysis revealed no significant differences among groups in the decision to report the incident to OHRP. The differences between IRB types suggest that IRB experience and institutional context affect IRB decisions. Recommendations are made for revising OHRP reporting guidance, IRB training, and board management.
    • Retention As a State Policy Mandate: IRead In Indiana

      Stubbs, Velinda F.
      The interpretation of Indiana Public Law 109 and subsequent policy adopted by the Indiana Department of Education resulted in the Indiana State Board of Education mandating circumstances implemented during the 2011-2012 school year regarding grade level retention of Grade 3 students. IREAD-3, a standardized, gateway assessment, was administered to all Grade 3 students to determine eligibility to be promoted to Grade 4. Three quantitative studies analyzed the results from the initial year of assessment data for 1,712 students from one school district in Indiana to determine if there were factors that are predictive of performance on IREAD-3 and to better understand if there were effects on Grade 3 ISTEP+ performance based on the implementation of IREAD-3. Variables including chronological age, ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), gender, type of school the student attended (Title I versus non-Title I), and attendance were analyzed to determine if they were predictive of performance on IREAD-3. A logistic regression model identified three variables (low-SES, non-White, and poor attendance) that significantly increased the odds of not passing IREAD-3. The second study examined kindergarten, first grade, and second grade performance on DIBELS and TRC to determine if these assessments predicted passing IREAD-3. Based on the logistic regression model, below grade performance on both DIBELS and TRC (independently) significantly increased the odds of not passing IREAD-3. The statistically significant odds of not passing IREAD-3 were noted as early as the beginning of the kindergarten year but were noted to be more significant in later years, the middle and end of Grade 1 and beginning and middle of Grade 2. The final study examined whether there was a difference in ISTEP+ performance for Grade 3 students who also took the IREAD-3 assessment as compared to performance of Grade 3 students during the previous three years of ISTEP+ administration when those students did not take IREAD-3—2009, 2010, 2011. The results suggested that although there was a statistically significant difference in scores over the four years, the effect size was insignificant. Practically, the difference appears to represent an upward trend of scores and the statistically significant differences were not necessarily associated with implementation of IREAD-3 in 2012.

      Brooks, Barbara J. Aaron (Indiana State University, 2014-12)
      The purpose of this study was to understand the role of collegiate Black women in the establishment and development of rural industrial education in the post-Civil War and segregated south. Black women’s voices and experiences have generally been excluded from the narrative of Black education and thus excluded from the larger conversation on Black education progression. This study, therefore, focused on Black women in this process. This study was important because it presented an examination of Black women’s experiences in rural industrial education, while attempting to chronicle the rich history of Snow Hill Institute. The institute served as a continuum toward the establishment of a higher education pipeline for African American students. An historical analysis approach was used in this qualitative study, with effort focused on the case study technique. Participants were invited to participate in the study if they met at least one of five criteria. Seven African American women ranging in age from 48 to 92 were selected to be interviewed. Using semi-structured interview questions, participants were asked about their experiences in rural industrial education institutions. Analysis of collected data revealed three emergent themes: (a) the influence of women at Snow Hill, (b) close family ties visible throughout the school’s history, and (c) the higher education pipeline for Black students. Findings of the study showed that the presence of Black women in rural industrial education helped to create and develop the higher education pipeline continuum for Black students, which necessitated the growth and expansion of historically Black colleges and universities. Implications to higher education suggest that administrative leaders of institutions of higher learning, particularly those institutions that seek to recruit African American students and other students of color, might find it useful to hire African American women in leadership positions in order to improve recruitment and retention outcomes of minority students, faculty, and staff.