• The Influence of a Lilly Endowment Grant To Recruit And Retain Part-Time Faculy In a Community College System

      Lepper, Charles Wilmer
      This qualitative study examines the influence of a grant from the Lilly Endowment to recruit and retain intellectual capital of part-time faculty in a community college system. Through the use of grant funds, the college used in this study developed and implemented nine college-wide initiatives. This study examined adjunct faculty members‟ awareness of the grant and the nine initiatives, as well as examined the influence the grant had on their experience. Qualitative data on the lived experiences of adjunct faculty were collected and analyzed. Based upon the analysis of data, five themes emerged in this study: (a) limited awareness of the grant; (b) limited knowledge of the nine initiatives developed and implemented under the grant; (c) lack of formal communication regarding the grant and its initiatives; (d) the adjunct faculty experience was significantly influenced by orientation to the position; and (e) mentoring had a significant influence on their experience. The findings of this study resulted in implications for institutions of higher education, as well as generated recommendations for future practice and research.
    • The life and leadership of William P. Foster: the maestro and the legend

      Walker, Richard L., Jr.
      The purpose of this study was to examine the life and leadership of William P. Foster. As an acclaimed African American band director, the history of Foster was considered a parable rather than a leader who had made important contributions to the progression of band theory, practice, and performance both nationally and abroad. This misconception is an omission within the histor y of ethnomusicology, music education, music literature, band philosophy , as well as higher education leadership. Focusing on his 52 - year tenure at Florida Agriculture and Mechanical University as director of bands as well as over 45 years as the music de partment chair allowed for a better understanding of what inspired Foster’s concepts for band leadership and development in higher education. Utilizing a qualitative case study approach, this study examined the life of Foster through the unique stories o f seven purposefully selected African American band directors with at least 25 years’ experience and direct access to Foster. Participants selected were former students of Foster and music education alumni of Florida A&M University. This provided a deepe r understanding of how the participants utilized Foster’s techniques, leadership, and teachings. An analysis of the study participants’ experiences yielded five emergent themes: highest quality character, excellence in leadership, great communicator, respe ct, and outstanding musicianship. This study used the servant leadership model, specifically the seven pillars of servant leadership, to examine Foster’s band and academic leadership experiences. The findings of this study serve as a dependable source abo ut how Foster swayed audiences to remain in the stands during halftime performances. Concomitantly, reflections of the participants in this study give credence to Foster’s ability to transform collegiate band s administratively, ethically, technically, and culturally. Moreover, the research describes Foster’s impetus to change the band ’ s marching style and appearance during a time of segregation. These findings may also be used to inspire future leaders in higher education who aspire to focus on the devel opmental needs of their constituents.
    • The Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award Process in Public Higher Education Institutions and Effects on Organizational Performance: A Historical Perspective

      Bailey, Bill D
      Public undergraduate higher education institutions face a number of seemingly intractable problems. Among those problems are cost, accountability and access. The Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award process is designed to help organization of any type address problems of organizational performance. This process has been used by manufacturing, healthcare, and educational institutions among others. The purpose of this study was to explore performance differences between award recipients and non-recipients on measures related to these three challenges in public higher education. Two major research questions were postulated, and tested using historical data. The first questions asked if award recipients performed better than non-recipients against measures related to these three challenges at the time of the award. The second question asked if the rate of change in this performance was different for award recipients and non-recipients in the time period leading up to the award. A theoretical framework was proposed, composed of the three challenges as constructs. Each construct was associated with multiple measures. The first question was tested using MANCOVA procedures to test the theoretical framework. Each construct was then tested with the same procedure. Finally, univariate results were analyzed for each of the 12 dependent variables. The same model and levels of analysis applied to the second question using repeated measures MANCOVA. Significant differences at alpha .05 were found for several spending variables, minority success, and for two year institutions, graduation rates. Support for the theoretical framework as a whole was not found. However, it was also concluded that award recipients performed better on some measures where management actions had a direct effect such as cost. Accountability measures were affected indirectly by management actions, and the results for this construct were more mixed. Finally, it was concluded that access was not responsive to management solutions, and may be more strongly affected by public policy.
    • The perception of servant leadership characteristics and job satisfaction in a church-related college

      Thompson, Robert S
      Church-related colleges are facing diverse and complex challenges.The campus leadership has found the traditional leadership approaches to be inadequate to meet these new challenges and is seeking solutions.Numerous leadership approaches offer potential solutions,but church-related institutions need an approach fitting the ethos of the institution culture as well as matching the values of the institution and allowing for the use of other leadership practices and styles.Servant leadership has been proposed as a viable leadership model for church-related college leaders.In light of the absence of scholarly research on servant leadership,this study has provided an objective and quantifiable study of servant leadership and job satisfaction at a church-related college.One hundred sixteen employees of the college were administered a combined survey consisting of Laub's Organizational Leadership Assessment(OLA)instrument and the short form of the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire(MSQ).The participants were viewed by both the administrative level(Institutional Leadership,Management,Faculty,and Technical)and the functional area(Academic Affairs and Student Services).The institution in this study was found not to be a servant organization as classified using Laub's schema.An analysis of variance was performed to see if differences existed between administrative levels and between functional areas.Surprisingly,no statistically significant differences were found to exist between administrative levels.This contradicts earlier findings.However,a statistically significant difference was found to exist between the functional areas of Academic Affairs and Student services.Confirming Laub's assertion that the perception of servant leadership positively impacts job satisfaction,a statistically significant,positive correlation was found to exist between the perceptions of job satisfaction characteristics and job satisfaction.
    • The Personal Characteristics and Professional Skills Defining Superintendent Effectiveness

      McCormick, Jennifer G.
      The intent of this study was to determine if there were differences among Indiana public high school principals, Indiana public school superintendents, and Indiana public school board presidents about the personal characteristics and professional skills that define effective superintendents. In order to effectively determine such characteristics and skills, research and literature were reviewed; input from practicing Indiana public high school principals, Indiana public school superintendents, and Indiana public school board presidents was sought; and a survey was conducted. A generalization was made from the sample to the population regarding how each of these groups defined superintendent effectiveness. Current research and literature was reviewed in order to develop a survey instrument intended to obtain the desired input from the sample. The components of the survey were divided into two categories: personal characteristics and professional skills. The content or specific items for the survey were created for the survey from the complete list of items which were identified through the current literature in three or more sources. Based on the set criteria, the current literature facilitated the production of a survey with 14 personal characteristics and 22 professional skills. Two research questions were formulated for the study. Question one and question two were analyzed statistically through Null Hypothesis One and Null Hypothesis Two. For each null hypothesis, a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine significance. The level of significance established for this study was .05. Descriptive data were also utilized to answer both research questions. Study findings showed public high school principals valued the personal characteristic of charismatic significantly higher than public school board presidents. In addition, it was concluded public high school principals valued the professional skill of serves as a child advocate significantly higher than public school board presidents, and high school principals also valued empowers/develops others significantly higher than public school board presidents. However, school board presidents valued able to meet major mandates significantly higher than high school principals in defining effective superintendents. It was also concluded that superintendents valued the professional skill of develops positive relations with board members significantly higher than public school board presidents. Yet, public school board presidents valued the professional skill of able to meet major mandates significantly higher than public school superintendents. The emerging views of leadership, along with the current unique societal, political, and economic climate demand that careful attention be placed on the personal characteristics and professional skills that define an effective superintendent. Using such information from the study for recruiting, selecting, training, and retaining effective superintendents will be important. Bringing focus to such difficult tasks as those described in the study could be very helpful in multiple ways.
    • The Pigskin and the Cross: Intercollegiate Football on the Faith-Based Campus

      Davis, Jody Michael
      This qualitative study examined the mission, role, and fit of intercollegiate football programs at two faith-based higher education institutions. This intersection of faith and football is rarely discussed, though on these campuses the football program wields considerable power due to the roster size, student makeup, and resources consumed. Further, faith-based institutions are called to evaluate each curricular and extracurricular program against the mission of the institution which is, at least in part, to serve Christ‟s kingdom. Seventeen faculty and administrator interviews and three student focus groups were conducted, as well as game day observation, document review, and archival research. Five themes emerged from the data: (a) coach as referent leader, (b) everyone loves a winner, (c) mission and values alignment, (d) disconnect with the student body, and (e) enrollment management and community relations lever. The findings resulted in implications for campus constituents who are interested in the interplay between athletics and the campus environment as well as recommendations for areas of future research.
    • The Religious Spirituality of an Indiana Public School Leader and its Influence on the School

      St.Peters,Timothy R.
      As schools expand secularization and laws limiting religious expression increase, one must not forget the religious spirituality of the individual. Individual religious spirituality is still protected under the United States Constitution. Many researchers feel that this religious spirituality should be nurtured, not discouraged in public schools. Multiple studies seen in the literature review show that spiritual and religious commitment directly leads to increased academic success and decreased risk taking behaviors in students. The school leader has the ability to encourage, foster, and enrich religious spirituality in students while following established law regarding the separation of church and state. All along, he or she must keep in mind that their own religious spirituality and the religious spirituality of the community may affect and, to some degree, direct how these laws are interpreted, implemented, and followed by the school leader. Questions then arise: How do school leaders implement these laws? Do the community‘s views on religious spirituality direct these decisions? Does current policy direct these decisions? Does the religious spirituality of the school leader play a role in decision making in this arena? The purpose of this qualitative case study was to look at the religious spirituality of a public school leader and to ascertain if it has any influence on the school. Does the religious spirituality of the school leader affect which after school programs are encouraged to flourish, which religious teachings are allowed through the doors (e.g., Campus Life, Young Life, community church youth groups, clergy programs), which classes are taught, what religious expressions are considered appropriate, how current law is interpreted related to religious spirituality, overall student morale, teacher/student personal relationships, moral growth opportunities for students, or which textbooks are purchased? Results were collected through observations, interviews, and documentation of artifacts at a predetermined school where religious spirituality was known to be present in the school leader. The study reviewed current trends and past decisions regarding religious spirituality and education, looked at research related to the benefits of religion and spirituality, examined one school where religious spirituality was known to be present in the school leader, and attempted to ascertain whether the religious spirituality of this school leader influences the school. This research was not meant to delve into the intricacies of the separation of church and state debate, but was intended to merely look at the religious spirituality of a public school leader and to ascertain if this has any influence on the school. Observation and interviews with this leader and his staff brought forth a great deal of information, but such a small sample in this qualitative case study could not permit generalizations (Patton, 2002).However, the study did find that the religious spirituality of the individual does not appear to lay dormant when said individual enters the public school doors, and the literature review showed that religious spirituality in the lives of individuals is inherent, wants to come out, and appears to have a positive impact. This study showed that the religious spirituality of a school leader can impact the school by allowing for religiously spiritual opportunities and growth. It was determined that this in turn has the possibility of enhancing the lives of students, allowing for opportunities for growth in young people in the area of their own religious spirituality and shows the real impact of how the religious spirituality of a school leader can impact the school.
    • The State of Induction and Mentoring in Indiana K-12 Public Schools

      Hilton, Christina Lee
      The purpose of this study was to examine how school corporation officials in Indiana’s K-12 public schools support first and second year teachers through induction and mentoring practices. An analysis was made to determine the adequacy of novice teacher support based on state and national recommendations for effective induction and mentoring practices. The collected data was analyzed to determine if the level of support that Indiana school corporation officials provide novice teachers differed due to student enrollment and/or school location (i.e. rural or urban/suburban) across the 2009/10 school year to the 2010/11 school year. A self-administered survey, Indiana School Corporation Induction and Mentoring Survey, was designed specifically for this study, and included statements based on state and federal recommendations for supporting novice teachers as well as the National Center for Educational Statistics’ Schools and Staffing Survey and the Teacher Follow-up Survey. The survey was sent to all 293 Indiana K-12 Public School Superintendents. The sample consisted of 112 completed surveys, which equated to an overall response rate of 38.2%. The data was analyzed based upon two enrollment categories, 2,000 or fewer students and 2,001+ students. Fifty-five respondents indicated enrollments of 2,000 or fewer (49%), while 57 indicated enrollments of 2,001+ (51%). The data was also analyzed by location, rural and suburban/urban with 69 respondents (62%) indicating a rural location and 43 respondents (48%) indicating a suburban/urban location. Data analysis revealed no significant differences between novice teacher support through mentoring and induction by enrollment or location. There was, however, a significant difference in the amount of support provided to novice teachers from the 2009/10 school year (more support) to the 2010/11 school year (less support). Additionally, superintendents were asked to report the average number of new teachers hired in the past five years and the number of new teachers they expected to hire for the 2010/11 school year. Superintendents were also asked if the IDOE’s revocation of the mentor component of IMAP and/or the recent budget shortfall impacted the assignment of mentors to novice teachers. School corporation officials reported a reduction in the number of new teachers hired in the previous five years (mean, 14.90) as compared to the number of new teachers expected to be hired for the 2010/11 school year (mean, 6.88). The majority of the respondents (n = 71, 63.4%) indicated that they had not or did not plan to change their assignment of mentors to novice teachers due to the IDOE’s revocation of the mentor requirement. The majority of the respondents (n = 64, 57.1%) indicated that they had not or did not plan to change their assignment of mentors to novice teachers due to the recent budget shortfall.
    • The Superintendent‘s Role In Developing Peer Coaching

      Younghans, Barry C.
      The purpose of this qualitative study was to discover how the behaviors of Indiana School district-level leaders create a culture of instructional, peer coaching in the district. An additional purpose was to discover any similarities between how district level leaders and leaders from different sized corporations behaved to create a climate of peer coaching. The increase in accountability brought about by both federal and state legislation has placed greater emphasis on providing each classroom with highly-trained instructors. One method of professional development that is currently being used to help ensure that students have access to excellent teachers is peer coaching; also known as instructional coaching. The related literature reviewed included the areas of peer coaching benefits, the characteristics of peer coaching and the role of administrators in peer coaching. Lastly, one theoretical model of peer coaching was reviewed. The participants in the study were nine school-district leaders from across the approximate northern third of Indiana. These leaders were interviewed and some common behaviors were identified. These behaviors included involvement in the coach selection process, securing funding for coaches, providing professional development for coaches and providing coaches to elementary teachers in literacy. Insight gained from this study should help district-level leaders create a climate conducive to peer coaching.

      Kyler, Katherine (Cunningham Memorial Library, Terre Haute, Indiana State University., 2017-12)
      Education has undergone a sweeping renovation throughout the last several decades as part of the school accountability movement aimed to increase student success. High school graduation rates are the highest they have been in decades. School accountability measures continue to be implemented and modified with a goal of increasing student success and closing the achievement gap (Maleyko & Gawlik, 2011). Accountability measures are in place that require data analysis and reporting of information such as graduation rates and standardized test scores (No Child Left Behind Act [NCLB], 2008). While it is important to hold schools accountable, many of the currently utilized methods to measure student success can be manipulated to improve school and district ratings (Maleyko & Gawlik, 2011). The purpose of this quantitative study was to better understand the relationship between select student demographics and low-stakes the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) scores for time periods before and after the implementation of numerous school accountability measures. Specifically, I analyzed data sets from 1990 and 1999 for the time period before NCLB (2008) and data sets from 2004 and 2012 for the time period after the implementation of NCLB. This data was examined using independent samples t tests and Cohen’s d statistic. Data analysis showed that there was a significant increase in NAEP Math scores for 17-year old students in the time period before NCLB but not after. NAEP English scores did not show a significant difference before NCLB but did show a significant increase after NCLB. While NAEP scores pre and post NCLB do not demonstrate significant changes in student success, graduation rates continue to rise. This findings and conclusions of this study will benefit school districts and policy makers when v considering the effectiveness of past school accountability measures. Additionally, this study provides an example of the inconsistencies associated with high stakes measures of student success and highlights the importance of alternate indicators of success.
    • Understanding change for effective school improvement initiatives:critical elements of school reform.

      Schnautz, Dee Ann Piercy
      With the historical political and social changes, which ultimately affect education, it is easy to see why teachers sometimes balk at new initiatives and perceived new best practices. For change to occur it is important to understand how perception of critical elements of change impact student academic growth. It is also important to have a clearer picture of the level of implementation of critical elements of change. It is evident there are statistically significant relationships between successful school change predictors and the criterion variables, belief that the rationale of the change initiative is important, continued support of the change initiative, success of professional development embedded in the change process, and strong lines of communication at all levels. The strongest relationships exist between consistent planning for a district-wide change initiative and the predictor variables: resources are based on the instructional priorities of the initiative, staff strengths are matched with staff responsibilities, resources are used to determine annual priorities for staff learning, teachers work together, sharing what they learn to help others learn more, and free flow of information to staff is evident.
    • Use of Social Media as a School Principal

      McCutcheon, Neal
      The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the use of social media among principals in the state of Indiana. Data from the national 2009 report, A Survey of K-12 Educators on Social Networking and other Content Sharing Tools, were used to compare national results and data collected from Indiana. A survey was also created to analyze the use of social media among principals in the state of Indiana. The survey collected data from principals, indicating age, gender, locality, educational experience, social media use, and social media preferences. Lastly, the data were used to determine if there is a comparison between the state of Indiana results and the 2009 national results. The survey provided data to determine if social media use has increased since the 2009 national report. The research design involved a population of 1,931 Indiana school principals. Use of social media as a school principal was collected in a 16-item survey. Statistical analysis of the data included descriptive analysis for selected items, means, and standard deviations. A one-way ANOVA was used to test all 12 null hypotheses. Significance was identified at the .05 level. In all, 356 Indiana school principals responded to the survey instrument. As a result of the analysis, there were no significant differences among gender, experience, age, enrollment, and locality when using social media for school communication. There was a significant difference in school categories when social media was used for communication. High schools responded in favor over elementary and middle school principals when using social media for school communication. There was a significant difference in women versus men when social media are used for professional development.Women responded in favor over the men for social media use as professional development. There were no significant differences in experience, age, enrollment, school category, or locality when using social media for professional development.
    • Using standardized tests to identify prior knowledge necessary for success in algebra: a predictive analysis

      Jensen, Jennifer J.
      This study sought to determine if there is a relationship between students’ scores on the eighth-grade Indiana State Test of Education Progress Plus (ISTEP+) exam and success on Indiana’s Algebra End-of-Course Assessment (ECA). Additionally, it sought to determine if algebra success could be significantly predicted by the achievement in one or more of the seven individual reporting sub categories on the ISTEP+ exam. The relationship between the score on the language arts portion of the test and success in algebra was also explored. Successful completion of algebra and a minimum score on the Algebra ECA is required for high school graduation in the state of Indiana. It is imperative that students master this difficult subject, and educators need to understand how to help all students achieve this goal. This quantitative study utilized regression analyses to determine if the eighth-grade ISTEP+ exam could predict a significant proportion of the variance in Algebra ECA scores. More specifically, multiple regression analysis was utilized to determine if any one of the seven reporting sub categories was a significant predictor of the variance in the algebra scores. If the specific content of one or more reporting sub categories could be linked to algebra success, educators would know where and how to focus instruction and remediation efforts. Because a review of the literature also revealed a potential link between reading and math scores, a regression analysis was conducted to determine if the eighth-grade ISTEP+ language arts score predicted a significant proportion of the variance in Algebra ECA scores. The study concluded that the language arts score was a significant predictor, although it did not explain much of the variance in Algebra ECA scores. For all three models, the scores of students from two different cohorts from the same school district were utilized in the study. The first cohort consisted of students entering ninth grade in the fall of 2010 and the second consisted of students entering ninth grade in the fall of2011. Each cohort was then divided into an advanced group consisting of students who took both the ISTEP+ and the Algebra ECA in eighth grade and an average group consisting of students who did not take the Algebra ECA until the end of ninth grade. All models in the study proved significant, although there was evidence of multicollinearity and the amount of variance predicted varied greatly.
    • Virtual schools and the affective domain

      Tucker, Kimberly J.
      The intent of this qualitative study was to explore the following research questions: Does online instruction differ from traditional classroom instruction in regard to the development of affective learning? What emphasis is placed on developing a ffective skills in the traditional versus the virtual classroom? What instructional techniques are common or different toward developing affective learning in comparison of the traditional and virtual classroom? What specific types of lessons, activities , and assessments do teachers in each format use to ensure affective learning? What perceptions do teachers in the traditional and virtual classroom have with regard to affective learning and the implications with present and future learning in the affect ive domain through online instruction? Purposeful sampling was utilized to select five traditional classroom teachers and five virtual classroom teachers from Illinois. The state of Illinois was selected because in addition to academic learning standards , the Illinois Department of Education provides specific standards for social and emotional learning (SELS) in all grades. Three themes identified within the data include d : acknowledg ment and valu e of the impact of teacher immediacy on student learning, c ommitment to providing affective learning opportunities within the curriculum, and teacher perceptions about affective learning in online education. The responses showed that teachers in both settings acknowledged that affective learning was highly valued in their instructional program s . Interview analysis showed that teachers in the traditional and virtual settings were aware of the importance of providing affective support and developing affective skills in the classroom. Interview analysis show ed that there were many similarities between traditional and virtual curriculum in the development of instructional methodology to develop affective learning . The perspectives about online v er s us traditional education were sharply divided along the lines of teac her experience within the virtual platform. Traditional teachers did not believe that the virtual teacher or the virtual classroom could provide the necessary supports to build affective learning. Virtual teachers were much more amenable to online learni ng. Their perceptions were based on their described successes in the virtual classroom. They reflected on their efforts to build in affective supports and to implement instructional methodology which they believed were successful in developing their stud ents in terms of the academic and affective domains. Overall, the study showed that virtual schools and virtual teachers do place significant emphasis on affective learning and that their overall pedagogy is similar to that of traditional classrooms and t raditional teachers. Virtual schools have the capacity to impact student affective learning. Research into the impact that virtual schools have on K - 12 students and the affective domain will provide parents with the information needed to place their chil d ren in the best - suited learning environment. It will also provide educators with the data to inform and reform instruction to better meet the needs of all K - 12 learners.
    • What Educational Initiatives contribute to higher than expected achievement in Student performance for Public Schools in the State of Indiana?

      Keeley, Thomas Allen
      The purpose of this study was to determine whether the areas of teaching methods, teacher-student relationships, school structure, school-community partnerships or school leadership were significantly embedded in practice and acted as a change agent among school systems that achieve higher than expected results on their state standardized testing while controlling for their socio-economic status. Another area of insight gained from the comparison of the specific practices at the building level that were found in high-achieving schools and may not be present in schools identified as low-achieving. Individual characteristics of students impact the learning environment for all children. Educators can make informed decisions by examining what teaching methods, a school‟s structure, teacher-student relationships, school to community partnerships, and what school leadership aspects are common among schools identified as high-achieving. If the identification within these five areas showed a significant relationship for improved student performance for high-achieving schools, the classroom teacher and building administration may use the results as a guide for student improvement. The study used a 50-question survey divided into five constructs. The data showed significant differences in implementation between the high-achieving and low-achieving schools in four of the five constructs. The four constructs that were significantly higher in level of implementation as compared to low-achieving schools were teaching methods, teacher-student relationships, school-community partnerships and school leadership. Of the four constructs showing significance, teacher-student relationships showed the highest amount of variance for high-achieving schools as compared to low-achieving schools. School structure did not show statistically significant differences in variance for high-achieving schools. Interesting findings of differences between high-achieving schools and low-achieving schools were noted in the instructional methods construct for ensuring proficiency in reading and math, frequently assessing reading levels for all students, linking instruction to learning benchmarks, and implementing flexible skill grouping. Differences were also noted for high-achieving schools for facilitating two-way home/school communication, creating partnerships with parents and families and offering career exploration as part of the curriculum.
    • What Effective Principals Do to Improve Instruction and Increase Student Achievement

      Turner, Elizabeth Anne
      The purposes of this mixed method study were to (a) Examine the relationships among principal effectiveness, principal instructional leadership, and student achievement; (b) examine the differences among principal effectiveness, principal instructional leadership and student achievement; and (c) investigate what effective principals do to improve instruction and increase student achievement within their schools. All 585 pre-K through grade 5 elementary public schools in Indiana were included in the original sample. Phase 1 was quantitative using the Principal Instructional Management Rating Scale (PIMRS, Hallinger, 1983) to examine the perceptions of the principal’s instructional leadership, the Principal Leadership Inventory (PLI; Downey, 1999) to measure principal effectiveness, and the Indiana standardized test (ISTEP) to look at student achievement. Statistical analysis of the data for the 232 schools that returned all of the instruments included descriptive statistics regarding the mean, standard deviation, frequency, and standard error. A Pearson product moment correlation, one-way independent measured ANOVA, one-way between subjects ANOVA, and standard multiple regression were used to test the study questions at a .05 level of significance. Findings indicated a teacher’s perception of the principal’s overall leadership ability makes no difference in student achievement data, but the teacher’s perception of the principal’s instructional leadership abilities does positively predict student achievement on standardized mathematics and English/language arts tests. Phase 2 was qualitative, identifying five more effective principals’ schools whose standardized test scores were above predicted and above state average and three less effective principals’ schools whose standardized test scores were below their predicted performance level as well as below the state average for site visits. The quantitative data in this study laid the foundation for the qualitative portion of this study informing the on-site, semi-structured principal interviews and separate teacher focus groups that explored what effective principals do to improve instruction and increase student achievement. Principals and teachers were asked the same open-ended, semi-structured interview questions. Keeping the focus group and interviewing questions in mind, themes for more and less effective principals could be grouped into four categories: (a) principal leadership characteristics, (b) instructional expectations, (c) procedures for change, and (d) measures of student achievement.
    • What Highly Effective Leaders Do During Difficult Times

      Raisor, Michael Louis
      The purpose of this study was to determine what the most highly effective leaders do during difficult times to be successful. The backdrop of the study was the 2009 $300 million cuts to the Indiana K-12 education budget, a uniform crisis that affected all 293 public school districts at the same time. The subjects in this study were those identified as the most highly effective public school superintendents in the state of Indiana. Education authorities across the state were polled and provided recommendations. The results were tabulated and five superintendents distinguished themselves as outliers among their peers. On-site structured interviews were conducted with each of the superintendents. The initial generalized summary findings were then given back to the superintendents for their review and member data checking. The superintendents confirmed the summary findings as accurate representations of their individual philosophy and behaviors. The five outlier superintendents all shared the same basic philosophies and behaviors in relation to leadership during difficult times. The first most telling finding was in regards to crisis leadership. The research found that highly effective leaders do not have a different style of leadership during difficult times. Highly effective leadership behaviors and actions are universal regardless of the circumstance. Highly effective leaders share core philosophies when faced with a difficult time, however once again, these are their philosophies at all times. They believe that within any crisis lies opportunity. They believe that difficult times define leaders and their organization. They believe in finding the best people for the job, communicating their vision, giving autonomy, and then getting out of the way. They believe in the value of networking, collaborating, and the input of their community, including criticism. They believe in leading by example and from the front. They realize that people are looking to them for guidance, leadership, and direction. Highly effective leaders also share universal leadership behaviors. They are constantly planning and preparing for the future. They have a defined process of how they lead and do business and they do not deviate from it. They have a laser-like focus on their organization‟s core business and do not deviate from it. They build trusting relationships with their staff and community. They get out in front of situations by being highly visible and communicating clearly. They are positive and poised. They share accolades and own mistakes. They do not attack problems as a whole, but instead break them down into smaller manageable pieces. They ask a lot of questions and take the time necessary to make a good decision, and then take decisive action.
    • What Indiana School Board Members Look for when Hiring a Superintendent

      Orr, Leonard
      The purpose of this quantitative study was to determine whether there are any differences in what school board members look for in the areas of personal characteristics and professional skills when hiring a superintendent. A sample population of school board members who were serving at a school that had an opening for a superintendent during the 2007–2008 school year was used. A survey with 24 questions was e-mailed to school board members. Results from this group indicated that there were no major differences between large school corporations and small school corporations when it came to personal characteristics and professional skills for a superintendent. Likewise there was no large spread between means among rural school corporations and urban/suburban school board members or between school board members who had served on the board four or less years compared to those who served on the board for 5 to 16 years or over 16 years.The results indicated that the school board members had high expectations in every category they were questioned about. The premise was that superintendents should be generalist rather than specialist and that they should be well versed in all areas of superintendency.